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a/. '  **■  T 


THE 


3rcf)aeolocpcal  journal* 


PUBLISHED  UNDER  THE  DIRECTION  OF 


THE    CENTRAL    COMMITTEE 


STfie  Archaeological  Institute  of  ©teat  iStttatn  anto  Jtelanto, 


FOR  THE  ENCOURAGEMENT  AND  PROSECUTION  OF 


RESEARCHES  INTO  THE  ARTS  AND  MONUMENTS 


&{je  (JBarlg  anti  Jfttotile  &ges. 


VOLUME  XII. 


LONDON: 

PUBLISHED  AT  THE  OFFICE  OF  THE  INSTITUTE,  26,  SUFFOLK 
STREET,  PALL  MALL  EAST. 

(DISTRIBUTED    GRATUITOUSLY    TO    SUBSCRIBING    MEMBERS.) 

TO  BE  OBTAINED  THROUGH  ALL  BOOKSELLERS,  1  KOM  (TDK  PRINTERS) 
MESSRS.  BRADBURY  AND  EVANS,  W1IITEFRIARS. 

MDCCCLV. 


Thi  Centra]  Committki   ol  the  Archaeological  Institutk.  desire  tliat  it  should 
In-  distinctl)  -  that  they  are  not  responsible  for  any  statements  or  opinions 

m  in  the  Arc!  !  Journal,  the  authors  of  the  several  memoirs  and  com- 

munications being  alone  answerable  for  the  Bame. 


! 


CONTENTS. 


PAGE 

Introductory  Address.     By  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Marsden,  B.D 1 

Notice  of  a  Bronze  Relique  discovered  at  Leckhampton,  Gloucestershire.     By 

Albert  Way,  M.A 11 

On  Colouring  Statues.     By  Richard  Westmacott,  Jun.,  R.A.,  F.R.S.  .         .       22 

On  the  Life  and  Death  of  Earl  Godwine  (continued  from  Vol.  XL,  p.  330).     By 

Edward  Freeman,  M.A ...       47 

On  the  Book  of  Devotions,  deposited  by  Cardinal  Howard  in  the  Library  of  the 

Dominican  Convent  at  Bornheim.     By  Joseph  Hunter,  V.P.S.A.  .         .       65 

Notices  of  Roman    Shafts   discovered  at  Chesterford,  Essex.     By  the   Hon. 

R.  C.  Neville,  F.S.A 109 

The  Pai-liaments  of  Cambridge.     By  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Hartshorne,  M.A.     .         .     127 
The  "Hales  "  at  the  New  Temple  on  the  occasion  of  the  Knighting  of  Prince 

Edward.  •  By  W.  S.  W .        .        .     .     137 

Norton  Church,  in  the  County  of  Durham.     By  W.  Hylton  Dyer  Longstaffe, 

F.S.A 141 

King's  College  Chapel  Windows,  Cambridge.     By  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Bolton.    .     .     153 
Roman  Antiquities  from  the  North  of  England  in  the  Libraries  of  Trinity  and 
St.  John's  Colleges,  Cambridge.    By  the  Rev.  J.  Collingwood  Bruce,  LL.D,, 

F.S.A. 213 

The  Monasteries  of  Shropshire. — Lilleshall  Abbey.     By  the  Rev.  Robert  W. 

Eyton,  M.A 229 

Notice  of  a  Flemish  Sepulchral  Brass,  at  Wensley,  Yorkshire.    By  the  Rev.  James 

Raine,  Jun 238 

The    Church   of    St.   Mary    the   Great,   Cambridge.     By  the   Rev.    Edward 

Venables,  M.A 245,     338 

Examples  of  Medieval  Seals.     Seals  preserved  at  Wisby  in  Gottland.     By  the 

Rev.  F.  Spurrell,  M.A 256 

Burial  and  Cremation.     By  J.  M.  Kemble 309 

Artistic   Notes  on   the  Windows  of  King's  College,  Chapel,   Cambridge.     By 

George  Scharf,  Jun.,  F.S.A 356 

Notice  of  a  "  Moon,"  a  relique  of  Municipal  Ceremony,  at  Chichester.  By  Albert 

Way,  M.A .     .     374 

Original  Documents  : — 

Letter  relating  to  the  Wars  of  Edward  III.  in  France,  and  Public  Affairs 

in  1346.     Communicated  by  William  Clayton,  Esq.         ...       73 
Agreement  between  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's,  London,  and 
Walter  the  Orgoner,  relating  to  a  Clock  in  St.  Paul's  Church.     Coin- 
municated  by  Sir  F.  Madden,  K.B 173 


iv  I  ONTENTS. 

PA08 

Original  Documents  conditio. J. 

Inventories  of  Chun  3hff        ury,  uml  Proceedings  respecting 

them    in   the  reign  of  Edward  VI.       Communicated  by   Joseph 

Hintik.  Be  ..  V.l'.s.  \ 269 

Original  Letter  addresse  I  I  •  Benry  IV..  Bang  of  England,  by  Elizabeth, 

Du(  FB  reria,1400.   Communicated  by  Ed wabd  A.  Bond,  Esq.     377 

Proceedings  at  the  Monthly  V  the]  ate    .  .  .  76,178,     275 

Annual  Report  of  the  Auditors 203 

g,  at  Shrewsbury 380 

•  new.  Publications  : — Sussex  Archaeological  Collections, 

Latiquarian  Society,  Reports  and  Communi- 

l.     1\ '..  p.  L05.     Antiquities  of  Shropshire,  by  the  Rev,  It.  W. 

i;  i      in  Saxondom,  by  J.  Yonge 

;.     Brick  and  Marble  in  the  Middle  Ages,  by  G.  Edmund 

11.     Eandbook  of  th  the  Middle  Ages,  translated  from 

i      nch  "I'M.  Jules  Labarte,  p.  408. 

Abchjeoloqioax  Intelliqenoe 107,212,307,     422 


LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS. 


PACK 


Bronze  Frame  of  a  Head-piece  ?  found  at  Leckhampton      .....  8 

Cap,  found  at  Ascheraden,  Livonia          .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .     .  14 

Arched  Crowns,  and  Head-piece,  &c.     Two  cuts 17 

Helmets,  from  Trajan's  Column 18 

■ worn  by  the  Sarmatians       .......  19 

■ from  a  MS.  at  Stuttgart            20 

from  the  Painted  Chamber,  Westminster      ......  20 

found  in  the  Isle  of  Negropont 21 

Koman  Sepulchre  at  Caerwent 76 

Ditto,  Section          .............  77 

Cruciform  Conduit,  Malvern  Wells 83 

Bronze  Spear-head,  found  in  Devonshire .  84 

St.  Gobnet's  Cross,  co.  Cork ...  86 

Roman  Inscription  from  Combe  Down,  Bath 91 

Bone  Knife-handle,  Roman,  found  at  Chesterford  * 112 

Small  Tun  of  red  ware,  ibid 114 

Bronze  Comb,  ibid ib. 

Bronze  Patera,  ibid.          ............  ib. 

Glass  Ampulla,  ibid.    . .         .         .         .115 

Norton  Church,  co.  Durham,  Window  in  Tower      .         .         .         .         .         .     .  145 

Chancel  Arch      ..........  ib. 

Outline  of  Interior  Plan 147 

Cross  on  a  Sculptured  Slab  from  Jarrow      ...         •         ,         .         .         .  ib. 

Heraldic  Bearings,  Effigy  in  Norton  Church 148 

Sculptor's  Mark  1 149 

Sculptured  Fragment,  from  Hartlepool           ...                 .         .         .     .  ib. 

Cross,  near  Norton    ......                  ...  151 

Cross,  found  at  Carlisle  Cathedral 130 

Alabaster  Tablet,  representing  the  Head  of  St.  John  Baptist,  &c.         .         .         .  1S5 

i  his  and  the  thrco  following  illustrations,  the  Institute  is  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  the 
Hon.  K.  C.  Neville. 


LIST    <>F    ILLUSTRATIONS. 


Small  Urn,  found  in  Dor3ct 

Sculptured  Fragment,  at  Stainton-le  Street,  two  cuts    . 
Roma:  .  found  in  Bases,  three  cuts 

.  Found  at  C  Casl  le 

Silver  Brooch,  found  in  Kent 

,  found  at  Bremenium 
—  Riaingham    . 
at  1;  •  ogham 
-  d>,  found  am      . 
Risingham 
,  found  at  Risingham   .... 
found  at  Halton     .... 


Roman  Altar,  found  ;it  Carvorjui 

found  at  Ribcheater       ..... 

found  at  Rib  ulptures  on 

by,  seal  of  the  Ghiild  of  St.  Canute 
seal  of  the  Guild  of  St.  Lawrence 

fraternity  of  St  Nicholas 
of  the  Germans  in  Gottland 

L  of  the  Guild  of  St  James 

seal  of  the  Mayor  of  the  Guild  of  All  Saints      .        .        .    . 
—  seal  of  Brother  Gerard  of  Gottland  +     .        .        .        .        . 

Fibula,  found  at  Painswick . 

DrunshilL  Oxfordshire,  two  cuts  

•  11  deMontfort 

i  (Tanfaunt,  attached  in  an  unusual  manner         . 
Palimpsest  brass  escutcheon,  found  al  Betchworth         .        .        .        .        .    . 

:  iund  at  (Nottingham 

I  Oak  Chest,  St  Mary'   the  Great,  Cambridge  t 

Sketch    of   :     I  rtiiimt    ..t'   a    Window  al    I.  I ',.'.]  (  'Impel,  ( 'amlirid^e 

be  L) To  Gum 

Muminated  Mss.  in  B  Plate  2.)    .       .         To  hoe 

i  bapel  i  Plate  8)         .        .      To  hoe 

the  '  k>ld<  ii  1  Prom  a  window  at  Kin      I  I  lhapel, 

'  ............ 

ilum  Bumaneo  Salvai  i  ...... 

f  the  Block  Book  "Speculum  BumansB Salvationis "  (Plate 4) 

To  hoe 


■ 
i  ■   ■        [lustra 

M  |      I  I  •       |       .  I 


193 

196 
197 
201 
202 
215 
217 
219 
221 
222 
223 
224 
225 
22(3 
228 
257 
258 
259 
260 

ib. 
262 
263 
279 

ib. 
281 
293 
293 
294 
866 

861 
ib. 


LIST    OF    ILLUSTRATIONS.  vii 

PACK 

Ditto,  "  Biblia  Pauperuni  "  (Plate  5) To  face  ib. 

Lantern  of  State,  "the  Moon,"  at  Chichester To  face  374 

Ditto,  handle  by  which  it  was  carried 37o 

Ground-plan  of  Haughinond  Abbey,  Shropshire 397 


Five  woodcuts  from  "  Sussex  Archaeological  Collections."     Vol.  VII. 
Five  woodcuts  from  the  "  Antiquities  of  Shropshire,"  by  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Eyton. 
Seven  woodcuts  from  "  Brick  and  Marble  iu  the  Middle  Ages,"  by  George  E.  Street. 
Ten  woodcuts  from  the  "  Handbook  of  the  Arts  of  the  Middle  Aces." 


flT&e    Archaeological    journal 


MARCH,  1855. 


INTRODUCTORY  ADDRESS.* 

In  addressing  a  Society  which  has  devoted  itself  for  so 
long  a  period  and  with  so  much  success  to  the  pursuits  of 
Archaeology,  it  cannot  be  necessary  for  me  to  occupy  time 
by  saying  much  either  in  explanation  or  in  praise  of  this 
particular  line  of  study.  In  fact,  the  study  of  archaeology 
is  now  generally  accepted  and  understood,  not  only  by  its 
admirers,  but  by  the  world  in  general,  as  an  extended  and 
improved  form  of  the  study  of  history.  It  is  the  study 
of  history,  not  only  from  written  documents,  not  only  from 
chronicles  and  traditions,  but  from  chronicles  and  traditions 
elucidated  by  contemporaneous  monuments,  by  tangible  and 
substantial  relics,  the  productions  of  ancient  coinage,  sculp- 
ture, and  architecture  ;  and, — in  the  case  of  Greek  and 
Roman  history, — not  only  by  these,  but  by  an  invaluable 
series  of  commemorative  inscriptions  still  extant  upon  marble 
and  bronze. 

With  regard  to  some  of  the  great  nations,  indeed,  we 
have  no  other  means  of  becoming  acquainted  with  their 
history,  than  through  such  material  records.  Of  the  ancient 
history  of  Egypt  how  very  little  do  we  know  excepting 
from  her  monuments.  What  do  we  know  of  Assyria,  ex- 
cepting  from  casual  allusions  in  the  Old  Testament,  and 
from  her  recently  discovered  monuments'?  And  even  in 
the  case  of  Greece  and  Rome,  precious  as  are  the  literary 
treasures  of  those  nations  which  have  come  down  to  us,  we 
possess  very  little  of  strictly  contemporaneous  history.    Time 

»  This  discourse  was  delivered  by  the  Disney  Professor,  the  Rev.J.H.Marsden,  B.D., 
on  the  occasion  of  the  opening  meeting,  at  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Institute  held 
in  Cambridge,  July  itli,  1854, 

VOL.    XII.  U 


2  INTRODUCTORY    ADDR]  SS 

has  swept  away  full  one-half  j  while,  of  thai  which  remains, 
much  severe  criticism  is  required  in  the  separation  of  the 
trust-worth?  from  the  fabulous,  and  all,  without  exception, 
stands  in  ueed  of  the  light  afforded  by  the  study  of  monu- 
ments. The  <lny  is  coming,  when  it  will  be  confessed  thai 
we  have  Learned  more  of  the  religious  worship  and  the 
political  relations  of  the  independent  states  of  Greece  from 
inscriptions  and  coins,  than  from  poets  and  historians.  How 
much  has  been  brought  to  light  by  the  monuments,  and 
especially  by  the  coins,  of  Magna  Grascia  and  Sicily!  Take 
th»-  case,  for  instance,  of  the  ancienl  city  of  Posidonia.  Of 
this  city  we  know  little  or  nothing  from  written  history, 
excepting  that  in  Roman  times  it  was  celebrated  by  poets 
for  it-  genial  climate  and  its  roses  :  — 

••  biferiqui  rosaria  Pa 

But  when  the  traveller  describes  to  us  its  magnificent  tem- 
ples, and  the  numismatist  displays  to  us  its  long  series  of 
beautiful  coins,  we  have  unquestionable  proof  thai  it  rivalled 
the  greatesl  cities  of  Magna  Graecia  in  population,  in  wealth, 
in  commerce,  and  in  the  arts  ;  and  that  under  the  name  of 
Paastum  it  flourished  to  a  later  date  than  almost  any  of 
them. 

To  come  nearer  home.  How  scanty  would  be  our  know- 
ledge of  the  State  of  SOcietj  in  our  own  island,  not  only  in 
its  more  barbarous  age,  but  even  during  its  occupation  by 
the  Romans,  if  we  had  n<»t  the  means  <>i  ascertaining  it 
from  monuments.  The  state  of  Britain  under  the  Romans  is 
dow  tolerably  familiar  to  us  :  but  we  have  learned  it  nol  from 
books,  hut  from  an  investigation  of  their  works,  their  roads, 
their  houses,  their  hypocausts,  their  earthenware,  then-  coins, 
their  ornaments  and  utensils, their  weapons,  and  the  vast 
multitude  of  other  miscellaneous  relics  which  they  have  left 
behind. 

The  monuments  of  ancienl  art  are  of  many  different 
kind--:  they  are  found  wherever  man  has  existed  on  the 
globe;  and  wherever  they  are  found,  there  is  a  field  for  the 
Archaeologist.  Life  is  not  long  enough  to  study  them  all— 
to  budy  those  of  our  tiation  -scarcely  ei en 
of  one  class.  No  one,  however  energetic  and  hopeful, 
can  enter  into  these  pursuits  withoul  feeling  the  hopeless 
impo  Ability  of  carrying   oul    the   separate  studies  which  a 


INTRODUCTORY    ADDRESS.  3 

general  view  of  archaeology  must  comprehend.  It  requires 
a  greater  amount  of  many  various  kinds  of  knowledge  than 
one  person  can  hope  to  possess.  This  is,  doubtless,  the 
reason  why  it  has  not  usually  been  admitted  into  the  ordi- 
nary course  of  study  ;  and  it  was,  doubtless,  this  considera- 
tion, which  induced  the  founder  of  a  Professorship  of 
Archaeology  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  to  restrict  the 
duties  of  his  Professor  to  the  study  and  illustration  of  one 
branch, — that  branch  being  the  archaeology  of  Greece  and 
Rome  ;  a  branch  more  immediately  connected  than  any 
other  with  the  classical  studies  pursued  in  our  University. 

Perhaps  it  will  not  be  altogether  out  of  place — although 
I  am  aware  that  it  is  ascending  to  a  higher  point  in  the 
stream  of  time  than  your  Society  has  fixed  upon  for  its 
operations — if  I  briefly  allude  to  the  remains  of  Greek  art 
which  are  preserved  in  Cambridge. 

In  the  possession  of  Trinity  College  are  several  Greek 
inscriptions  upon  marble,  of  some  importance.  The  prin- 
cipal of  these,  is  one  well  known  as  the  Sandwich  Marble, 
having  been  brought  to  England  by  the  Earl  of  Sandwich, 
from  Athens,  in  the  year  1739.  It  contains  a  list  of  con- 
tributions to  the  expenses  incurred  by  the  expedition  for 
the  lustration  of  the  island  Delos,  in  the  third  year  of  the 
88th  Olympiad.  Another  is  a  decree  made  at  Ilium,  and 
brought  by  Mr.  Edward  Wortley  Montague  from  Sigeum, 
in  1766  :  it  was  presented  to  the  College  by  his  son-in-law, 
the  Marquis  of  Bute. 

In  the  vestibule  of  the  Public  Library,  are  certain  inscrip- 
tions and  pieces  of  sculpture,  the  principal  part  of  which 
were  brought  to  England  by  Dr.  Edward  Daniel  Clarke. 
One  of  these  inscriptions,  which  was  brought  from  the  Troad, 
was  believed  by  Porson  to  be  nearly  as  old  as  the  Arch- 
onship  of  Eucleides,  the  era  at  which  a  well-known  change 
took  place  in  Greek  palaeography,  about  403  B.C.  Another 
inscription  is  a  sepulchral  one,  brought  from  Athens,  to  the 
memory  of  a  certain  Eucleides  of  Hermione,  whom  Clarke 
linnsclf  believed  to  be  the  celebrated  geometrician  ;  and, 
under  that  impression,  he  thought  that  he  had  found  for  the 
stele,  a  congenial  resting-place,  among  the  mathematicians 
of  this  University.  But  there  is  no  evidence  whatever  that 
this  Eucleides  was  the  geometrician,  and  the  probability  is 
decidedly  against  it. 


J-  [NTRODUCTORI    A.DDBBSS. 

One  of  the  most  remarkable  of  Dr.  Clarke's  marbles  is  a 
mutilated  statue  of  Pan,  which  was  found  in  a  garden  close 
by  the  grotto  sacred  to  Tan  and  Apollo,  below  the  Acropolis 
of  Athens.  As  it  is  known  that  a  Btatue  of  Tan  was  dedi- 
I  by  Miltiades,  in  gratitude  for  the  services  supposed  to 
have  beeD  rendered  by  him  in  the  battle  of  Marathon,  and 
as  this  Btatue  is  of  a  Btyle  of  art  corresponding  to  that 
date,  it  is  by  no  means  impossible  that  it  may  be  the 
identical  figure  upon  which  Simonides  wrote  an  Mypa^na 
which  is  now  extant. 

With  regard  to  the  colossal  marble  bust  which  was  pro- 
nounced by  Dr.  Clarke  to  be  a  parr  of  the  statue  el'  the 
(  of  Eleusis,  it  is  in  be  feared  that  he  went  beyond  the 

bounds  of  that  cautious  discretion  which  is  bo  properly  pre- 
scribed to  the  archaeologist.  That  the  figure  was  brought 
from  certain  ruins  near  the  site  of  the  temple  of  Ceres  at 
-  no  doubt,  and  certain  travellers  who  had 
pved  it  there  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  cen- 
turi(  the  goddess   herself.     But   more 

have  held  a  contrary  opinion.     They  have 
_    from   the   position  in  which  it  was  found, 
and  from  certain  appearances  on  the  surface  of  the  marble, 
that  it  v.  or  architectural  decoration,  like  the 

tin-  Erectheium.     It  will  he  allowed,  however, 
'■veil  by  •  ritics  who  withhold  their  acquiescence  from 

Dr.  Clarke's  rather  too   positive  assertion,  that  the  bust  is 
a  most  interesting  relic  of  Greek  antiquity. 

The  Malcolm  sarcophagus  in  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum, 
described  by  Mr.  Pashley  in  In-  "Travels  in  Crete."  and 
equently  brought  to  England  and  presented  to  the 
University  by  Sir  Pulteney  Malcolm,  i^  ascribed  by  Dr. 
W'aa'j.  n  to  the  last  half  of  the  second  century  of  the 
Christian  era.  The  Bubjeci  of  the  Bculpture,  which  seems 
to  be  the  return  of  Bacchus  from  India,  is  treated  in  a  man 
nor  spirit.  id  and  original  ;  ami  with  tin-  i  tception  ot  one  <>r 
lacuna,  it  is  in  an  extremely  good  state  of  preservation. 

I  must   n<»t   omit   to  menti :ertain  Greek   inscriptions 

ntlj  presented  t<.  the  University  by  Captain  Spratt, 

th<-  commander  of  one  of  Her   Majesty's  surveying  ships 

i    <.ii   the  coast   of   Greece.      Three  of  those  wore 

I   by  him   in  the  island  of  ( !rete,  ami  one  of  these 

of  '■■  rj  early  date  ;  I  ho  inscription  four.'  read  from 


INTRODUCTORY    ADDRESS.  5 

the  right  hand  to  the  left.  But  the  most  interesting  and  valu- 
able of  Captain  Spratt's  marbles  is  an  inscribed  slab  from 
the  Troad.  This  inscription  is  valuable  on  two  accounts. 
In  the  first  place  it  is  valuable  as  having  been  discovered 
among  the  ruins  of  a  temple,  first  pointed  out  by  Captain 
Spratt,  which  is  satisfactorily  proved  to  be  the  temple  of 
Apollo  Smintheus,  mentioned  by  Strabo  and  other  writers, 
but  altogether  unknown  to  modern  travellers  until  lighted 
upon  by  Captain  Spratt  within  the  last  twelve  months. 
That  the  remains  are  those  of  the  temple  of  Apollo,  Colonel 
Leake,  than  whom  we  can  have  no  higher  authority,  lias 
pronounced  himself  to  be  perfectly  satisfied.  In  fact,  an 
inscription  found  there  by  Captain  Spratt,  places  the  point 
beyond  all  doubt.  The  second  point  of  interest  connected 
with  this  inscribed  slab,  is  the  subject  of  the  inscription. 
It  commemorates  the  fact  of  a  certain  Greek,  by  name 
Cassander,  having  been  presented  by  each  of  eighteen  or 
twenty  of  the  cities  and  states  of  Greece  with  a  golden  crown. 
Each  city  is  mentioned  separately,  and  underneath  the 
words  Xpuo-e<j>  2T€<p(M/(«>  in  connection  with  the  name  of 
each  city,  is  a  representation  of  the  crown  itself,  which 
was  in  the  form  of  a  chaplet  of  olive-leaves.  To  the 
custom  of  presenting  a  distinguished  Greek  citizen  wTith 
a  golden  crown  I  need  not  do  more  than  advert.  We 
all  rememember  the  orations  Ylepl  2re(pdvov  of  the  two 
great  orators  of  Athens.  And,  if  I  mistake  not,  the  effect 
of  a  sight  of  this  inscribed  marble,  would  be  the  same 
upon  any  one  engaged  in  reading  those  orations,  as  the 
effect  of  the  celebrated  Potida3an  k~Cy pawa  in  the  British 
Museum  would  be  upon  a  person  reading  the  account  of  the 
skirmish  at  Potidaia,  in  the  first  book  of  Thucydidcs  ; — 
namely,  to  impress  his  mind  with  a  sense  of  the  reality  of 
what  he  is  reading,  far  stronger  than  any  which  could  be 
made  by  the  mere  fact  of  his  finding  it  recorded  in  the 
book. — "  Magis  movemur,"  says  Cicero,  "  quam  si  quando 
eorum  ipsorum  aut  facta  audiamus,  aut  scriptum  aliquod 
leffamus." 

It  is  only  right  that  I  should  take  this  opportunity  of 
stating  that  Captain  Spratt's  presentation  of  these  marbles 
to  the  University,  was  made  at  the  suggestion  of  his  friend 
Colonel  Leake. 

Of  the  numerous  collection  of  ancient  marbles  presented 


0  INTRODUCTORY    ADDRESS. 

to  the  University  in  1850,  by  Mr.  Disney,  it  is  unnecessary 
for  me  to  give  any  minute  description,  as  the  donor  himself 
has  already  done  it  in  a  very  able  and  lucid  manner  in  his 
work  entitled  "Museum  Disneianum."  By  coming  forward 
while  tlic  space  was  yet  unoccupied,  Mr.  Disney  secured  for 
his  marbles  a  position  which  future  benefactors  may  look 
upon  with  envy,  but  to  which,  nevertheless,  the  example 
which  be  was  the  first  to  set,  on  so  extensive  a  scale,  fairly 
entitles  him.  And  we  may  venture  to  express  to  my  friend1 
our  hope  that  at  a  very  far  distant  period,  when  the  beau- 
tiful edifice  in  which  tiny  are  deposited,  shall  itself  be  the 
subject  of  curious  investigation  to  future  archaeologists,  his 
oame  may  still  survive,  as  that  of  the  earliest  patron  of 
archaeological  studies  in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 

J.  II.  MARSDEN,  B.D. 
1  Mr.  Disney  being  then  present. 


NOTICE  OF  A  BROXZE  RELIQUE,  ASSIGNED  TO  THE  LATER 
ROMAN  OR  THE  SAXON  AGE,  DISCOVERED  AT  LECKHAMPTON, 
GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

During  the  autumn  of  the  year  1844  a  discovery  occur- 
red at  Leckhampton,  Gloucestershire,  in  a  district  full  of 
vestiges  of  early  occupation,  which  excited  considerable 
interest.  A  short  statement,  communicated  at  that  time, 
was  published  in  the  first  volume  of  this  Journal,  and  the 
subject  was  noticed  in  other  archaeological  publications.  The 
novel  feature  of  the  discovery  consisted  in  a  bronze  frame, 
supposed  to  have  been  attached  to  a  head-piece  of  leather 
or  felt,  a  purpose  to  which,  by  the  dimensions  and  general 
fashion  it  appeared  to  be  adapted.  It  was  considered  by  the 
late  Sir  Samuel  Meyrick  to  have  been  the  British  "  Pen- 
ffestyn,"  possibly  from  the  position  of  the  skeleton  being 
described  as  "  doubled  up,"  as  frequently  noticed  in  inter- 
ments of  the  earliest  age,  or  from  its  having  been  found 
near  a  supposed  British  fortress. 

Other  antiquaries  have  regarded  it,  however,  as  an  Anglo- 
Saxon  relique,  a  supposition  to  which  Mr.  Roach  Smith,  in 
his  "  Collectanea  Antiqua,"  seems  inclined  to  assent,  although 
conclusive  evidence  may  be  wanting.1  The  Abbe  Cochet, 
also,  in  the  second  edition  of  his  valuable  "  Normandie 
Souterraine,"  has,  without  hesitation,  admitted  this  object  as 
a  coiffure  or  casque  Savon? 

The  attention  of  archaeologists  has  recently  been  directed 
to  this  singular  relique,  through  the  kindness  of  Capt.  Henry 
Bell,  of  Cheltenham,  in  whose  possession  it  has  been  pre- 
served. At  the  request  of  Mr.  Allies,  he  sent  it  for  exhi- 
bition at  the  meeting  of  the  Institute  in  December  last.  No 
detailed  investigation  of  its   age  and  character  having  been 

1  Collect.  Antiqua,  vol.  ii.  p.  2'M),  where  Cochet  1ms  found  no  example  of  any  head- 
a  representation  of  the  bronze  frame  is  piece  of  the  Frankish  period.  He  notices 
given.  at    some    length     the   remains    of   sift 

2  Normandie  Sontorraine,  2nd  edit.  which  certain  antiquaries  have  erroneously 
18.5.5,  pp.  17,  393  ;  it  is  remarkable  that  described  as  the  remains  of  some  protec- 
in    his   extensive    researches    the    Abbe*  tion  for  the  head. 

VOL.  XII.  C 


10  NOTICE    OF    A    BRONZE    REL1QUE 

given,  1  have  availed  myself  of  the  obliging-  permission  of 
Capt.  Bell,  to  offer  a  more  accurate  representation  than 
hitherto  published.  In  the  advanced  state  of  information 
regarding  vestiges  of  the  later  Roman  period  and  of  that 
immediately  succeeding,  upon  which  valuable  light  has  Itch 
thrown  by  the  exertions  of  the  Hon.  Richard  Neville,  Mr. 
Wylie,  Mr.  Roach  Smith,  Mi-.  Bateman,  and  other  antiqua- 
ries, it  appears  desirable  to  invite  attention  anew  to  this 
unique  relique,  ami  that  its  real  age  and  purpose  should  be 
ascertained. 

To  those  who  are  acquainted  with  the  picturesque  and 
undulated  Hank  of  the  Cotswold  Hills,  to  the  south  of 
Cheltenham;  overlooking  the  broad  fertile  plains  of  Glouces- 
sbire,  it  can  be  no  matterof  surprise  to  find  abundant  traces 
indicating  thai  the  locality  had  been  successively  occupied  by 
,-i  considerable  population  in  British,  Roman,  and  Saxon  times. 
Of  th^  earlier  period,  vestiges  present  themselves  in  nume- 
rous harr<-\\s  along  the  margin  of  the  higher  ground,  of 
which  some  have  been  examined  by  Lysons,  and  more  re- 
cently  by  Mr.  Gomonde  and  other  members  of  the  Glouces- 
tershire Archaeological  Society  ;  in  the  encampments  also  on 
Crickley  Hill  and  the  height  above  Leckhampton.  Near  the 
former  of  those,  at  Dry  Hill  Farm,  distant  about  3^  miles 
from  Cheltenham,  a  Roman  villa  of  considerable  extent 
was  excavated  about  L 849,  by  Capt.  Bell  and  Mr.  \V.  H. 
Gomonde,  by  whom  an  account  was  printed  for  presentation 
to  bis  friends.  South-easl  of  that  spot,  near  the  Ermine 
Street,  is  the  site  of  the  villa  at  Witcomb,  explored  by 
Lysons;  similar  remains  occur  between  the  Ermine  Street 
and  Cubberley,  and  other  traces  of  Roman  occupation  might 
be  noticed,  [nterments  have  been  found  on  Wistley  Hill, 
near  the  road  to  Cubberley,  on  Cricklev  Hill,  and  at  several 
other  places.  At  Cubberley  there  are  vestiges,  it  is  believed, 
of  a  Saxon  village. 

The    extensive  camp  on    Leckhampton    Hill    occupies   a 

commanding  position  in   the  chain  of  ancient  encampments 

which  extended   through   the  south  western  parts  of  (don 

rehire  from   the  A.von  to  Bredon  Hill,  the   frontier  for- 

n  has  been  supposed,  of  the  Dobuni}    It  was  just 

of  the  camps  on  Leek*      of   sncienl   hill  fortresses  in  Gloucester- 
iii   Hill    sud  '  i  :■•!. I.  _v    Hill  in  tlu<      Hliiri;    above    mentioned,       AjrchsBologia. 
Mi  iioir  b\  Mr.  Lloyd  Dakei  on  the  chain       vol.  nix.  p.  171. 


POUND    AT    LECKHAMPTON,    GfLOUCESTERSHIBE.  11 

below  that  camp,  near  the  road  leading  over  the  higher 
ground  towards  Stroud,  that  the  discovery  which  is  the  sub- 
ject of  this  notice  occurred,  as  related  in  the  following  state- 
ment received  in  October,  1844,  from  the  Rev.  Lambert 
]'».  Larking  : — 

"A  few  weeks  since,  some  labourers,  in  digging  for  gravel 
on  the  hill  above  the  Manor-house  of  Leckhampton,  about 
two  miles  from  Cheltenham,  suddenly  came  upon  a  skeleton, 
in  a  bank  at  the  side  of  the  high  road  leading  from  Chelten- 
ham to  Bath.  It  was  lying  doubled  up,  about  3  feet  under 
the  surface  ;  it  was  quite  perfect,  not  even  a  tooth  wanting. 
On  the  skull,  fitting  as  closely  as  if  moulded  to  it,  was  the 
frame  of  a  cap,  consisting  of  a  circular  hoop  with  two  curved 
bars  crossing  each  other  in  a  knob  at  the  top  of  the  head. 
This  knob,  finishing  in  a  ring,  seems  to  have  been  intended 
for  a  feather  or  some  such  military  ensign.  The  rim  at  the 
base  is  nearly  a  perfect  circle,  and  the  bars  are  curved,  so 
that  the  entire  framework  is  itself  [semi]  globular.  The 
bars  are  made  apparently  of  some  mixed  metal,  brass  fused 
with  a  purer  one  ;  they  are  thin  and  pliable,  and  grooved  ; 
the  knob  and  ring  are  brass,  covered  with  verdigris,  while 
the  bars  are  smooth  and  free  from  rust.  When  first  found, 
there  was  a  complete  ehin-chain — of  this  only  three  links 
remain,  those  next  the  cap  are  very  much  worn.  The  skull 
is  tinged  at  the  top  with  green,  from  the  pressure  of  the 
metal,  and  in  other  parts  blackened,  as  though  the  main 
material  of  the  cap  had  been  felt,  and  the  bars  added  to 
stiffen  it.  They  are  hardly  calculated,  from  their  slightness, 
to  resist  a  sword  cut,  but  the  furrowed  surface  gives  them  a 
finish,  and  proves  that  they  must  have  been  outside  the  felt. 
Nothing  else,  whatever,  was  found.  A  black  tinge  was  dis- 
tinctly traceable  all  round  the  earth  in  which  the  body  lay."  4 

A  sketch  of  this  bronze  frame-work  was  kindly  sent  to 
me  at  a  later  time  by  Mr.  Gomonde,  and  engraved  in  this 
Journal.5  It  was  described  by  him  as  found  near  a  Roman 
burying-ground  ;  Sir  S.  Meyrick,  however,  to  whom  it  had 
been  shown  by  Mr.  Gomonde,  considered  it,  as  has  been 
already  mentioned,  to  be  the  British  "  Penffestyn," 6  or 
skull-cap,  mentioned  in  the  Laws  of  Howcl  Dda. 

4  Communication   from  Mr.  Larking  to  s  Vol.  iii.,  ]>.  .'!.*>•_'. 

Mr.  T.  Wright,  Arehaeul.  Journal,  vol.  i.,  fi  In  the  Glossary  of  terms  of  British 

Dress   ami    Armour,  by  the    Rev.  John 


12  NOTICE    OF    A    BRONZE    RELIQUE 

Excavations  were  made  on  the  adjacent  part  of  Leck- 
hampton  Hill,  and  part  id"  an  iron  bridle-bit,  with  a  ring  for 
attaching  the  rein,  3-J  inches  in  diameter  (figured  in  Mr. 
Gomonde's  "Notes  on  Cheltenham,"  pi.  xi.),  an  iron  spear- 
head,  and  a  curved  implement  of  singular  fashion  were 
found,  with  fragments  of  urns  of  glossy  Mack  ware,  formed 
with  small  perforated  handles  as  if  for  suspension.  These 
reliques  were  disinterred  between  the  quarry  where  the 
bronze  skull-cap  was  found,  and  the  road  to  Birdlip.' 

I  as  of  Constantino  and  broken  pottery,  assigned  to  the 
Roman  age,  were  discovered  in  the  immediate  vicinity. 
Another  remarkable  interment  was  found  near  the  spot 
where  the  skeleton  with  the  bronze  frame  had  been  brought 
to  light.  In  this  instance,  the  body  had  been  deposited  in 
clay,  and  the  remains  were  much  decayed  by  moisture  ;  the 
clay  surrounding  the  skull  was  lull  of  iron  studs,  sufficiently 
indicating,  as  .Mr.  Gomonde  believed,  that  the  head  had 
been  protected  by  a  cap  of  singular  construction,  covered 
over  with  these  iron  studs.8  A  bronze  spear-head,  finely 
patinated,  now  in  ('apt.  Hell's  possession,  may  deserve  men- 
tion, having  been  found,  as  stated,  on  Leckhampton  Hill. 

Tip'  rare  occurrences  of  any  object  of  armour  amongst 
the  antiquities  of  the  earlier  periods  found  in  our  country, 
whilst  weapons,  personal  on  aments  and  domestic  appk- 
ances  are  found  in  profusion,  may,  I  would  hope,  justify  the 
detailed  character  of  the  present  notices.  With  the  excep- 
tion of  die  bronze  helmet  discovered  in  forming  the  canal 
iieai-  Northcote  Hill.  Herts,  and  represented  in  the  "  Vtatusta 

.Mmiuinenta."  and    another  remarkable    head -piece  of  bronze, 

consisting  of  a  -hull  cap  with  a  perforated  tube  of  consider- 
able length  on  its  apex,  found  in  L843,  at  King's  Arms 
Yard,  Moorgate  Street,  London,  no  reliques  of  the  like 
description  have  fallen   under  my  notice.     The  last  named 

Williams,  of  which  pari                  in  th<  other  antiquities  discovered,  in  hU "  Notes 

Archseologia  Cambrensis,  the  Penffestin  on  Cheltenham,    Ancient  and   Medieval," 

plained  to   be   a  li  Imel      "Frollo  Jvo,  1849.     Prival  ly  printed. 

lnii-   <>ii  in-  forehead,  so  thai  Irohaeol    Journal,  vol  iii.,  p.  S58. 

u  i ted  on  the  rings  of  his  An  account  <>t  the  examination  of  three 

Gr.  ab  Arthur.     Under  the  barroweinthi     locality  by  Mr.  Gomonde 

iwi  thattbi   Penffestyn  and  Capt    Bell,  in    December,    1844,   is 

tinol  ran  in  the  Journal  of  the  Archaeological 

J    in       of  tli     \  ■  I logical    \    o  \    ociation,  vol.  i.  pp.  152, 164.     In  one 

">li    i. ..in I.  has  •■!  Hi.   e  four  perfect  skeletons  were  found, 

.;•   "i    li,.    ancionl     it*      and  placed  side  bj  side,  the  heads  to  the  east, 

repri                  of  the  bronsi    frame  with  the  leg    drawn  up  to  the  chin, 


FOUND    AT    LECKHAMPTON,    GLOUCESTERSHIRE.  13 

remarkable  object  remains,  as  I  believe,  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Kirkman  ;  it  was  regarded  by  some  antiquaries  as  a 
form  of  the  "  Penffestyn."  It  bears  resemblance  to  the  wpew 
or  cap  worn  by  the  Flamines  and  the  Salii,  and  still  more 
closely  to  the  head-gear  seen  on  a  votive  monument  found  in 
Styria,  and  given  by  Montfaucon.9 

The  bronze  relique  to  which  I  would  now  specially  invite 
attention,  has  been  already  described  in  the  account  given 
by  Mr.  Larking.  I  may  add  the  following  observations.  The 
hoop  or  rim  is  perfectly  round,  measuring  l\  inches  in  each 
direction.  This  fact  has  been  regarded  by  some  antiquaries 
as  a  conclusive  argument  against  the  supposition  that  this 
frame  of  metal  could  have  formed  part  of  any  kind  of  head- 
piece. Others,  however,  having  carefully  considered  the 
details  of  its  construction,  and  the  pliable  nature  of  the 
frame,  formed  of  metal  about  one-twenty-fourth  of  an  inch 
only  in  thickness,  are  disposed  to  conclude  that  this  round 
form  of  the  rim,  in  its  actual  condition,  presents  no  such 
difficulty.  As,  indeed,  one  of  the  plates  forming  this  rim 
bad  become  unsoldered,  and  has  been  re-united  since  the 
discovery,  it  is  possible  that  a  slight  modification  of  the  con- 
tour may  have  occurred,  giving  the  perfectly  round  form 
which  we  now  observe.  On  the  other  hand,  it  should  be  borne 
in  mind,  that  many  head-pieces,  such  as  are  worn  by  nations 
in  the  East,  as  also  some  of  media3val  date  in  Europe, 
are  of  perfectly  circular  form,  and  not  shaped  to  the  skull.1 
The  Roman  bronze  helmet  found  near  Tring,  a  skull-cap, 
with  a  wide  brim  behind  ('()  like  a  coal-heaver's  hat,  is  like- 
wise perfectly  round.2  The  constructive  peculiarities,  obvious 
on  close  examination  of  the  bronze  frame  found  at  Leck- 
hampton  appear  sufficiently  to  confirm  the  belief  that  it  was 
a  head-piece,  and  not  as  has  been  affirmed  the  upper  portion 
of  some  kind  of  vessel  or  coffer.  The  transverse  bands  would, in 
the  latter  case,  have  been  adjusted  so  as  to  cross  each  other 
precisely  at  right  angles,  and  divide  the  little  dome  into  four 
equal  portions,  the   central  knob  and  ring  being  its  centre. 

9  Antiqu.  Expl.  Supp.  tome  ii.  p.  123,  lately  round,  and  some  of  the  mediaeval 

pi.  33,  b%8.     This  singular  head-covering  very  nearly  so.     The  bronze  frame,  being 

here  appears  to  be  worn  by  females.  so  light  in  construction,  may  very   well 

1  1  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Hewitt's  kind-  have  assumed,  when  fitted  with  its  lining, 

ness  for   the  confirmation  of  this  state-  a  somewhat  ovalised  form." 

Hunt      On  examination  of  the  examples  -  Vetusta   Monumenta,  vol.  v.,  pi.  26. 

in  the  Tower  Armory,  he  assures  me  that  It  is  not  quite  clear  whether  the  projecting 

■•  nearly  all  the  eastern  casques  are  abso-  plate  in  trout  or  behind  is  deficient. 


14 


NOTICE    OF    A    BBONZE    RELIQUE 


This,  however,  is  not  the  case  ;  the  bands  are  placed  so  that 
tin'  moiety  <>f  the  frame,  which  would  probably  form  the 
fore-part  of  the  cap,  is  considerably  larger  than  the  hind- 
part,  the  effect  being  t<>  throw  tin-  apex  with  its  knob  and 
ring  backwards  ;  tin'  knob  itself  is  likewise  bo  shaped  as  to 
incline  slightly  in  the  same  direction.  These  details  can 
scarcely  1"'  in  licated  in  a  drawing,  but  they  are  very  per- 
ceptible in  tin-  examination  of  the  original.  The  objection 
has  also  been  made,  that  it'  the  frame  \\wr  a  eaj>.  what  was 
the  intention  of  tin-'  ring  at  the  topi  Here  it  may  suffice 
t<>  point  out  the  precise  analogy  of  this  knoli  and  ring  with 
tin-  fashion  of  the  curious  cap  represented  in  Bahr's  work  on 
the  Sepulchral  Antiquities  of  Livonia."     (See  woodcut.) 


i 

Thi-  cap   is   formed  of  spiral   bronze   rings,  described  as 

strung  upon  wool,  and  on   the  crown  is  a  knob  from  which 

ispended  a  small  bell,  like  a   hawk's  bell,  attached  h\  a 

ring.     Tin'  Livonian   tombs   in  question,  are  assigned,  as    I 

believe,  to  the  I  Xih  or  Kth  century. 

h  has  been  stated  that  when  the  relique  Benl  lor  our 
examination  by  Capt.  Bell  was  found,  there  was  a  perfect 
chain  Berving  the  purpose  of  a  chin  strap.  A  single  ring 
now  remains,  which  may  bave  been  pari  of  this  :  the  loops 
are  to  be  seen  also,   to  which   such  a   chain  might  conve- 


0      I                     l.ivin «    Dr<    i'n,  Kerxes,  described  by  Herodotus  m  hel- 

i    i   tuthor  ootnpan  ii    bran,   twisted   in   a   barbarous 

n ii    \  i  i  in. .11      I  look  v  N.  c  69 
i  in  tin'   .  xpcdii ion  ••) 


FOUND    AT   LECKHAMPTON,    GLOUCESTEBSHIRE.  15 

niently  be  adjusted,  and  they  are  worn  away  by  friction  in 
a  manner  which  seems  to  corroborate  the  statement. 

The  object  of  the  present  notice  is  to  invite  further 
inquiry,  in  the  hope  that  the  true  intention  and  date  of  a 
unique  type,  amongst  the  antiquities  of  bronze  found  in  this 
country,  may  be  ascertained.  No  sufficient  argument  can  be 
drawn  from  the  existing  vestiges  of  the  early  inhabitants  of 
the  locality,  which,  as  it  has  been  shown,  was  occupied  by 
the  Dobuni,  by  the  Roman  colonists,  and  doubtless  by  the 
South  Mercian  Saxons.  The  notion  has,  as  I  believe,  been 
commonly  adopted,  that  this  relique  belongs  to  the  Saxon 
period,  and  this  supposition  is  countenanced  by  two  disco- 
veries in  this  country  of  objects,  apparently  analogous  in 
their  character,  accompanied  by  remains  which  may  confi- 
dently be  assigned  to  the  Saxon  age.  The  first  discovery 
to  which  I  allude  has  been  recorded  by  Sir  Henry  Dryden, 
Bart.,  as  having  occurred  near  the  Portway  at  Souldern, 
Oxfordshire.  A  skeleton  was  found  there  in  1844,  laid  in 
a  cavity  in  the  reck  prepared  for  the  deposit,  and  extended 
at  full  length,  the  head  W.  by  S.  On  the  right  side  of  the 
head  lay  a  pair  of  ornaments  of  bone,  and  about  the  skull 
were  many  fragments  of  thin  brass,  which,  when  placed 
together  formed  parts  of  two  bands,  the  first  measuring 
7  in.  long,  and  §  in.  wide.  This,  Sir  Henry  supposed,  had 
encircled  the  lower  part  of  a  leathern  skull  cap.  The  edges 
of  the  leather  and  of  this  brass  band  were  held  together  by 
a  thin  concave  brass  binding,  in  the  hollow  of  which  frag- 
ments of  leather  were  still  to  be  seen.  On  each  side  of  the 
helmet,  attached  to  the  brass  band,  was  an  ornamental  hinge 
for  a  leathern  chin-strap.  Of  the  other  band  about  1 7  in. 
remained,  in  width  one-eighth  narrower  than  the  first.  It 
was  probably  the  binding  of  the  edge  where  there  would  be 
a  seam,  or  intended  to  encircle  the  helmet  close  above  the 
other  binding.  On  both  these  bands  were  rivets,  showing 
that  the  leather  riveted  was  three-sixteenths  thick.  Nothing 
else  was  found  with  the  skeleton,  but  several  urns  were  disin- 
terred near  it  of  the  black  pottery,  showing  the  peculiar 
scored  and  impressed  ornament  which  characterises  the 
fictile  ware  of  the  Saxon  age.4 

o 

4  See  the  account  of  Sepulchrtd  remains       Dryden's  drawings,  in  Mr.   Wing's  An- 
found  at  Souldern, accompanied  by  repre-       tiquities  of  Steeple  Aston,  p.  7-. 
mentations  of  three  urns,  from  Sir  Henry 


16  NOTICE    OF    A    BRONZE    RELIQUE 

To  one  of  our  most  intelligent  and  zealous  labourers  in 
the  archaeological  field,  Mr.  Bateman  of  Yolgrave,  we  are 
indebted  for  the  second  discovery,  which  may  aid  this 
enquiry  as  regards  the  date  of  the  relique  from  Leck- 
hampton.  In  this  instance,  however,  the  frame-work, 
precisely  similar  in  fashion,  was  of  iron.  It  was  disinterred 
in  a  tumulus  near  Monyash,  in  Derbyshire.  The  frame  was 
formed  of  ribs  of  iroD  radiating  from  the  crown  of  the 
head,  and  covered  with  narrow  plates  of  horn,  running  in  a 
diagonal  direction  from  the  ribs,  so  as  to  form  a  herring-bone 
irn  :  the  ends  were  Becured  by  strips  of  horn,  radiating 
in  like  manner  as  the  iron  ribs,  to  which  they  were  riveted 
at  intervals  of  about  I1,  inch.  AH  the  rivets  had  ornamented 
heads  of  silver  on  the  outside,  and  on  the  front  rib  is  a  small 
cross  of  the  same  metal.  Upon  the  crown  of  this  helmet  is 
the  figure  of  a  boar,  of  iron  with  bronze  eyes  ;  and  various 
remains,  supposed  to  be  of  defensive  armour,  were  found 
with  this  head-piece.  These  reliques,  there  can  be  little 
doubt,  were  of  the  Saxon  age,  and  they  are  recognised  as 
such  by  Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith,  who  has  given  a  full  account 
with  illustrations,  in  his  Collectanea  Antiqua.8 

These  facts  may  seem  to  corroborate  the  notion  that  this 
relique  under  consideration  should  be  placed  amongst  Saxon 
antiquities,  and  examples  of  head-coverings  analogous  in 
their  fashion  may  1"'  noticed  on  coins  and  in  drawings  in  the 
MSS.  of  that  period.  It  may  be  objected  thai  these  are 
properly  to  be  regarded  as  crowns,  such  as  occur  for  instance 
on  coins  of  the  Confessor,  although  very  early  instances  of 
the  arched  form  of  the  regal  diadem.  In  some  instances 
the  cynehealm  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  king  has  the  aspect 
rather  of  an  belmel  than  a  crown,  and  appears  as  a  conical 
cap  formed  like  that  from  Leckhampton  with  transverse 
bands  or  ribs,  and  a  knob  or  other  prominent  ornament  on 
its  apex.  With  these  royal  helms  may  be  compared  that 
worn  by  the  warrior,  apparently  a  principal  officer,  pour- 
trayed  in  the  Cotton  MS.  Tiberius,  B.  V.,  and  given  by  Strutt 
in  his  Horda  as  an  example  of  military  costume  in  the  Xlth 

•  .\.i\.  which    occurred    in  Antiqua,  vol.  ii.,  p.  238.     The  oitationa 

',  i   '    publi  hed    in    the  fr Beowulf,  given  by  Mr.  Roach  Smith, 

.1  i  \    ociation,  r«  ;arriing   the  Saxon  creel  of  iii<-  boar, 

rol.   li  .,   p  I  olli « - 1  iii.  a  ari  i  sci  i  dingrj  cui  iou 


FOUND    AT    LECKHAMPTON,    GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 


17 


Arched  Saxon  crowns 
from  Csedmon,  MS.  Xth 
century. 


century.6  Amongst  the  singular  delineations  in  the  MS.  of 
Caulmon's  Paraphrase,  preserved  in  the  Bodleian,  and  written 
about  the  year  1000,  certain  head-coverings  may  be  seen, 
to  be  regarded  probably  rather  as  insignia  of  dignity  than 
regal,  but  sufficing  to  show  that  there  existed  at  that  period 
on  laments  for  the  head  in  no  slight  degree  analogous  in 
fashion  to  that  found  in  Gloucestershire. 
(See  woodcut.)  One  of  those  here  repre- 
sented is  worn  by  Lucifer.7  It  must  be 
noticed  that  these  are  not  open  arched 
crowns,  like  the  royal  insignia  of  a  much 
later  age,  but  caps  surrounded  by  a  frame, 
to  which  they  seem  closely  fitted. 

In  addition  to  the  examples  supplied  hj  the  discoveries  in 
our  own  country,  which  have  been  noticed  in  Oxfordshire 
and  Derbyshire,  I  have  found  one  object  only,  apparently  of 
analogous  fashion,  described  by  foreign  archaeologists.  In  a 
tumulus  at  Aufsee  in  Bavaria,  in  a  burial-place  assigned  to 
the  early  Germanic  inhabitants  of  the  vallies  near  the  sources 
of  the  Maine,  a  skeleton  was  disinterred,  with  a  frame  upon 
the  skull,  described  as  a  kind  of  helm,  of  polished  metal 
like  gold,  and  free  from  oxidation.  On  the  crown  of  the 
head,  instead  of  any  apex  or  means  of  attachment  for  a 
crest,  there  was  a  flat  round  plate  of  the  size  of  a  thaler,  on 
which  was  engraved  an  ornament  like  a  rose.  This  plate 
formed  the  centre  of  a  conical  frame-work  composed  ot 
spirally-twisted  bands,  united  by  two  or  more  horizontal 
hoops,  placed  at  some  distance  apart.  (See  woodcut).  With 
this  interment  were  deposited 
heads  of  arrows  and  spears, 
and  a  singular  kind  of  horse- 
shoe, the  space  within  which 
was  plated  over  with  iron,  as 
in  modern  times  a  tender  foot 
is  sometimes  protected  by  a 
layer  of  felt  within  the  rim  of 
the  shoe.  Unfortunately  the 
finder  sold  the  bright  metal  frame  for  a  trifle  to  a  Jew,  and  no 


fi  Strutt's Horda, vol. i  ,pl.iv.  Although 
the  form  is  conical,  and  the  apex  is  not 
furnished  with  the  knob,  this  head-piece 

VOL.    XII. 


w ill  di servos  attention, in  connexion  with 
that  found  at  Leckhampton. 

<   Archseologia,  vol.  xxiw,  plate  55. 


18 


NOTICE    OF    A    BRONZE    RELIQUE 


accurate  representation  has  been  preserved.  It  is  not  stated 
whether  any  trace  of  a  chin-strap  or  of  bucculce  was  found.8 
There  is  no  sufficient  evidence  bo  determine  whether  the 
Leckhampton  head-piece  was  intended  to  serve  as  a 
defence,  or  merely  as  an  ornament.  We  might  indeed  more 
readily  accept  the  former  supposition,  after  the  examination, 
for  which  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Hewitt,  of  the  latest  pro- 
duction of  modern  ingenuity  in  the  unproved  head-piece 
devised  during  the  last  year  for  the  artillery.  One  of  these 
was  recently  shown  by  him  at  a  meeting  of  the  Institute; 
the  skeleton  frame-work  of  thin  brass,  with  the  ornament 
on  the  apex,  is  strikingly  similar,  even  in  the  mouldings  of 
its  ribs,  to  the  ancient  relique  which  is  in  the  possession  of 
Capt.  Bell.  This  slight  frame  had  been  considered  a  sufficient 
support  to  the  defensive  cap  of  felt  to  which  it  is  fitted.8 

Helmets  of  a  similar  fashion  have  been  worn  at  various 
periods  :  and  first,  I  would  invite  attention  to  those  which 
appear  on   Trajan's  column.     We  there  find   two  kinds  of 

longitudinally  ribbed  helmets,  the 
close-fitting  skull-cap  with  a  knob 
on  its  crown,  usually  represented  as 
pierced,  and  occasionally  with  a 
short  plume  affixed  to  it.  Such  a 
pierced  apex  would  present  a  con- 
venient attachment  for  a  pendant  of 
horse-hair,  the  hirsuta  juba  which 
appears  to  have  frequently  formed 
an  ornament  of  the  Roman  helm. 
These  helmet-  are  worn  by  the  Roman  legionaries,  they 
have  almost  invariably  bucculce,  or  cheek-pieces,  with  a  spira 
or  fastening  under  the  chin,  and  usually  the  falling  piece 
behind  to  protect  the  neck.  The  examples  here  given  show 
how  closely  this  Roman  head-piece  resembles  the  relique 
from  Leckhampton  ;  I  have  selected  one.  a  simple  skull  cap, 
which  occurs  slung  over  the  shoulder  of  a  legionary,  and 
another  with  its  bucculce,  represented  as  placed  on  an  upright 
Btake  by   the  side  of  a  Boldier  engaged   in   building  some 


■  d«,  Handbuch  der  AJtertlitl r, 

K      ,  i  i  I  i  i,.  di»- 

■  cord<  d  i._\  ll  igen  and 
fur    Alb  iiliuin.  r. 
b 

i  \n  \  i  dlli  n  Helmet," 


produced  bj  Mr.  Hewitt,  in  illustration  "i 
■I ii  1 1  ique  from  Leokbampton,  haa  sinnr 
bei  H  '-"ii  idi  i ■■  'i  not  i  al  isl  ictorj  ,  and  it 
haa  been  withdrawn  Ii  waa  an  officer*! 
ii.  .-i  i  | iii  ee,  ii"-  'ii  aign  apparent!)  ■!<  rii td 
a i  tho  e  ihown  on  Trajan'a  colnmn, 


FOUND    AT    LLTKIIAMl'TON,    GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 


19 


Ribbed  Helmets,  worn  by 
the  Sarmatians. 
Trajan's  column. 


military  defence.1  This  helm  very  probably  was  the  cudo  of 
leather  used,  as  we  learn  from  Polybius, 
by  the  light-armed  troops,  and  originally 
the  hunting-cap,  strengthened  externally 
by  ribs  of  metal.  Another  helm  appears 
in  the  remarkable  sculptures  on  the 
Trajan  column  which  claims  notice. 
This  is  the  pointed  head-piece  worn  by 
the  barbarian  cavalry  and  infantry — Sar- 
matians or  Dacians,  with  ribs  diverging 
from  the  spiked  or  knobbed  apex,  and 
occasionally  with  several  parallel  hoops, 
a  remarkable  feature  of  resemblance  to 
the  curious  frame-work  found  in  Bavaria, 
before  noticed.  A  sculpture  preserved  at  Rome  in  the 
Giustiniani  Palace,  represents  barbarians  with  ribbed  helms, 
and  a  knob  on  the  top  of  the  head.2 

From  a  comparison  of  these  facts  I  am  inclined  to  think 
that  the  interment  at  Leckhampton,  in  a  locality  surrounded 
by  vestiges  of  the  Romans,  may  be  assigned  with  greater 
probability  to  the  times  of  their  dominion  in  Britain,  than 
to  the  Saxon  age.  The  well-polished  and  finely  patinated 
appearance  of  the  metal,  would  moreover  suggest  the  notion 
that  it  is  Roman  bronze  rather  than  the  mixed  metal  of 
any  later  period.  In  the  examination  of  any  novel  type 
amongst  antiquities  presumed  to  be  of  the  Roman  period, 
the  English  archaeologist  should  never  lose  sight  of  the  pro- 
bability that  anomalous  forms  should  occur,  not  conformable 
to  those  with  which  we  are  familiar  in  Italy  and  the 
dominions  more  closely  adjacent  to  Imperial  Rome.  Auxi- 
liaries from  many  remote  countries  subject  to  her  sway  were, 
it  is  well  known,  sent  to  Britain,  and  they  doubtless  brought 
with  them  the  fashions  and  customs,  the  armour,  the 
personal  and  domestic  appliances  with  which  they  were 
familiar.  At  the  time  of  the  Notitia,  one  of  the  chief 
Roman  cities  nearest  to  Leckhampton,  namely  Corinium, 
was  occupied  by  Thracians  and  Indians. 


1  The  accompanying  representations  of 

helmets  from  Trajan's  column  have  been 
taken  from  the  cart-fully  executed  plates 
by  Nicola  Moneta,  after  the  drawings  by 
Salvatoro  Busuttil,  in  the  valuable  publi- 
cation "  La  Colonna  Trajana,  illustrate  da 


Erasmo  Pistoles."  Roma:  1846.  Folio. 
I  am  indebted  to  the  learned  historian  of 
the  Roman  Wall,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Bruce,  for 
the  opportunity  of  consulting  this  work. 

-    Encycl.  Method.  Division  of  Antiqui- 
ties, pi.  38. 


21) 


NOTICE    OF    A    BRONZE    BELIQUE 


It  must,  however,  be  admitted  that  framed  helms  of 
similar  tonus  occur  long  subsequent  to  tin-  Roman  age,  in 
which  the  fashions  of  earlier  times  may  have  been  preserved. 
A  good  example  is  supplied  bv  Hefner  in  the  subjects  which 
lie  has  selected  from  a  Ms.  Psalter  in  tin'  Royal  Library  at 
Stuttgart.  He  assigns  its  -late  to  the  tenth  century,  but  the 
costume  and   general   character  of  the  objects   pourtrayed 

might  place  it    as  early  as 

the    eighth    century.       Of 

the  two  subjects  here  given 

(see  woodcuts),  the  figure 

bearing    the    long-headed 

framea      is     a     mounted 

warrior,  in  a  tunic  of  scale 

armour.      The    other    is   a 

1  io\\  man     en    loot,     armed 

likewise  witli  a  scaly  defence,  with  shoii  sleeves  ;  tin1  armour 

and  tin'  helmets  are  coloured  as  if  to  represent  iron.'' 

Headpieces  of  this  description  must  have  proved  very 
preferable  to  the  ponderous  helm  of  metal  plate.  As  late 
as  the  Xlllih  century,  in  the  reign  of  Henrv  111.,  wo  find  a. 
remarkable  illustration  of  their  use  in  the  subjects  from  the 
Painted  Chamber  at  Westminster.  The  framework  in  these 
examples  is  mostly  coloured  yellow,  the  intervening  spaces 
being  red  or  purple,  as  if  re- 
presi  el ing  a  cap  of  cloth  or 
leather  strengthened  externally 
by  ribs  of  gilded  metal.  In 
Borne  instances  a  band  appi 
to  be  lace<  1  I  hroug  h  I  ho  low  er 
part  of  the  frame,  probably 
lor  the  purpose  <>f  attaching  il 
to  i  ho  cap.  or  of  connect  ing  the 
entire    holm    to    the   coif   of 

mail.     (Si  8  WOodcul    , 

In  .-ill  the  examples  hit herto 
cited,  i ho  metal  framework  was 
obviously  an  external  defence  and  ornament,  placed  upon  a, 

cap  of  cloth,  loll,  leather,  or  other  suitable   material,  such  as 


1  SI o) en  .v ■>■  (  1,1  >  iii  ii,  par  liahed  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, with 

Divi  ion   I,  u  a    Memoir   l>\    the   late  Mr.  Rokewode, 

inpli       d    'in    can  tul  Vi  matt  Monumenta,  vol  vL,  pL  86,  86. 

i  ■  pi  l  pub 


FOUND    AT    LECKHAMPTON,    GLOUCESTERSHIRE.  21 

the  Roman  cudo  or  yalerus  of  skin,  the  "  lether-helm^"  of 
the  Saxons,5  the  petturis  or  the  palet  of  cuirbouilli  in 
mediaeval  times.  The  ingenuity  of  a  later  age  devised  a 
framework  to  be  worn  concealed  within  the  cap  for  the 
purposes  of  defence.  Of  this  Hefner  gives  a  good  illustra- 
tion amongst  the  varied  types  which  he  has  selected  from 
a  hundred  helms  of  iron  found  in  1841  in  a  cistern  at  the 
citadel  of  Chalcis,  in  the  Isle  of  Negropont.  They  have 
been  assigned  to  the  XHIth  and  XlVth  centuries.  This 
simple  and  effective  defence  is  given  with  those  of  the 
earlier  date.6  (See  woodcut.)  An  iron 
scull-cap  of  open  or  framed  work  was 
worn  within  the  hat  in  the  times  of 
the  civil  wars,  and  examples  exist  in 
the  Tower  Armory,  in  the  collections 
at  Goodrich  Court  and  other  places.7 
Carre,  in  his  "  Panoplie,"  gives  a  repre-  ^SJShS™!?4*8 
sentation  of  a  "  calotte  echancree  "  of 
this  description  fitted  to  such  a  form  of  hat  as  is  now  wTorn, 
and  he  describes  a  very  light  and  effectual  substitute  as  used 
by  the  French  cavaliers,  formed  "  d'une  meche  tortillee 
excellente  contre  le  tranchant."  This  recalls  the  singular 
head-piece  used  by  the  ancient  Livonians,  previously  noticed 
in  these  observations.  (See  page  14.)  The  most  effective 
and  ingenious  defence  was  undoubtedly  the  secretle,  or  privy 
cap  of  fence,  brought  under  the  notice  of  the  Institute  by 
Mr.  YV.  J.  Bernhard  Smith,  and  described  in  a  former  volume 
of  this  Journal.  It  is  of  steel,  so  skilfully  fashioned  and 
lunged  together  as  to  be  readily  folded  up  and  carried 
about  the  person,  and  on  any  sudden  alarm  expanded  in  a 
few  seconds  and  adjusted  by  a  little  bolt,  forming  a  perfect 
defence  against  a  cut  from  any  weapon.8  I  saw  at  Rouen 
another  of  these  skilful  productions  of  the  armourers  in  the 
XV  hh  and  XVIIth  centuries.  The  late  M.  Langlois,  also  of 
Rouen,  had  one,  and  I  have  seen  a  fourth  in  Paris. 

ALBERT  WAY. 


In  .Kline's  Glossary,  under  Nomina  "  This  concealed  defence  was  in  use  as 

Annorum,  we  find  "Galea,  lether-helm,  early  as  the  rciLcn  of  Elizabeth.     Sir  John 

cassis,  iron  helm,  corona,  cyne-helm,  apex,  Smythe,  in  liis  Discourses,    1589,  f.  46, 

lu  Inn  s  to]),  crista,  hehnes   camb,  COWU8,  says,  "The    Archers    on    horseliaeke    I 

helmes  byje."  would  liave — with  deepe  Steele  skulles  in 

f-  J.    df    Hefner,    Costume    du    Moyen  very  narrowe  brimbd  liats." 

Age  Chretien,  Division  1.,  pi.  63.  s  Archaeol.  Journal,  vol.  vii.  p.  305. 


ON  COLOURING  STATUES. 

v.    PAPEB    RFAD    AT    CAMBRIDGE,    AT    THE    MFETINV.    OF    T1IF.    A  RCH.EOLOGICAL     INSTITUTE 
IBA.T    BRITAIN    AND   CBBLAND    IN    L854. 

l:v   RICHARD  \\  T> TMACOTT,  (Jus.),  I!  A  .   ! 

I  do  not  propose  to  occupy  the  attention  of  the  section 
with  a  history  of  art,  nor  with  a  description  of  any  of  the 
processes  of  sculpture  ;  but  simply  to  discuss  what  may,  in 
some  respects,  be  termed  a  question  of  taste,  (though  other 
considerations  of  much  importance  are  involved  in  the 
inquiry,)  and  upon  which  all  who  feel  an  interest  in  art, 
and  in  seeing  sculpture  practised  upon  some  established 
principle,  may  be  expected  to  have  an  opinion.  The  subject 
seems  especially  to  call  for  careful  consideration  at  this 
time,  and  I  am  glad  of  the  opportunity  afforded  by  a  meet- 
ing like  the  present,  where  so  many  scholars,  antiquaries, 
and  artists  are  collected  together  for  the  express  purpose  of 
entertaining  such  questions,  to  bring  forward  a  subject  which 
1  venture  to  believe  will  be  thought  well  deserving  their 
attention. 

Owing  to  Borne  experiments  that  have  recently  been 
made,  it  has  been  much  canvassed  whether  or  not  statues 
should  1"'  coloured. 

That  thejudgmenl  wemay  arrive  at  will  settle  definitively 
the  practice  can  scarcely  be  expected.  There  always  will  be 
persons  who  will  exercise  their  indisputable  right  to  please 
themselves,  both  in  the  mode  of  producing  and  in  estimating 
works  in  those  imitative  arts  whose  first  appeal  is  to  be 
made  through  the  eye.  Bui  ii  is  important  in  its  relation 
to  the   public  education   in  art  thai  the  opinions  of  those 

who  have  Studied  its  history   and  theory   should,     if  possible, 

be  ascertained  respecting  any  remarkable  innovation,  or 
inroad  upon  long  established  practice.  It  is,  in  fact,  the 
•  buy  <'l  those  who  profess  arl  to  watch  over  its  character  and 
interests;  and  if  the\  have  reason  to  believe  thai  true 
principles  are  likely  to  be  losl  sighl  <>f.  or  tampered   with, 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  23 

unhesitatingly  to  enter  their  protest,  in  order  that  the  non- 
professional, and  especially  art  promoters  and  supporters, 
may  not  be  left  without  information  and  authority  to  direct 
them. 

The  study  of  the  finest  productions  in  the  highest  walks 
of  the  arts  of  design  has  led  to  the  establishment  of  certain 
fixed  principles,  or  canons,  upon  which  the  judgment  of  ages 
has  determined  that  each  art  can  alone  be  safely  practised. 
These  are  not  accidental  and  arbitrary  regulations  ;  they 
have  been  fairly  deduced  from  the  most  perfect  known 
works  ;  whose  excellence  may  likewise  be  proved  to  result 
from  the  presence  of  these  elementary  conditions.  In  the 
imitative  arts  of  painting  and  sculpture  especially,  the  pro- 
per limits  of  each  have  been  well  and  carefully  defined. 
Sufficient  room  has  been  left  for  the  exercise  of  individual 
taste  and  fancy  ;  but  any  great  or  striking  deviation  from 
these  conditions  becomes  an  infringement  of  the  conventional 
and  necessary  rules  by  which  it  has  been  determined  that 
each  art  is,  or  ought  to  be,  bound. 

The  desire  for  change  is  so  strongly  implanted  in  the 
human  mind,  that  it  is  not  easy  to  define  its  boundaries,  or  to 
say  wdiere  it  should  cease  to  claim  indulgence  and  exercise  its 
influence.  But  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  its  gratification 
must  be  subject  to  some  limitation,  and  that  there  must  be 
some  laws  of  propriety  and  good  sense  beyond  which  it 
should  not  be  attempted  to  pander  to  it.  Irregular  attempts 
to  astonish  may  obtain  for  a  time  the  admiration,  the  e3re- 
wonder  of  the  multitude,  and  especially  of  the  uneducated 
and  unrefined,  always  too  ready  to  receive  with  delight 
what  is  calculated  to  cause  excitement  to  sensibilities  that 
are  not  easily  stimulated  by  ordinary  means ;  as  in  the 
lower  class  of  drama,  the  utmost  exaggeration  of  language 
and  action  are  sure  to  have  an  immediate  and  unfailing 
effect  on  the  spectators  or  audience,  when  the  quiet  though 
truthful  representation  of  the  self-same  subject  would  in  all 
probability  appear  dull  and  commonplace.  On  the  same 
principle,  in  the  present  day,  the  painting  and  daubing  of 
the  clown's  face  till,  literally,  it  loses  all  human  character, 
constitutes  one  great  source  of  admiration  and  enjoyment 
of  that  personage's  role ;  seems  to  pass  for  wit,  and,  indeed, 
goes  far  to  make  up  the  facetious  character. 

The    expression    of    an    individual    opinion,    whether    of 


•-1  I  OS    COLOURING    STATUES. 

approval  or  dissent  in  the  matter  before  us.  will  very 
inadequately  meet  ;i  question  which  should  lie  argued  much 
more    broadly,    and   should    include    tin-    consideration   of 

whether  it  is  righl  or  wrong  in  art  to  paint  Btatues.  Asa 
matter  of  baste,  or  rather  fancy,  it  must  be  left  to  the  artist 
and  tli<'  purchaser j  but  the  inquiry  Bhould  be  made  en 
higher  principles  than  it'  it  were  only  to  test  the  value  of  ,-i 
caprice.  Tin'  proposition  to  be  discussed  is,  "  Whether  the 
practise  is  conformable  with  the  principles  upon  which  pure 
sculpture  Bhould  be  exercised  '. " 

The  grounds  upon  which  its  advocates  appear  to  found 
their  recommendation  of  this  practice  shall,  as  far  as  1  am 
competent  to  do  it,  Ik-  set  forth  fully  and  fairly.  So  far 
from  desiring  to  press  my  own  opinions  presumptuously,  my 
object  is  rather  to  elicit  argument  and  information  ;  and  it 
will  be  my  endeavour  to  conduct  the  inquiry  proposed  in  a 
libera]  spirit,  and  with  every  possible  feeling  of  respect  for, 
and  even  deference  to.  those  who  now  stand  forward  iii  sup- 
port of  what  others,  equally  conscientiously,  are  disposed 
to  consider  a  dangerous  novelty.1  A  difference  of  opinion 
upon  particular  details  of  practice  is  quite  compatible  with 
the  most  sincere  acknowledgment  of  the  ability  and  talent 

of  those    from  whom    we   may    dissent   upon    a  few  insulated 

points.  Tic  object  is  to  establish  a  truth,  not  to  achieve  a 
victory.  But  if  it  shall  he  shown  that  the  proposed  practice 
i-  not  in  accordance  with  true  principles  of  art,  it  becomes 
the  more  necessary  to  declare  ii  against  the  opinions  of  those 
whose  undoubted  ability  may  be  powerful  to  influence  the 
public  taste.  And  if.  after  all,  an  objectionable  practice 
should  obtain,  lor  ,-i  season,  after  ;i  protest  against  it  has 
been  recorded  by  those  who  have  endeavoured  fairly  to 
weigh  the  arguments  on  both  sides,  if  will  ho  seen  that  it  has 
not  been  effected  without  a  warning  voice  having  been 
raised  against  ii. 

It  i-  (air  to  assume  that  the  artiste  who  propose  t<»  intro- 
duce the  novelty  of  painting  or  colouring  statues,  &c., 
conceive   thai    auch   additions    will   improve  sculpture.      It 

1  I  ;un  bappj  hi   thii  placi   to  acknow  opposed  to  the  practice  he  would  l"  glad 

llio  valin  of  Mr  Owen  Joni  1'slittli        1 stabli  lied  in  g ral  polychromic 

ibject     Although  I  do  sculpture,  hi   "  Ipologj  "  is  written  in  a 

■                        many  oi  thai  gentleman's  Fair    ph  it, 

com  I  i  n 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  25 

would  be  absurd  and  unjust  to  accuse  them  of  recommending 
it  on  any  other  ground  ;  with  the  intention,  that  is,  of 
injuring  or  deteriorating  their  art.  When,  therefore,  they 
profess  and  show  they  are  not  satisfied  to  see  sculpture 
practised  in  its  simple  specialty — as  an  art  dealing  with 
form  only — a  sufficient  difficulty — it  may  fairly  be  taken 
for  granted  that  they  think  it  is  deficient  in  some  quality 
wanting  to  its  perfection,  and  that  they  can  supply  this 
want  by  the  aid  of  another  art.  It  is  to  be  lamented 
that  if  this  is  their  feeling  the  proposition  is  not  thus 
eandidly  stated,  and  that  the  Polychromists  do  not  explain 
more  fully  and  clearly  than  they  have  yet  done  the  object  they 
have  in  view,  and  the  advantages  they  think  will  accrue  to 
their  art  from  it ;  because  then  the  question  might  at  once 
be  argued  on  its  merits.  But  the  advocates  for  the  practice 
of  colouring  sculpture  appear  to  be  either  unwilling  or 
unable  to  enter  upon  any  art-reasons  for  its  adoption. 
Generally,  they  are  satisfied  with  saying  it  was  done  by  the 
ancient  sculptors,  and  desire  to  found  the  modern  practice 
upon  precedent.  It  scarcely  is  possible  to  conceive  that  this 
comprehends  all  in  the  way  of  reason  that  artists  of  ability 
can  give  for  desiring  such  an  innovation  on  long  accustomed 
practice.  To  advocate  colouring  sculpture  upon  no  other 
ground  than  because  ancient  sculptors  are  said  to  have  done 
it,  seems  to  be  simply  a  narrow  prejudice ;  and  before  the 
general  body  of,  perhaps  less  well  informed,  sculptors,  and  the 
public,  who  cannot  carry  their  respect  for  mere  antiquity 
quite  so  far,  can  be  expected  to  conform  to  the  recommen- 
dation, surely  the  art-reasons  for  such  innovation,  and  the 
principles  upon  which  they  found  their  new  theory,  should 
be  freely  explained.  That  sculpture  among  the  ancients, 
Greek  as  well  others,  was  sometimes  painted  or  coloured,  and 
that  it  had  other  ornamental  accessories,  cannot  be  disputed; 
the  fact  is  asserted  by  ancient  writers,  and  what  is  still  more 
important,  monuments  have  been  found  so  decorated,  which 
place  the  matter  beyond  question  and  contradiction.  This, 
then,  is  admitted:  but  this  authority,  taking  it  fully  for  what 
it  is  worth — and  some  remarks  will  be  offered  further  on 
upon  some  of  the  most  generally  received  quotations  from 
ancient  authors,  on  this  subject — no  more  proves  the  pro- 
priety or  the  desirableness  of  the  continuance,  or  rather  the 
renewal  of  the  practice  in  the  present  day,  and  in  the  actual 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES. 

condition  of  sculpture,  than  the  equally  well  authenticated 
feet  of  the  early  personages  and  characters  of  the  Greek 
drama  having  smeared  their  tares  with  winedees.  or  eon- 
cealed  them  under  hideous  masks,  proves  the  propriety  of 
suggesting  to  our  actors  and  actresses  to  do  likewise. 

Again,  admitting  the  fact,  and  even  the  value  of  the 
authority  of  antiquity  for  Polychromy,  it  Btil]  may  be 
questioned,  first,  whether  painting  or  colouring  statues  was 
originated  by  any  of  tin1  great  masters  of  sculpture  : 
secondly,  whether  the  practice  was  general  in  the  best  time 
of  sculpture  ;  and  thirdly,  whether  it  was  employed  by  the 

-  artists  in  their  ordinary  works — works,  that  is.  uol 
executed  for  a  particular  purpose  and  under  special 
conditions — a  consideration,  it  will  be  presently  seen,  of  the 
highest  importance  in  this  inquiry.  There  is  not  a  shadow 
of  doubi  that  all  these  three  questions,  bearing  on  the 
ancient  authority,  may  be  answered  in  the  negative. 

It  may  be  permitted  here  briefly  to  state  an  art-principle 
wliich  will  not  be  disputed  :  it  may  help  to  clear  the  ground 
for  some  subsequent  remarks. 

The  legitimate  province  of  sculpture  is  to  represent  by 
form  ;  whal  is  not  represented  by  form  does  not  come  under 
the  definition  of  Bculpture. 

[f  sculpture  be  painted  it  is  a  mixture  of  two  arts:  as,  if 
a  picture  1"-  relieved  or  raised  in  any  part,  it  is  also  a  mixture 
of  two  arts. 

Let  M-  imagine  thai  in  order  to  increase  the  effeel  of  some 
well-known  picture,  say  the  Transfiguration,  portions  of  it 
were  raised  and  sculptured,  so  as  to  produce,  in  fact,  the 
:'  or  projection  of  the  various  figures  and  groups. 
Would  it  nol  be  denounced  firsl  as  a  most  inefficient  device; 
and,  next,  as  an  inexcusable  departure  I  rum  an  established  law 
of  art  !  It  is  much  to  be  lamented  thai  while  no  painter  of 
reputation,  ancienl  or  modern,  has  attempted  so  toconl  rai  ene 
;hi  admitted  principle  in  bis  own  art,  professors  of  the  sister 
art  of  sculpture,  many  of  them  artists  of  unquestionable 
talent,  such  as  Bernini,  Etoubiliac,  and  others,  have  not  always 
confined  their  practice  within  Buch  wholesome  and  necessary 
restrain!  :  though,  witli  all  their  indulgence  in  the  fantastic 
and  picturesque,  the  sculptors  alluded  to  are  nol  known  to 
have  had  recourse  to  \  he  painter  s  art. 

Ilavinc   admitted    trenerallv,  the  fad    that    there   is  t lit* 


ON    COLOURING   STATl  IX  :>7 

authority  of  the  ancients  for  colouring  sculpture,  it  is  now 
proposed  to  consider  more  at  large  the  question,  whether  it 
is  desirable  to  return  to  this  practice.  The  legitimacy  of 
mixing  together  two  arts,  which  the  principles  essential  to 
each  require  should  be  kept  distinct,  has  already  been 
disputed.  The  next  inquiry  will  be,  what  are  the  objects  to 
be  obtained  by  painting  or  colouring  sculpture  1 

1.  Is  it  to  render  the  imitation  more  close  to  nature  1 

2.  Is  it  to  attract  attention  1 

3.  Is  it  to  gratify  the  sense  by  adventitious  decoration  1 

4.  Is  it  to  give  distinctness  to  the  parts  of  a  work  when 
viewed  from  a  distance. 

First,  with  respect  to  close  imitation. 
It  scarcely  can  be  necessary  to  state  in  such  a  meeting  as 
this,  that  it  is  a  radical  error  to  suppose  that  the  province  of 
the  sculptor  is  to  effect  an  exact  imitation  ;  that  is,  such  imi- 
tation as  should  produce  illusion.  We  all  know  that,  in  many 
respects,  this  is  impossible  in  sculpture.  In  others,  where  it 
is  possible,  the  facsimile  representation  of  inferior  objects, 
such  as  veils,  napkins,  the  stuffs  and  materials  of  drapery  is, 
as  all  practical  sculptors  know,  simply  the  work  of  (a  superior, 
it  may  be,  but)  a  careful  carver. 

As  I  am  addressing  a  general  and  unprofessional  audience, 

it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  state  the  principle  by  which  the 

sculptor  is  governed  in  this  respect.     It  is  stated  that  there 

are  certain  objects  in  nature  which  do  not  admit   of  being 

exactly  imitated  in  sculpture.     But  even  if  it  were  possible 

to  carry  the  imitation  of  that  which  is  the  highest  object  of 

the    artist's    study — namely,    the    human    figure — to    such 

perfection  as  to  induce  the  belief  that  it  was  real :  that  to 

any  one  entering  a  sculpture  gallery  the  figures  should  bo 

closely  resemble  nature  that,  at  first  sight,  they  should  appear 

to  be  living  men  and  women   standing  on   pedestals,   would 

not  the  achievement  cause  a  very  disagreeable  impression  ? 

Undoubtedly  it  would.     At  present  the  lover  and  admirer  of 

art  is  gratified  by  the  contemplation  of  a  fine  and  successful 

work  of  art,  as  a  work  of  art.     His  imagination  supplies  all 

tli.it    is    wanting;  and  he  does   not  ask  nor  expect  that  his 

senses  shall  be  deceived.     Nay,  the  moment  he  could  bring 

himself  to  look  at  it  as  a   positive  and    exact  imitation   of  a 

human  figure  :  the  hair,  the  eyes,  the  lips,  the  nails — every 

part  coloured  and  tinted,  like  life,  but  without  life,  he  would 


<>N    COLOURING    STATUES. 

be  more  disposed  to  shrink  from  than  admire  it,  Let  us  for 
a  moment  imagine  some  well-known  work, — the  Apollo,  the 
Laocoon  and  his  Son-,  the  Farnese  Hercules,  so  treated,  and 
judge  for  yourselves  what  would  be  your  feelings.  Even 
such  a  near  approximation  to  reality  as  is  afforded  by  wax- 
work exhibitions,9  is  anything  but  pleasing  to  the  generality 
of  people,  and  especially  persons  of  taste  in  art,  though  they 
ni.i\  be  amused  by  the  talent  and  ingenuity  shown  in  thus 
producing  resemblances.  The  dissatisfaction  felt  is  to  be 
accounted  for  on  a  perfectly  intelligible  principle.  The 
reason  for  it  is  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that  wax-work 
approaches  too  near  to  nature  to  I'-1  agreeable  as  art,  and  yet 
i-  not  near  enough,  or  true  enough  to  nature — norcanitever 
30  —to  make  us  forget  it  is  art.  Certainly  there  is  no 
reason  to  believe  thai  ancient  Greek  sculpture  ever  fell  so  low 
in  taste  as  to  have  a  school  of  close  imitators  of  the  kind 
allude  1  to  :  or  that  the  introduction  of  colour  had  any  such 
obje 

As  it  is  always  desirable  if  possible  to  refer  to  existing 
examples,  I  will  remind  you  of  many  sculptured  works 
to  be  found  in  this  country,  from  which  you  may  form 
a  judgment  of  the  effeel  of  colour  in  increasing  the  truth 
of  imitation.  1  have  already  touched  on  wax-work,  1 
now  allude  to  tho  painted  monumental  figures  still  found 
in  many  of  our  churches.  They  are  chiefly  of  the  sixteenth 
and  seventeenth  centuries,  though  the  practice  prevailed  in 
iln-  earliest  period  of  such  monuments;  for  the  further  wo 
go  back  t<>  barbarism  in  art,  or  t<>  the  infancy  of  art,  the 
more  Burely  do  we  meet  with  coloured  sculpture.  Now 
these  are,  undeniably,  legitimate  examples  <>f  polychromic 
sculpture ;  and,  of  their  kind,  good  examples:  and  what, 
is  more  t'>  the  purpose,  they  are  infinitely  Buperior  in  this 
respect  t"  ■•my  ancient  works  of  the  kind  that  have  been 
discovered.  Probably,  as  they  are  of  modern  date,  no  value 
whatever  will   In-  allowed  them  ;    but  had  any    figures  or 

fragments  resembling  them  been  dug  up  in  Greec ■  Ash 

Minor,  there  can  be  little  doubt,  judging  from  the  examples 
thai  have  been  quoted,  they  would  have  been  hailed  by  the 

•  I  have  no  intention  (■>  insult   legiti-  the  productions   of  Ant-rate  artists  the 

.     -i.  ,i!    m  with  bad  argument  would  equally  apply. 

■  hi.  in  Tin-  advocates  for  oolour  say  n  is  not 

•    thai  their  object  t"  imiutu  natun  ' 

I . . ■  ii  ii  tip  \  could  I"- 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  29 

Polychromists  as  invaluable  specimens  of  the  practice,  and 
triumphantly  adduced  as  authority  for  its  reintroduction. 
And  how  do  these  affect  us,  considered  as  works  of  art, 
independently  of  course  of  any  interest  that  belongs  to  them 
oil  other  grounds  \  Are  not  the  best  of  them  more  suggestive 
of  the  toy-shop  than  the  sculptor's  studio  f  By  far  the 
most  successful  works  of  the  kind,  (and  the  effect  they 
produce  at  first  sight  is  described,  by  those  who  have  seen 
them,  as  perfectly  startling,)  are  to  be  met  with  in  Spain 
where  statues,  as  large  as  life,  and  represented  in  action, 
are  to  be  seen  painted  with  the  utmost  care  and  finish. 
It  is  known  that  while  this  taste  prevailed,  the  sculptors 
laboured  to  acquire  the  skill  of  the  best  painters,  that  they 
might  themselves  insure  all  the  pictorial  effect  possible  to 
their  statues  ;  and  as  the  artists  of  the  time,  the  sixteenth 
century,  were  amongst  the  most  able  that  Spain  has  pro- 
duced,— as  Cano,  jMontanes,  Hernandez — these  performances 
far  surpass  anything  of  the  kind  found  in  other  countries. 
But,  while  giving  them  all  due  credit  for  the  peculiar  excel- 
lence they  exhibit,  several  accomplished  writers  on  Spanish 
art 4  have  not  hesitated  to  record  their  unqualified  condem- 
nation of  the  practice  as  opposed  to  all  true  principles  of 
sculpture.  But,  to  show  the  extent  to  which  enthusiasm, 
and  the  determination  to  support  any  favourite  theory  may 
be  carried,  the  ingenious  author  of  a  well-known  treatise  on 
Polychromy  says,  "  Si  une  figure  coloriee  avec  art  et  avee 
(/out  ne  fait  pas  bien,  cest  la  sculpture  qui  est  en  defaut  et 
in  hi  pas  la  polj/c/iromie."  This  is  certainly  taking  a  some- 
what unusual  view  of  the  position  that  sculpture  might  be 
supposed  to  hold  in  the  question. 

In  the  examples  referred  to  the  gradations  are  studiously 
marked  in  the  colours  applied  ;  complexion,  half-tints,  veins, 
the  eyes — all  are  carefully  expressed.  In  the  very  few 
instances  in  which  colour  has  been  found  on  ancient  sculpture, 
— and  I  believe  there  are  none  of  the  best  period  of  Greek 
art — there  is  no  attempt  at  gradation.  The  pigment  is  of  one 
uniform  tint,  and  appears  to  be  laid  on,  or  over,  a  thin  coating 
of  stucco,  which  covers,  and  must,  more  or  less,  clog  and 
thicken  the  surface  of  the  material  of  which  the  statue  is 
formed.     The  flesh  is  usually  expressed  by  a  dark  red,  but 

*  Sec  Ford,"  Handbook  i>t  Spain  ;''  Sir  Edward  Head  ;  Stirling,  "Spanish  Painters.'1 


SO  ON    COLOl  RING    STAT1  ES. 

sometimes,  judging  from  remains  of  colour  on  Terra  Cottas, 
it  was  white.  In  figures  on  vases  this  frequently  occurs. 
The  eyes  were  of  various  substances,  sometimes  of  glass  or 
paste,  Bometimes  metal,  sometimes  even  of  precious  stones  ; 
and  there  are  instances  of  inlaying  metal  of  a  lighter  colour, 
as  silwr.  on  bronze  lips. 

It  has  tints  been  briefly  Bhown  thai  colouring  sculpture  is  not 
desirable  on  the  ground  of  exact  imitation  ;  and  that  the 
( !ri  ek  sculptors  <>f  the  best  period  of  ilic  art,  who  are  quoted 
;i-  authorities  for  the  practice,  never  could  have  had  that 
object  in  \  icw. 

The  next  inquiryis  with  respect  t<>  attracting  attention. 
They  who  consider  that  the  whole  and  sole  object  of  art 
i-  to  please  tin'  eye,  may  very  consistently  contend  that  all 
means  that  can  be  devised  as  conducing  to  that  end  are 
legitimate.  They  would,  therefore,  add  extraneous  decoration 
or  ornament  to  sculpture  in  order  to  attract  purchasers,  by 
exhibiting  to  them  either  what  is  merely  pretty  or  showy,  or 
something  that  is  calculated  to  excite  or  gratify  certain 
feelings  of  mere  sense.  There  have  been,  and  it  is  to  be 
n  gretted,  there  are  artists  who  are  open  to  the  reproach  of 
doing  thi-  for  very  unworthy  purposes;  but  it  will  he  ad- 
mitted, to  their  honour,  that  English  sculptors  are  not  liable 

to  tin'  reflect  LOB  of  making  their  art  a  menus  of  corruption,  by 

the  studied  display  of  qualities  and  modes  of  expression  that 
can  only  ho  intended  to  minister  to  the  grosser  senses.  But, 
where  do  such  purpose  is  contemplated,  a  sculptor,  jealous  oi 
his  lame  and  of  the  honour  of  his  calling,  should  he  careful  not 
to  Bubject  himself  even  to  the  suspicion  of  practising  what 
might  be  termed  trick  or  claptrap,  as  a  means  of  inviting 
attention  to  hi-  merit-.  It  is,  in  fact,  the  mere  chapman's 
excuse;  and.  though  there  maj  be  nothing  absolutely  wrong 
in  it.  in  morals,  ii  surety  places  him  who  adopts  it  in  a  some- 
what different  position  from  the  class  of  artists  to  whom  we 
should  look  lor  the  maintenance  of  ,-i  high  character  for 
their  profession. 

The  next  subject  of  inquiry,  namely,  whether  the  object 
of  colouring  sculpture  was  to  give  distinctness  to  the  several 
parts  of  :i  composition,  will  require  a  more  extended  con- 
sideration than  has  been  given  to  the  previous  questions. 
In     budyinc   the   practice  of  sculpture  among  the  Greeks,    - 

ma    tor     oi    i  he  an    w  hum  all    I  he  modern  schools 


ON    COLOURING    STATUE*.  .'SI 

have  agreed  to  take  as  their  exemplars, — it  must  be  borne 
in  mind  that,  without  necessarily  deriving-  their  art  from 
any  other  nation  or  people,  the  mode  of  presenting  it 
would  most  probably  be  much  influenced  by  older  and 
foreign  usage,  as  the  practice  of  other  and,  compared 
with  themselves,  more  advanced  nations  became  known 
to  them.  Thus,  though  sculpture  was  first  known  and 
practised  in  Greece  later  than  in  Egypt  or  Assyria  (as 
it  was  also  totally  distinct  in  its  types),  still,  though 
original  there,  the  report  and  example  of  what  was  done 
in  other  countries  would  doubtless  be  the  cause  of  the 
introduction  and  adoption  among  the  Greeks  of  similar 
practices.  As  the  custom  of  painting  their  sculpture  pre- 
vailed  among  the  older  nations,  it  is  reasonable  to  believe 
t  lw.it  the  reports  of  travellers  might  have  occasioned  the 
introduction  of  a  similar  practice  among  the  more  recent 
settlers  in  Greece  ;  and  thus  it  may  be  considered  rather  as 
a  foreign  graft  upon  their  own  rude  and  primitive  attempts 
at  art.5  This  supposition  places  the  practice  upon  an  entirely 
different  footing  to  that  which  it  would  have  had  had  it  been 
a  peculiar  feature  in  Greek  design,  and  originated  by  the 
great  Greek  masters  ;  when  of  course  their  taste  would  have 
been  made  responsible  for  its  invention.  Once  introduced, 
usage  gave  it  a  hold  upon  the  prejudices  of  the  people 
who,  as  sculpture  at  that  early  period  of  their  history 
was  only,  or  for  the  most  part,  used  for  sacred  purposes 
or  illustration,  no  doubt  soon  closely  associated  all  these 
modes  and  particulars  of  representation  with  the  popular 
religious  feelings  ;  and  thus,  probably,  in  the  more  bar- 
barous ages  of  Greek  art  the  painting  of  the  statues  of  the 
gods  became  a  prescribed  practice.  The  intuitive  genius 
of  this  remarkable  people  soon,  however,  improved  upon  the 
rude  means  which  at  first  seemed  only  to  be  employed  to 
produce  a   pretty    and   attractive  effect  in   decoration.     In 

'   It  may  he    observed  here  that  there  considering  monuments  of  this  kind,  that 

can    lie  no  doubt  that  painting  with  these  sculpture    had    a    much    more    profound 

nations  was  in  a  great  measure  hieratic  meaning,  and  was  fulfilling  a  much  more 

and  symbolical      In  figures  of  mythologi-  important    mission    in    past  ages  than   it 

cal  personages,  in  kin^s  and  heroes,  each  has  or  perhaps  ever  can  have  with  modern 

colour  so  applied,  (and  all  are  painted  nations.     We  must  always  hear  in  mind, 

from   head   to  foot,)  conveyed  a  distinct  that  it  was  not  alwavs    produced  merely 

meaning,    probably    recognised    by    the  to   gratify  a  taste  lor  art,  or  to  furnish 

multitude,   but    certainly   understood  by  galleries  with  pleasing  objects  of  exhibi- 

the  priests,  as  having  a  peculiar  applica-  tion  and  display, 
tion.      We    do  not  sufficiently  reflect   in 


32  ON    COLOURING    STATUS. 

their  Polychromic  architecture  they  appear  fully  to  have 
equalled  their  earlier  exemplars  in  the  richness  of  em- 
blazonment] while  they  surpassed  them  in  the  delicacy  of  the 
forms  of  their  ornament,  in  the  appropriateness  of  application, 
the  balance  of  quantities,  and  the  judgment  displayed  in  the 
several  combinations  and  juxtaposition  of  colours  :  and  thus, 
by  their  refined  taste,  they  raised  to  the  dignity  of  fine  art 
that  which  among  a  Less-delicately  organised  people  would 
be,  and  doubtless  was,  mere  gorgeous  and,  comparatively, 
barbarous  enrichment.  It  was  the  same  in  Polychromic 
sculpture;  and  in  studying  its  existence  among  the  Greeks 
at  the  time  of  their  best  Bculptors,  it  will  be  necessary,  in 
older  to  judge  fairly,  to  inquire  how  much  of  it  was  prc- 
Bcriptive,  and  of  necessity,  and  how  far  the  great  masters 
of  the  art  can  be  considered  responsible  as  original  or  inde- 
pendent authority  for  Btatue-painting. 

The  period  when  it  is  agreed,  by  all  historians  of  art,  that 
sculpture  attained  its  highest  perfection,  ranges  between 
480  B.C.,  and  about  200  B.C.  From  the  time,  that  is,  when 
Myron  and  Phidias  lived,  and  when  the  latter  superin- 
tended the  more  important  public  works  undertaken  by 
order  of  Pericles,  till  the  extinction  of  the  immediate  scholars 

of  Lysippus,  lil'ty  or  sixty  years  after  the  death  of  Alexander 
the  Great 

Although  an  approach  to  a  line  style  of  art  is  traceable 
in  the  schools  immediately  preceding  the  age  of  Phidias, 
yet  there  can  be  no  doubt  that,  previous  to  the  time  of 
that  great  master,  sculpture  was  still  of  a  hard  and  exag- 
gerated character.  The  sculptures  from  the  temple  of  the 
Panhellenian  Jupiter  at  Bgina,  among  other  valuable 
examples,  indicate  both    these    facts.     Phidias,  and    those 

under  him.  effected  an  importanl   revolution  in  art.       lie  hail 

t he  genius, and  bis  favour  with  Pericles  ga\ e  him  the  power. 
io  break  through  much  thai  was  prescriptive  and  traditional 
in  sculpture;  and,  freeing  it  from  these  trammels,  he  pro- 
duced wh.-ii  far  surpassed  all  thai  bad  gone  before  it — as 
indeed  il  never  baa  been  equalled  Bince — in  the  statues 
and  rilievi  which  decorated  the  Parthenon  al  Athens.  Still, 
the   reformation    was    partial.     Imitation  was  indeed  now 

founded     on     the    close    Studv    of    selected    forms    in    nature, 

I   111   whai   is  Known  as  the  grand  Btyle  in  an  ;  but 
there  us  no  doubl   the  improvement   or  the  change  did  not 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  .'33 

extend  to  some  important  details  of  execution.  Those 
liberties  and  innovations  which  Phidias  suggested  and 
effected  in  the  general  treatment  of  historical  and  poetical 
subjects,  would  not  be  permitted  in  the  same  degree  in 
the  representation  of  sacred  personages.  He  would  here 
find  himself  restricted  by  usage,  from  which  it  was 
neither  safe  nor  lawful  to  depart  ;  and  it  is  recorded 
that  the  mere  introduction  of  two  portraits,  said  to  be 
of  Pericles  and  of  himself,  in  the  accessorial  rilievi  that 
decorated  the  statue  of  Minerva,  subjected  the  sculptor 
to  an  accusation  of  sacrilege.  In  statues  of  the  gods, 
then,  we  must  not  always  expect  to  find  the  free,  untram- 
melled production  of  the  artist ;  but  even  where  great 
improvements  may  be  traced  in  some  important  points, 
be  prepared  to  see  some  characteristics  preserved  of  the 
original  types.  Nor  was  the  artist  bound  by  custom 
alone.  The  priesthood,  always  alarmed  at  any  change 
indicative  of  the  exercise  of  individual  and  independent 
thought,  required  a  strict  adherence  to  established  forms. 
Any  very  sweeping  innovation  in  the  mode  of  representing 
the  gods  might  have  shaken  the  faith  of  the  common 
people  in  the  religion  itself,  and  then,  of  course,  as  a 
necessary  consequence,  in  its  teachers  and  ministers.  In 
this  respect,  then,  there  was  policy  in  insisting  upon  his 
adhering  to  certain  received  dogmas  in  art.  In  obedience 
therefore  to  the  universal  feeling,  Phidias  made  the  statues 
of  Jupiter  at  Elis,  and  of  Minerva  at  Athens,  of  various 
materials.  These  works,  we  must  bear  in  mind,  were  the 
offerings  of  a  grateful  people  for  most  important  victories 
achieved  over  a  powerful  enemy  who  had  threatened  their 
very  existence  as  a  nation.  They  were  to  be  made  out  of 
the  spoil  taken  from  the  vanquished  foe.  The  Minerva 
especially  was  voted  to  crown  the  triumph  over  the  Persian 
hosts,  after  the  failure  of  the  expedition  into  Greece  under 
Xerxes.  The  old  and  accustomed  means,  namely,  the 
employment  of  rich  and  varied  materials,  were,  of  course, 
adopted  equally  on  this  occasion.  Ivory  and  gold,  painting 
and  inlaying,  and  every  conceivable  enrichment,  were 
lavishly  bestowed  in  order  to  make  these  votive  statues  the 
most  costly  of  dedicated  gifts.  But  chryselephantine  and 
polychrome  sculpture  were  not  first  known  or  invented  at 
this  time,  nor  was  Phidias  the  first  sculptor,  by  many,  who 

VOL.    XII.  F 


:  i  OB    COLOURING    BTAT1  BS. 

practised  it.  Fortunately  for  art  the  greatest  Bculptor  who 
ever  lived  illustrated  Greece  at  this  period  ;  and  thus  it  was 
that  the  richest  works  in  Bculpture,  in  material,  were  also, 
by  a  happy  accident,  the  most  perfect  productions  of  art  ; 
but  Burely  do  one  would  attempt  to  argue  that  they  were 
the  most  perfect  works  of  sculpture  because  they  were  com- 

I  of  gold,  ivory,  or  any  other  particular  material,  or 

ise  they  were  painted  and  enriched. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  describe  these  works  in  detail,  but 
it  is  difficult  for  the  imagination  to  conceive  anything  more 
splendid  and  gorgeous  than  the  effect  of  their  varied  enrich- 
ments, viewed  in  combination  with  fine  architecture,  the 
detail-  tit'  which  wriv  also  richly  coloured,  and  glistening 
under  the  bright  sun  and  cloudless  Bky  of  (-recce.  The 
most  poetical  fancy  would  probably  tail  in  attempting  to 
picture  to  itself  the  real  brilliancy  of  the  scene,  taken  as  a 
whole.  But,  as  critics,  let  us  not  lose  sight  of  the  important 
fact   that   we  are  judging  the  works  alluded  to  only  in  a 

■  combination  as  objects  of  spectacle  and  display.  Does 
it  follow  that,  considered  individually,  as  works  of  .sculpture, 
the  variety  of  materials  and  the  flutter  of  colour  would  not 
be  injurious  to  them,  as  these atl  racted  admiration,  instead  of 

eing  drawn  to  those  finer  and  simpler  qualities  which 
should  specifically  claim  attention  in  this  art.  The  fact  is, 
the  sculpture  bo  applied  lost  it-  distinctive  or  Bpecial 
character.  It  was  a  portion  of  an  architectural  effect. 
Colouring,  we  know,  was  extensively  employed  in  archi- 
tectural dec, .ration,  and  when  the  BCulptor  was  called  upon 
to  act  in  combination  with  the  architect,  his  work,  no  doubt, 

subject  to  the  Bame  laws  of  treatment  as  other  parts  of 
the  composition.  He  placed  his  groups  in  the  pediment  with 
its  enriched  coloured  mouldings,  against  a  background,  Bome- 
times  painted  blue  perhaps  to  imitate  the  Bky,  but  quite  as 
likely  merely  to  give  increased  distinctness  and  relief  to  his 
figures.  He  further  increased  their  effect,  as  portions  of  a 
general  design,  with  gilding  and  oiler  accessories,  and  no 
doubt,  also,  sometimes  with  colour.    But  in  all  this,  his  object 

to  make  his  sculptui e  jubsen e  to  the  \\ hole  effect.  In 
Bhort,  ii  became  necessary  to  adapt  the  sculptures,  in  colour 
and  in  finery,  jo  to  speak,  to  the  objects  around  them  ;  so 
that  in  fact,  as  we  are  now  considering  it,  instead  of  a  prin- 
cipal n  became  ;i  subordinate  and  onlj  ministerial  accessory. 


OX    COLOURING   STATUES.  35 

The  necessity  for  giving  this  distinctness  to  the  several 
parts  of  a  work  which  was  to  be  viewed  from  a  distance, 
would  perhaps  be  considered  a  justifiable  ground  for  colouring 
sculpture.  Many  objects  would  probably  be  so  placed  that, 
in  their  unassisted  simplicity  of  uniform  colour,  they  could 
not  be  judged  of  in  themselves,  nor  would  they  under  some 
possible  conditions,  be  sufficiently  separated  or  detached 
from  the  architecture  to  be  seen  at  all.  The  treatment 
of  the  frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  one  of  the  finest  examples  of 
the  class  of  art  existing,  illustrates  this  speculation  ;  while 
the  peculiar  technical  treatment  of  these  bassi-rilievi  shows 
how  deeply  the  ancient  artists  studied  the  various  require- 
ments arising  out  of  such  circumstances  in  the  preparation 
of  their  works.  I  need  not  now  speak  of  the  peculiar  flat 
execution  of  the  sculpture,  but  will  observe  that  the  darker 
and  decided  colour  of  the  background — for  it  appears  on 
examination  that  even  now  there  are  remains  of  blue  colour 
discernible — may  be  accounted  for,  independently  of  its 
architectonic  condition,  as  a  means  of  giving  distinctness 
and  relief  to  the  horsemen  and  other  figures  in  the  pro- 
cession. The  reason  for  such  adventitious  aid  to  their 
effect  will  be  found  in  the  position  this  frieze  occupied 
in  the  decoration  of  the  temple,  and  in  consequence,  the 
peculiar  quality  and  limited  quantity  of  light  it  could 
receive.6 

Now,  so  far  as  we  have  proceeded,  the  only  two  intelligible 
grounds  for  the  introduction  of  colour  in  sculpture  among 
the  Greeks  seem  to  be,  first,  to  assist  in  giving  completeness 
to  architectural  effect,  and  secondly,  to  insure  distinctness  to 
the  parts  of  the  sculpture  itself.     No  one  will  argue  that 

6  Among   our  obligations  to  the  com-  the  bad  effect  it  produces  is  quite  enough 

mittee    of  artists  who    have  so    carefully  to  insure   its   unqualified    condemnation. 

arranged  the  various  courts  at  the  Crystal  The  experiment  here   made  of  the  light 

Palace  at  Sydenham,  must  be  noted,  espe-  blue  background  only,  with  the  rilievi  left 

ciallv,  the  opportunity  they  have  afforded  white   upon  them,  is   sufficiently  unsatis- 

tlie  public  of  judging  of  the  effect  of  the  em-  factory;  but  the  grey,  white,  black  and 

ploy  men  t  of  colour  in  sculpture  and  archi-  brown    horses,   and  their   fltsh-coloured 

tecture  respectively.  Upon  its  applicability  riders,  with  their  gilded  heads  of  hair,  all 

to  the  latter  art  it  is  not  necessary  here  to  so    admirable    and    so   perfect    in  their 

offer  any  remark.     Polychromy  in   archi-  simple  art,  are  here  degraded  into  tawdry 

tecture  has  received  full   attention,  and  toys.     It    is    remarkable,   also,   that  the 

has  been  most   ably  discussed  by  many  figures   appear   now    to    have    lost    their 

eminent    writers.      Where   painting    has  symmetry,  and  the  composition  its  unity, 

been  applied   to  insulated  sculpture  (for  while  all  the  finer  qualities  of  detail  in 

the    frieze  of  the    Parthenon  must  be  so  which   they  iu   fact  abound,  are  entirely 

considered  as  it  is  here  presented  to  us),  suppressed,  or  lost  sight  of. 
it  surely  is  not  asserting  too  much  to  Bay 


36  OH    COLOURING    8TATUBS. 

in  either  case  the  object  of  the  artist  was  to  give  to  sculpture 
Bomething  it  required,  or  was  in  want  of,  for  its  perfection. 

It  remains  uow  to  make  a  few  remarks  on  the  ancient 
authorities  for  colouring  (Greek)  sculpture.  In  the  first 
place,  the  presumption  is  wry  strong  that  the  assumed 
fad  that  the  finest  Greek  sculpture  was  ever  systematically 
coloured,  rests  on  very  questionable  foundation.  It  is 
rather  taken  for  granted  from  certain  vague  expressions  of 
comparatively  late  writers,  than  proved  from  contemporary 
authority,  or  from  any  experience  we  have  of  the  feet  as  a 
matter  of  universal  custom.  Pliny  and  Pausanias,  and  a  few 
other  writers,  living  long  after  the  date  of  the  sculptors  whose 
works  they  refer  to,  mention  works  so  treated  ;  and  modern 
critics,  few,  or  none  of  them  practical  artists,  have  founded 
various  speculations  upon  these  imperfect  data.  It  certainly 
is  remarkable,  it'  the  practice  <w  er  prevailed  to  the  extent  that 
is  pretended,  that  among  the  very  large  number  of  marble 
statues  of  a  fine  period  of  art  that  remain  to  us  to  attest  the 
indisputable  superiority  of  the  ancients  in  sculpture  (proper), 
there  is  not  a  single  example  of  the  practice  alluded  to.  It 
will  Qot  do  in  Bay  this  is  owing  to  the  great  age  of  the  works, 
and  tlic  accidents  to  which  they  have  been  exposed,  lor  many 
of  th. mii  have  been  found  under  circumstances  that  have 
insured  their  integrity  a  sufficient  time  to  show  the  original 
surface.  Besides,  there  was  a  period  when  the  works  of  the 
ancients  were  studied  and  imitated  in  Rome  with  the  most 
Bcrupulous  exactness.  The  chambers  of  the  Baths  of  Titus, 
and  ofthe  Villa  "l  Hadrian,  have  given  their  long-concealed 
and  well-preserved  treasures  "l  an  to  the  Light,  after  pre- 
servation lioni  injury  for  centuries  \  and  while  the  colours 
of  paintings  <>n  walls  have  been  found  as  bright  and  fresh  as 
when  they  won'  executed,  none  of  these  even  comparatively 
late  storks  in  sculpture  have  been  found  painted,  or  showing 

any    indication     of    Colour,    in     the     way     tin-    admirers    ol 

polychromy  have  pretended.     There  is  no  intention  here  to 
deny  the  mere  fact  that  colour  was  sometimes  employed,  but 
only  to  dispute  the  mm ersalitj  <>l  t he  practice,  and  its  being 
usual  in  the  best  period  "I  sculpt ure. 
The  poetical  and   fanciful   imaginings  »»('  certain  writers 

no  .h, ni, i  been  accepted  by  some  modern  c mentators 

on  an  as  th.-  statement  of  facts,  ami  this  has  probably  led  to 


ON    COLOURING   STATUES.  37 

considerable  misapprehension  ;  and  as  artists  have  not  always 
the  time  or  opportunity  to  inquire  or  examine  for  themselves 
into  the  value  or  correctness  of  the  statements  made  to  them, 
they  are  often  unfairly  influenced  to  adopt,  as  usages  of  the 
ancients,  practices  which,  if  they  ever  obtained  at  all, 
were  partial  and  exceptional,  A  few  examples  of  accounts 
of  statues,  improved  or  embellished  by  the  authors  who 
describe  them,  will  illustrate  the  character  of  some  of  these 
so-called  authorities,  and  a  very  little  reflection  will  show 
how  little  such  descriptions  can  be  relied  on. 

A  sculptor  named  Aristonidas  is  recorded  as  the  author 
of  a  bronze  statue  which  represented  Athamas  sitting, 
overcome  with  remorse,  after  the  murder  of  his  son.  In 
order  to  express  with  greater  truth  the  effect  of  confusion 
and  shame,  the  artist  mixed  iron  with  the  bronze.;  and 
this,  "by  its  redness  shining  through  the  brightness  of 
the  bronze,"  caused  an  appearance  on  the  surface  like  a 
blush."  Now  iron  is  not  red,  to  begin  with  ;  and  then  the 
redness  is  described  as  shining  through  the  "  nitorem  "  of  the 
bronze,  as  though  bronze  were  a  transparent  material. 

Again,  another  ancient  authority  is  quoted  as  recording 
that  Silanio  (an  artist  who  lived  about  320  B.C.)  made  a 
statue  representing  Jocasta  dying,  and  that  by  a  peculiar 
mixture  of  the  metals  used  in  the  composition  of  this  work, 
a  cast  of  paleness  was  given  to  the  countenance.8 

It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  say  that  these  accounts  are 
utterly  undeserving  of  credit — so  far  as  they  assert  that  those 
expressive  tints  were  produced  by  any  possible  mixture  of 
metals  ;  for  the  term  used  is  "  miscuit"  "  mixed  together." 
Any  one  who  has  the  slightest  acquaintance  with  metallurgy 
must  know  that  the  effects  thus  described  are  incom- 
patible with  the  fusion  of  the  different  metals  used  for  bronze 
statues  :  and  even  supposing,  for  the  sake  of  argument,  the 
possibility  of  keeping  the  metals  distinct  in  a  common 
melting,  how  then  would  it  be  possible  to  insure  the  blush  or 
the  pallor  coming  in  the  right  place  %  It  would  not  be  easy 
to  determine  the  precise  colour  that  such  materials  should 
assume  when  they  are  intended  to  represent  such  refinements 

'  "  Aristonidas  artifex  cum  exprimere  s  Els  rb  irpoadntov  apyvpov  ri  av/xfii^ai  rbv 

vellet    Atliamantis    furorem    Learcho  tilio  rtx^TV,    o*vs    iK\nr6vTos    avdpwnov    /cot 

residentem    poenitentia,     ces,    femtmque      p.apaifo/x4vov  \d0r]  ireptcpdvetaii  6  x^kJs. 

',    ut    rubigine    ejus    per    nitorem  Pll't.,  Sjmp.  v. 
teris  reluccnte   exprimeretur   verecutidiui 
rubor." — Pun.  N.  H.  xxxiv. 


OH    COLOURING    BTATUBS. 

as  the  complexion  of  persons  under  the  influence  of  strong 
emotions,  but  we  have  yet  to  learn  thai  the  addition  of 
red  cheeks  or  a  pallid  countenance  would  be  an  improve- 
ment to  a  bronze  Btatue.  It  is  probable  that  such  works, 
as  they  arc  here  described,  never  bad  any  existence 
but  in  the  imagination  of  the  writer.  The  fact  of  cue  of 
these  authors  mentioning  the  peculiarity  of  the  work 
alluded  i"  as  .'in  "on  dit"  rather  strengthens  this  opinion; 
for  Plutarch  does  not,  as  is  generally  assumed,  describe  a 
work  be  had  Been,  or  that  even  existed  in  his  time.  As  its 
reported  author  lived  between  three  and  four  hundred  years 
before  the  birth  of  Christ,  and  Plutarch  not  till  nearly  one 
hundred  and  fifty  after  that  event,  thus  comprising  an  interi  al 
of  between  five  and  six  centuries,  <  onsiderable  allowance  must 
be  made  for  those  who  presume  to  entertain  doubts.  "They 
Bay,"  or  "  it  is  said/'  cannot,  in  a  practical  matter  like  this, 
where  there  is  no  adequate  contemporary  testimony,  nor  any 
remaining  monuments.  I"'  received  as  Buflficient  evidence  or 
authority.  In  the  other  instance  alluded  to,  of  the  statue  of 
Athamas,  Pliny  Bays  "hoc  signum  extat  TJiebis  hodierno die" 
but  he  does  noi  Bay  he  had  seen  it. 

Callistratus  describes,  among  several  similar  examples,  a 
Cupid,  the  work  of  the  celebrated  Praxiteles.  In  enlarging 
(.n  its  claims  to  admiration,  he  Bays  there  was  on  his  cheeks 
a  vivid  blush. 

In  marble  statues  the  colourmight  be  put  on;  but  this 
must  have  been  very  coarsely,  and  almost  in  patches. 
Pausanias  mentions  various  works  of  the  kind  painted  with 
vermilion.  Anion--  others  he  speaks  of  a  Btatue  of  Bacchus 
thai  was  made  of  gypsum,  and  painted  another  of  gold,  or 
•jilt,  with  the  face  painted  red.9  Some  fragments  of  statues 
were  exhumed  al  Athens  in  the  year  L835-6,  on  winch 
colour  was  found,  laid  on  in  thick  coats.  Among  them 
a  female  figure,  of  which  the  face,  the  eyes,  and  the 
(\  1 1,  nr,\  s  were  painted. 

I  will  venture  to  add  one  more  illustration  from  M.  Qua!  re 
mere  de  Quincy's  celebrated  work,  in  proof  of  the  inadequacy 
of ; 1 1 1 ■     i.'  authority,  or  thai  which  is  quoted  as  such,  to  esta- 
blish airj  fixed  doctrine  upon  this  contested  subject.     There 
tui  of  a  Bacchante,  attributed  to  Scopas,  who  held, 

'  I  have  not  though!  it  ncci  ary  to  Quatrem&re  'I'  Quincy,  "Surli  Jupiter 
multiply    in  '.t    the       Olympic/!,"  whoha   collected  all,  or  nearly 

kind.     Thowo  who  would  examine  farther      nil,   the   notta      t"  tx    round  in  tnciont 

._     Ol     M  v'.i  \U  i     iij. ..ii  tins  mi  i. .ii       ubjj  ''I. 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  •  39 

instead  of  a  thyrsus,  an  animal  (a  kid)  with  its  entrails 
exposed  ;  the  marble  represented  the  livid  flesh,  and  one 
sole  material  offered  the  imitation  of  life  and  death,  &c.  : 
"  Erat  autem  Hind  capellce  simulacrum  lividi  coloris.  Etenim 
mxurn  cadaveris  quoque  induerat  speciem,  namque  et  eamdem 
materiam  in  mortis  et  vitce  imitationem  diviserat."  1  The  com- 
mentator on  this  passage  supposes  here,  says  M.  Quatremere 
de  Quincy,  that  Scopas  had  availed  himself  of  a  vein  of 
marble  which  he  found  resembled  the  colour  of  the  dead 
animal  :  "  Nempe  in  marmor  incidisse  artificem  aliqud  parte 
lividum'y  quam  partem  ille  caute  in  effingendum  capeUce  mortuas 
imaginem  verteret."  M.  Quatremere  de  Quincy  at  once  pro- 
tests again  this  far-fetched  explanation.  He  perceived  in  a 
moment  its  absurdity,  or,  at  least,  improbability,  and  enters 
into  particulars  to  show  that  such  an  account  of  the  wonders 
displayed  in  this  work  was  quite  inadmissible.  He  truly 
says,  "  Cette  hypoih&se  pourrait  Men  n'etrequ'unemeprise" — 
and  then  goes  on  to  say,  "  II  est  plus  simple  d!imaginer  " — 
something  else — and  gives  his  own  quite  as  fanciful  specu- 
lation as  to  how  the  performance  was  accomplished. 

Now  the  above  are  some  of  the  leading  authorities  upon 
which  stress  has  been  laid  for  the  fact  of  the  ancients  having 
habitually  coloured  their  sculpture.  Can  it  be  seriously 
proposed  to  establish  a  general  practice  upon  such  doubtful 
expressions  and  insulated  examples  as  these,  and  then  to 
call  it  the  authority  of  the  ancients  \  As  reasonable  would 
it  be  to  take  the  authority  of  antiquity  literally,  and  to 
affirm  that  living  busts  could  be  produced  out  of  blocks  of 
stone,  or  that  bronze  may  be  made  to  breathe,  because  we 
find  in  ancient  writers  such  expressions  as  "vivos — e  marmore 
vultus,"  or  "  spirantia — cera?  or  believe  that  pictures  and 
statues  lived,  because  it  is  said — 

"  Et  cum  Panhasii  tabulis,  signisque  Myronis, 
Pheidiacum  vivebat  ebur — " 

with  endless  other  instances  of  the  kind.2 

But  admitting,  for  the  sake  of  discussion,  the  argument  of 
authority.     If  the  great   sculptors  of  antiquity  bowed,   on 

1  Tb  5«  fy  x'juai'pay  tl  7rAa<r/ua  irfXiSybv  interesting.     But   where,   in    addition  to 

tV    xp^av>    Ka^    7°P   T^  Te0f7)K&s  6  Aldos  the  practical  difficulty  referred  to,  there 

virtZvtro,    koX    fuav    oixrav    t))v    v\rjv    els  is   no  concurrent  testimony  of  the  tune. 

6a.va.Tou    Kal    forijs    Sifjpei  ri]v    fiifx-rjo-ti/. — .  and  not   a  single  ancient  fragmen#of  a 

Cai.listr.  in  Bacch.  Stat.  statue,   such  as  he  describes,  to  support 

-  The  descriptions  of  statues  by  Callis-  his     marvellous     accounts     of    blushing 

tratus   are    certainly    very    curious  and  bronze  cheeks  and  glowing  countenances, 


40  -  OH    COLOURING    STATUES. 

occasion,  to  public  opinion  in  colouring  and  otherwise  orna- 
menting Btatues  of  divinities,  and  others  that  were  so  far  of 
a  prescriptive  character,  or  contributed  with  their  art  to  the 
enrichment  of  architectural  effects,  there  is  still  reason  to 
believe  that  in  their  ordinary  works  they  did  not  habitually 
use  Buch  extraneous  accessories.  The  very  manner  of 
alluding  to  such  works  s  that  they  were  exceptional; 

and  there  is  even  authority,  quite  as  respectable  as  that  for 
colouring,  for  the  admiration  fell  by  the  ancients  for  Btatues 
in  pure  white  marble. 

It  has  been  attempted  to  be  proved  that  the  "  circumlitio," 
referred  to  by  Pliny/  has  reference  to  this  practice  of 
colouring  Btatues.  It  cannot,  however,  by  any  ingenuity  be 
mad.'  to  mean  such  painting  or  tinting  with  different  colours 
as  painter-sculptors  are  advocating.  The  great  probability 
is  that  it  refers  to  a  most  careful  perfection  of  surface  ; 
both  by  giving  a  certain  degree  of  finish  or  even  polish  to 
the  marble,  and  probably  by  rubbing  in  a  preparation — a 
vaj*nish— -capable  of  imparting  a  rich  roundness  or  appear- 
ance of  i'atu  to  call  it,  (the  " morbidezza "  of  the 
Italians)  to  the  execution  ;  and  enveloping  the  whole  with  a 
warm  yellowish  tone  of  colour,  anticipating  by  these  artificial 
means,  the  mellowing  effect  of  age.  Bui  such  a  genera] 
tone  cannol  be  considered  in  the  category  of  colour,  as  it  is 
now  proposed  to  use  it.  It  has  been  imagined. by  some 
writers  thai  the  varnish  described  by  Vitruvius  was  intended 
to  be  applied  over  paintings  and  other  works  in  order  to 
erve  them.fi 

To  recapitulate  in  a  few  words.  So  farfrom  denying  thai 
the  ancient  statues  w<  re  sometimes  coloured  or  painted,  the 
authorities  for  the  practice  have  been  fairly  produced  and 
considered  in  this  discussion.  The  mode  of  effecting  the 
colouring  has  been  shown,  also  on  ancienl  authority.      With 

■ 

d  to  ii-  application  to  productions  in  bronze,  the  mar- 
vellous effects  of  which  have  bei  □  as  eloquently  described,  ii 

Indulgence  must  be  granted  for  the  inert  '  Plin     V   H.   lib,    i  <,  and 

■  lulity  'A   those   who  eannol   give  entire  Lucian.  Dial.  Am 

i  do  '  "  Dieebat  Praxiteb  \,  interrogatua  quae 

in  i'i  deny    thai  I  were  maxima  opera  sua  probarel   in  marmori- 

i  •    in  whom  the)  are  boa,  i|nii>us    Niciaa  manum  admo 

I  .|  thai  the  tantum   drcumlitioni   ejus   tribuebat." 

I  ww.ii. 

ind    ill'     almost    imperceptible  an  opinion  ol    M    Latronne. 

■   have      See  Hittorf,  "Sur  la  Polyehromii  "Ac, 
!  ipplii  •!  by  I  sal       p.  110. 


OX    COLOURING    STATUES.  41 

has  been  shown  that  the  authority  for  it  is  of  very  question- 
able value,  and  that  the  statements,  if  there  be  any  truth  at 
all  in  them,  must  be  exaggerations.  In  colouring  other  works 
we  now  know  how  it  was  done.  The  description  of  ancient 
writers  has  been  confirmed  by  modern  discoveries,  especially 
by  the  fragments  that  were  found,  as  has  been  stated,  a  few 
years  ago  at  Athens,  painted  thus  coarsely,  without  variety 
or  gradation  of  tint.  Doubtless,  when  colour  was  employed, 
this  was  the  ancient  practice. 

Since  this  paper  was  read,  it  has  been  objected  in  reply 
to  the*  arguments  adduced,  that  the  advocates  for  painting 
sculpture  do  not  intend  to  adopt  or  imitate  this  wholesale 
and  crude  colouring,  nor  do  they  intend  to  imitate  nature. 
It  is  said  it  is  not  proposed,  now,  to  cover  statues  thus 
coarsely  and  entirely,  but  only  to  introduce,  here  and  there, 
delicate  tints,  mere  indications  of  colour  in  some  parts  ;  as 
the  cheeks,  the  hair,  the  eyes  (the  colour  of  the  eyes  being 
different  from  the  colour  of  the  cheeks — and  yet  the  imitation 
of  nature  not  intended !).  But  surely  this  is  proposing  to 
do  under  the  professed  protection  of  the  authority  of  the 
ancients,  what  the  ancients  did  not  do.  I  think  the  advocates 
for  colouring  sculpture  will  in  candour  agree  with  me,  that, 
whatever  opinions  may  be  entertained  as  to  the  desirable- 
ness of  the  practice,  there  is  not  the  most  remote  hint  in 
any  reliable  written  authority,  nor  in  any  recovered  frag- 
ment or  work  of  art,  to  indicate  that  this  delicate  and 
partial  tinting  was  the  ancient  practice,  or  was  ever  resorted 
to,  even  exceptionally,  by  any  of  the  great  masters  of  the 
art — as  Myron,  Phidias,  Praxiteles,  Alcamenes,  Lysippus. 

And  had  it  been  employed,  what  would  have  become  of 
all  this  tinting  after  the  lapse  of  ages  %  Yet  do  we  feel  or 
fancy  that  the  existing  works  of  the  best  Greek  schools, 
however  we  may  deplore  the  mutilations  consequent  upon 
age  and  accident,  seem  to  require  such  accessories  1  Do  we 
feel  that  the  Theseus  and  Ilyssus,  the  Venus  of  Melos,  the 
Apollo  of  the  Belvedere,  and  others,  show  a  deficiency  that 
colour  could  supply  \  Or  in  modern  works,  do  we  feel  any 
regret  that  the  Moses  of  Michel-Angelo,  the  bronze  Mercury 
of  Giovanni  di  Bologna,  the  Christ  of  Thorwaldsen,  the 
Hercules  and  Lycas,  or  the  fine  statues  of  the  Popes,  by 
Canova,  or  the  Michael  and  Satan  of  our  own  Flaxman,  are 
without   this    embellishment ;    or    believe    they    would    be 

VOI,.    XII.  i; 


42  OM    COLOUBING    STATUES, 

improved  by  receiving  it  '.'  The  modern  sculpture-Poly- 
chromista  would  then  introduce  an  entirely  novel  practice — 
Be  it  so.  They  may  take  their  stand  as  inventors  if  they 
will  :  and  upon  this  ground  may  endeavour  to  gain  converts 
to  a  ii'\\  Bystem ;  but  it  is  scarcely  fair  to  profess  they 
are,  in  this,  following  in  the  steps  of  the  masters  of  Greek 
sculpture. 

I  have  been  obliged  by  the  character  of  the  arguments 
]>m  forward  by  the  advocates  for  painting  Btatues,  namely, 
the  value  of  ancient  authority,  to  make  that,  and  I  fear  it 
has  been  done  with  much  repetition,  the  chief  object  of  my 
attention.  1  have  presumed  to  question  its  force  and  its 
universal  application  to  sculpture  (proper),  though  fully 
admitting  the  fact  of  polychroinic  ornamentation.  But  if 
supporters  should  think  their  favourite  ancient  authority 
more  distinct  and  decided  than  has  been  here  allowed,  and 
that  the  practice  of  colouring  statues  was  universal  and 
habitual  among  the  Greeks  twenty  centuries  ago, — for  re- 
member the  period  of  the  greatest  Greek  sculptors  was 
between  five  and  three  hundred  years  before  Christ, — is  it. 
after  all.  a  sufficient  reason  for  our  doing  it — as  mere  copy- 

[f  imitations  of  ancient  statues  and  ancient  idea 
far  as  they  can  be  conceived  independently  of  all  ancient 
nation  or  sympathies,  are  required,  then,  where  it  is 
desired,  let  all  these  presumed  appliances  be  added  ;  but 
Burely  it  would  be  mere  pedantry  to  insist  upon  them  in  the 
application  of  sculpture  to  the  requirements  of  a  people,  of 
whatever  civilised  nation,  who  differ  altogether  in  their 
religion,  poetry  (thai  is,  in  its  machinery),  feelings,  and 
habits  from  the  ancient  Greeks;  and  this  only  because 
the  ancient  Greeks  are  believed  to  have  employed  them. 
Wnat  hope  can  there  be  of  ever  succeeding  in  making  art 
the  expression  of  real  sentiment  and  living  thought,  if  we 
are  systematically  to  ignore  our  own  age  and  its  wants,  and 
only  to  pat  it  forward  mechanically  in  short  as  the  academic 
expression  of  factitious  Greek  sentiment— in  such  classic 
guise  afi  museums  and  galleries  of  ancient  Bculpture  Buggest  ! 

rved,  incidentally,  thai  degree  of  complacency  the  soaping  and 

oj     marble    statues  oiling   it    must    undergo  in   order  to  iti 

Inbilion  to  the  mnltipU  being  moulded.     Thus  private   collectors, 

eulptor  galli  ri(  liool    of  d<   ign,  » ould 

who  Im'l  devoted   and  study  to  1 1 < . -  nil    be    deprived   of  the    advants 

■  •i      colouring    ol    III  pl<  uun      of  fac    res    of 

iculptun    could    contemplate    «iili    anj  possibly  very  fine  productioni  in  sculpture. 


ON    COLOURING   STATU Ks.  43 

The  argument  that  this  new  process  might  be  found 
pleasing  has  not  been  openly  put  forth  :  the  professed  ground 
of  its  proposed  introduction  being  always  ancient  authority  ; 
and  we  are,  therefore,  scarcely  called  upon  to  discuss  that 
secondary  question.  But  it  may  be  as  well  to  be  prepared 
for  that  plea.  The  first  enquiry  in  that  case  should  be,  who 
is  to  be  pleased  %  Pleasing  a  particular  age  or  party  is  no 
proof  of  the  taste  being  correct.  The  history  of  art  affords, 
or  should  afford,  sufficient  warning  that  fanciful  innovations 
and  caprices  of  practice  not  founded  on  principle,  although, 
at  first,  they  may  have  had  admirers  and  patrons,  have 
always  failed  to  secure  a  permanent  footing  ;  and  this  even 
when,  as  has  often  been  the  case,  their  promoters  have  been 
artists  of  high  reputation.  What,  for  example,  could  be 
more  pleasing,  in  the  popular  acceptation,  than  the  produc- 
tions and  style  of  Giovanni  di  Bologna,  of  Bernini,  and  of 
rtoubiliac  1  These  were  all  men  of  unquestionable  genius, 
and  great  power  in  art,  who,  in  their  own  time,  were  loaded 
with  honours,  and  reaped  the  substantial  reward  of  universal 
popularity,  and  left  crowds  of  imitators  behind  them.  It  is 
not  overrating  them  to  assert  that  the  best  productions  of 
these  sculptors  will  bear  comparison  in  invention,  originality, 
knowledge  of  form,  and  execution,  with  anything  the  more 
modern  schools  have  to  show.  And  now,  with  all  their 
indisputable  merit,  for  no  one  can  deny  them  this  character, 
how  are  their  works  looked  upon,  and  in  what  manner  are 
they  referred  to  ri  As  warnings  to  students  not  to  indulge 
in  fancies  that  are  opposed  to  the  principles  of  pure  art. 
We  have  not  now  to  learn  that  contemporary  favour  or 
popularity  is  no  security  for  future  fame  ;  and  it  is  remark- 
able how  surely,  sooner  or  later,  false  taste  meets  its  fate.' 

I  hope  I  may  be  pardoned  for  offering,  in  conclusion,  some 
few  observations  upon  a  collateral  subject,  which  has  forced 
itself  on  my  attention  during  the  inquiry  into  the  mere  art- 
question  it  has  been  my  object  to  illustrate.  I  believe  it  to 
be  far  from  unimportant ;  and  I  do  not  doubt  that  if  my 
apprehensions  are  well  founded,  the  higher  class  of  Polychro- 
mist  sculptors,  and  its  advocates  among  amateurs,  will  agree 

"  A  strange  reason  is  reported  to  have  daction  of  painted  or  tinted  sculpture  : 
been  given  by  some  advocates  for  lJoly-  namely,  that  we  are  not  accustomed  to  it 
chromy  for  the  objections  that  have  ..  in  England.  In  what  country,  it  may  be 
been  felt  here  against  the  proposed  intro-       asked,  are  they  accustomed  to  it ! 


1  I  OH    COLOUKING    BTATUBS. 

with  me  in  deprecating  the  evils  which  seem  to  threaten  art 
by  the  introduction  of  what  is  at  present  an  almost  untried 
experiment. 

There  is  no  surer  indication  of  the  decadence  of  good  taste 
in  art,  and  therefore  of  art  itself,  than  when,  alter  a  con- 
siderable degree  of  excellence  has  been  attained,  a  .passion 
-  for  elaborate  execution  and  ornament.  What  in  one 
age  is  only  the  effect  of  ignorance,  in  another  indicates 
corruption.  The  history  el' art,  ancient  and  modern — for  its 
rapid  decline,  even  in  Greece,  ia  very  remarkable — supplies 
us  with  ample  evidence  of  this,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to 
enlarge  upon  it,  or  to  detain  you  while  proofs  are  advanced 
in  support  of  an  indisputable  fact.  Barbarous  and  uncul- 
tivated nations  in  their  earlier  attempts  at  art  adopt  all  the 
means  that  occur  to  coarse  sensibilities  to  give  ell'ect  to 
works  of  imitation.  The  employment  of  colours  in  sculpture 
is  amongst  them.  In  the  same  way,  in  a  more  advanced 
condition  of  society,  when  in  any  exercise  of  ingenuity  or 
art  (and  it  applies  also  to  poetry  and  literature)  a  high  degree 
of  excellence  has  been  attained,  a  desire  of  change  arises  ; 
some  fresh  interest  is  anxiously  looked  for,  and  the  fancy 
requires  gratification  in  novel  excitement.  Nor  is  it,  in  art, 
confined  to  those  meretricious  accessories  which  have  been 
chiefly  considered  in  the  foregoing  remarks  :  meretricious 
subjects  may  also  be  looked  for  as  the  natural  consequence 
Or    development    of    a    taste    for   luxurious    decoration.       It 

Bhould  be  remembered,  that  in  the  period  of  what  has  been 
termed  the  sublime  style  of  sculpture  —that  of  Phidias,  who 
was  distinguished  as  the  sculptor  of  the  Gods,  and  the  beauty 
of  whose  works  was  said  to  bave  added  something  even  to 
the  dignity  of  religion, — 

.  .  .  A.deo  majestas  opens  Deum  tBduayit, 

it  is  believed  the  female  form  was  never  represented  without 
appropriate  drapery.  It  seems  to  be  established  that  it  was 
after  bis  era  thai  this  fresh  stimulus  of  the  senses  was  intro- 
duced ;  and  the  undraped  female  figure  has  been  exhibited 
from  thai  time  amongsl  the  commonest  subjects  of  imita- 
tion. \\  ••  Bhould  not  read  the  lessons  of  bistory  in  vain. 
Sculptors  should  strive  not  to  allow  their  art  to  degenerate 
into  a  |"'  ible  means  of  corruption.  They  must  know  bow 
lew    who  contemplate  undraped  statues,  can   bave  the 


ON    COLOURING    STATUES.  45 

necessary  knowledge  to  form  anything  like  an  accurate  judg- 
ment upon  their  merit,  their  truth,  and  the  higher  technical 
qualities  of  the  art,  and  consequently,  that  such  works  can 
usually  only  address  the  sense,  and  not  the  understanding. 
They,  as   guardians  of,  and  caterers   to,   the  public  taste, 
should  avoid  and  protest  against   any   innovations    which, 
by  possibility,  may  have  a  tendency  to  deprave  that  taste,  or 
to  lower  the  high  standard  of  art.     The  class  of  subjects 
likely  to  be  preferred  for  the  more  favourable  exercise  of  this 
character  of  embellishment,  will  soon    show    the  direction 
from  which  danger  may  be  apprehended.     The  attention  of 
sculptors  will  not  be  given  to  heroic  representation,  or  to 
subjects  that  are  calculated  to  suggest  ennobling  thoughts, 
but  rather  to  those  of  an  opposite  tendency,  the  sensual  class. 
Assuming  that  the  ancient  classical  mythology  will,  as  usual, 
be  the  field  of  illustration,  sculptors  will  scarcely  choose  the 
manly  and  developed  forms  of  a  Hercules,  a  Theseus,  or  an 
Achilles,  for  his  delicate  tinting  or  colouring,  but  will  naturally 
prefer   the  soft    and   voluptuous    female   form,   as   Venus, 
Nymphs,  Bacchantes,  Dancing-girls ;  or  the  famous  courtesans 
of  antiquity,  the  Glyceras,  the  Phrynes,  and  Laises  of  the 
olden  time,  with  no  stinted  exhibition   of  their   imagined 
charms  :  or  if  male  subjects,  those  of  the  class  of  Cupids,  or 
young  Bacchuses.     Such  as  these  lend  themselves  especially 
to  the  attractive  accompaniments  proposed  to  be  introduced 
— the  delicate  tinting  of  flesh —  but  which  would  appear  out 
of  place,  nay,  probably,  even  very  offensive  in  representations 
of  more  virile  character.     It  is  surely  not  too  much  to  say 
that  a  male  statue,  such  for  instance  as  the  Farnese  Hercules, 
the  Barberini  Faun,  or  even  the  Belvedere  Apollo,  if  pre- 
sented to  public   exhibition   in   flesh   tints,  with  the  hair 
painted,  and  the  eyes  coloured,  however  delicately  and  care- 
fully this  might  be  done,  would  not  for  a  moment  be  tolerated. 
Would  any  father  of  a  family  willingly  take  his  wife  and 
daughters  into  a  gallery  so  peopled  ?     The  feeling  of  pre- 
judice which   some    persons   entertain    with   respect  to  all 
exhibitions  of  classical  sculpture,  and  which  it  is  impossible 
,  to  blame  where  nude  displays  are  made  apparently  only  for 
the  sake  of  exhibiting  the  naked  human  figure,  would  have 
ten-fold    force    under    such    circumstances.       This     really 
comprehends   the    whole    question,    and    it    is    difficult    to 
conceive  how  the  modern  Polychromist  can  escape  from  the 
dilemma. 


•10  OB    COLOURING    BTATUES. 

Far  be  it  from  me  to  suppose  for  a  moment  that  artists 
of  merit  and  acknowledged  reputation  have  had  the  most 
remote  idea  of  exercising  their  art  to  an  immoral  purpose, 
or  of  exciting  an  interest  in  sculpture,  by  merely  ap- 
pealing to  the  lower  senses.  But  though  such  a  notion 
mav  never  have  crossed  their  own  minds  while  engaged  in 
the  fascinating  production  of  beautiful  works,  it  may  be 
permitted  to  point  out  how  others,  not  so  circumstanced, 
may  possibly  1"'  affected  ;  (specially  too,  when, obviously,  the 
subjects  are  oot  chosen  for  any  instructive  purpose  or  elevating 
object.  It  may  be  true  that  while  fancy-sculpture — in  dis- 
tinction to  portrait-sculpture — is  so  often  exercised  with  no 
higher  aim  and  purpose  than  to  please  the  eye,  or  obtain 
patronage,  the  study  and  exposition  of  the  merely  beautiful 
in  form,  may  possibly  appear  an  all-sufficient  aim  and  object 
to  the  artist  ;  and  then,  of  course,  it  would  matter  very  little  to 
him  where  he  sought  for  his  subjects,  and  what  names  he  gave 
his  statins.  I  cannot  hut  think  that  art  has  a  higher  mission 
than  this — merely  multiplying  forms  of  beauty — and  even 
admitting,  in  sculpture  especially,  that  beautiful  form  should 
be  its  exponent  or  language,  and,  as  we  must  do.  that  we 
can  nowhere  find  more  admirable  examples  of  the  true 
principles  of  art,  or  of  models  of  form,  than  are  left  us  in 
tli«'  works  of  the  Greeks,  still,  the  illustration  over  and  over 
again  of  obsolete  fables  and  their  actors,  however  well  done, 
however  successfully  imitated  from  the  antique,  is  calculated 
rather  to  retard  the  useful  progress  of  the  art,  than  to  lead 
to  the  true  development  of  sculpture  in  its  highest  and  most 
worthy  purpose;  such  a  purpose, in  fact,  as  we  know  it  was 
the  intention  of  the  great  sculptors  of  antiquity  to  attain,  by 
the  application  of  their  art  to  the  noblest  subjects  of  their 
religion  aid  their  heroic  national  history. 

r.s. —  I  regret  extremely  thai  I  am  unable  to  append  to  this  paper  the  re 
mark  -  it  gave  rise  to  on  various  kindred  points  of  art,  From  Bome  of  the  eminent 
person!  who  were  presenl  at  1 1 1 « -  reading.  But  my  acknowledgments  are 
especially  doe  to  tin-  Dean  of  St.  Paul's  (Dr.  Milman),  to  Mr.  Hawkins  of 
ii.  Briti  li  M'i  '11111,  to  Mr.  0.  Morgan,  M.l'.,  ami  to  Mr.  GL  Scharf,  for 
their  highly  interesting  observations  on  ancient  sculpture,  and  for  the 
additional  light  tiny  threw  on  the  particular  subject  discussed  in  the  paper  ;. 
ami  I   ■  opportunity  to  beg  these  gentlemen  to  acoept  my  ainoere 

rateful  thanks  lor  their  valuable  assistance. 

K.  W.,  .Ir. 


ON  THE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OF  EAEL  GODWINE.* 
§  5.    BANISHMENT  AND  RETURN  OF  GODWINE. 

We  have  now  arrived  at  the  turning-point  in  the  history 
of  Godwine  and  his  family,  to  the  event  which  for  a 
moment  displaced  them  from  their  power,  only  to  return  to 
a  more  sure  possession  of  it.  We  all  know  how  Eadward, 
the  son  of  a  Norman  mother,  and  brought  up  at  the  Norman 
court,  had  well-nigh  eschewed  the  feelings  of  an  Englishman, 
how  his  court  was  filled  with  hungry  foreigners,  whom  he 
quartered  in  the  highest  dignities  of  church  and  state. 
Against  this  state  of  things,  Godwine  and  his  sons  stand 
forth  as  the  representatives  of  the  national  feeling,  and 
hence,  as  Malmesbury  tells  us,  the  difference  of  statement  in 
the  Chronicles,  according  as  their  authors  were  of  Norman 
or  of  English  descent.  The  one  party  of  course  represent  the 
Normans  as  intruders,  stirring  up  faction  in  the  realm  and 
usurping  dignities  to  the  exclusion  of  the  natives  ;  while  the 
great  Earl  of  the  West-Saxons  appears  as  the  champion  of 
justice  and  liberty  against  the  encroachments  of  the 
foreigner.  The  Normans  of  course,  as  we  have  seen, 
recognise  in  him  and  his  sons  nothing  but  abusers  of  the 
King's  simplicity  to  promote  their  own  aggrandisement. 
That  Godwine  was  the  real  champion  of  English  liberty 
and  nationality  is  clear  from  every  statement :  that  he  and 
his  sons  had  no  objection  to  combine  their  own  advancement 
with  the  good  of  their  country,  is  only  saying  that  they  were 
but  men. 
.    There  are  several   various  statements   as  to  the   details 

of  the  event  which  first  brought  the  Earl  and  the 
JSiofTwo  feeble  King  into  collision  ;  but  there  is  no  doubt 
cii'^'uk-k11  the  as  to  its  being  entirely  owing  to  the  insolence  and 

violence  of  the  foreigners.  Eadward's  sister,  Goda, 
had  been  given  in  succession  to  two  French  husbands,  Drogo, 

*  Continued  from  vol.  xi.  p.  330. 


48  "X    T11K    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EARL    GODWINE. 

Count  of  Mantes,  ami  Eustace.  Count  of  Boulogne  ;  the  son 
of  the  former  had  been  provided  by  his  uncle  with  a  com- 
fortable  Earldom  in  England  ;  ami  now  Count  Eustace, 
shortly  after  his  marriage  with  the  widowed  princess,  comes 
over  also  :  Malmesbury  says  lie  Joes  not  know  for  what 
cause,  hut  that  whatever  it  was  lie  wanted,  he  gained  it  of 
the  King.  That  one  of  his  party  attempted  to  obtain 
Lodgings  in  a  lunise  at  Dover  against  the  will  of  the  owner; 
that  the  householder,  resisting  his  entrance,  was  either 
wounded  !  or  killed  by  the  Frenchman  ;  that  the  foreigner  was 
killed  in  self-defence  by  the  English  ;  that  Eustace  and  his 
party  then  attacked  ,the  English  indiscriminately,  and  after 
murdering  men,  women,  and  children,  were  driven  out  of  the 
t«>wn. — thus  much  is  admitted  on  all  hands.  But  the  two 
versions  of  the  Chronicle  differ  in  an  important  respect ;  one 
represents  this  ebullition  of  French  insolence  as  having  taken 
place  immediately  on  the  landing  of  Eustace,  the  other  on 
his  return  from  the  court  ofEadward.  The  conduct  of  Eustace 
and  his  party  was  in  itself  equally  had  in  either  case  ;  but  it 
may  be  observed  that,  if  it  happened  immediately  on  their 
landing,  it  might  have  appeared  as  something  more  than  a 
violation  of  the  King's  peace  ;  it  might  have  presented  the 
appearance  of  an  actual  hostile  invasion,  no  less  than  the 
proceedings  at  Pevensey  and  Senlac  fifteen  years  later. 
The  two  versions  also  differ  as  to  what  immediately  followed. 
It  must  be  remembered  that  Dover  was  a  town  within 
Godwine's  own  Earldom,  and  that  it  was  consequently  his 
business  to  protect  the  innocent  parties  and  to  punish  the 
aggressors.  According  to  one  version,  ESadward,  Listening;  to 
Eustace's  statement  of  the  matter,  without  hearing  the  other 
side,  commands  Godwine  to  proceed  at  once  to  Dover,  and 
inflict  a  military  chastisement  on  the  town  which  had  so 
grievously  failed  in  respect  to  the  King's  brother-in-law. 
Godwine  refuses  to  perform  any  Buch  office;  the  men  of 
hover  are  under  his  government,  and  none  of  his  people 
Bhall,  with  his  consent,  sutler  execution  untried:  let  the  magis- 
trates of  ih"  place  be  summoned  before  the   Wit  an,"  and 

1  Wounded,  according  to  oni  for  ion  of  whose  "Curia  Regis  "I  suppose  does  mean 
.■hi.  I-,  followed  by  Malmesbury,  the  Witan.  The  Chronicle  merely  says  thai 
i  rding  t'>  the  oth<  r  w  t  Ion,  the  Earl  would  nol  consent  i<>  the  inroad, 
i   i <_-.    i  lorence  and  most  ol   the      beoan  <  he  was  l"ili  i"  injure   bis  own 

people, 

i  ! .  l  i  r  \ . 


ON  THE  LIPB  AND  DEATH  OF  EARL  GODWINS.      49 

abide  by  their  judgment.  The  Witan  are  summoned  to 
meet  at  Gloucester ;  Godwine,  Swegen,  and  Harold,  with 
their  followers,  assemble  at  Beverstone  in  that  county,  ready 
to  go  to  the  assembly,  "  to  have  the  counsel  of  the  King, 
and  his  aid,  and  of  all  these  Witan,  how  they  might  avenge 
the  King's  disgrace,  and  the  whole  nation's."  In  the 
meanwhile  certain  foreigners  possess  the  King's  ear,  and 
prejudice  him  still  more  against  Godwine  and  his  party  :  the 
northern  Earls,  Leofric  and  Siward,  join  in  the  cabal. 
Godwine's  party,  "  on  the  other  hand,  arrayed  themselves 
resolutely,  though  it  were  loathful  to  them  that  they  should 
turn  against  their  royal  lord."  No  hostilities  take  place,  it 
being  agreed  that  the  matter  should  be  judged  in  another 
Gemot  to  be  holden  in  London.  This  is  the  first  version  in 
the  Chronicle,  followed  in  its  most  important  particulars  by 
Malmesbury.  The  other  story  sa}'s  nothing  about  Eadward's 
commands  to  Godwine,  but  states  that  immediately  on  hearing 
what  had  been  done  in  a  town  within  his  jurisdiction,  he 
and  his  sons  gathered  together  an  army,  threatening  to  make 
war  on  the  King,  unless  Eustace  and  certain  other  French- 
men were  given  up  to  them.  Eadward,  who  was  at  Gloucester, 
does  not  seem  to  summon  a  Witenagemot,  but  sends 
for  Siward,  Leofric,  and  lladulf,  with  their  military  forces. 
No  battle  however  ensues,  but  hostages  are  mutually 
given,  and  the  matter  referred  to  a  Gemot  at  Southwark. 
This  was  owing  to  the  moderate  counsel  of  Earl  Leofric, 
who  objected  to  fight  with  his  countrymen,  though  the 
army  was  ready  to  do  so.  This  account  is  followed  by 
Florence. 

It  is  not  easy  to  reconcile  these  two  narratives  ;  it  is  not 
easy  to  account  for  their  differences.  It  is  plain  that  the  first 
is  the  one  most  favourable  to  Godwine,  and  that  a  sort  of 
apologetic  tone  in  his  behalf  runs  through  this  whole  version  of 
the  Chronicle.  Yet  this  is  the  version  followed  by  Malmesbury, 
whose  prejudices  are  certainly  on  the  Norman  side,  while  our 
English  Florence  adheres  to  the  latter.  Of  modern  historians 
Dr.  Lappenberg  chiefly  follows  Malmesbury,  Mr.  Turner 
adheres  to  Florence.  Thierry  and  Dr.Lingard  draw  particulars 
from  both.  Before  we  consider  how  far  this  may  be  safely 
done,  it  will  be  as  well  to  examine  a  difficult  passage  which 
occurs  in  each,  and  which  I  purposely  passed  over  in  a 
summary  way  in  abridging  the  two  narratives. 

Vol..    XII.  II 


50  o\   THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH   OF    EARL   GODWINE. 

In  the  first  story  I  said  that  while  Godwine  was  at  Bever- 
stone,  ■'  certain  foreigners  possessed  the  King's 
ear."  The  Chronicle  says — "Then  had  the 
1  Wallace  menn  '  wrought  a  castle  in  Herefordshire 
among  Earl  Swegen's  following,  and  wrought  all 
the  harm  and  besmear  (disgrace)  to  the  King's  men 
thereabout  that  they  might."  Then,  while  Godwine  is  at 
Beverstone,  "the  \\" .-  *  - 1  i  ---  -<  ■  menn  were  beforehand  with  the 
King,  and  accused  the  Earls,  that  they  might  not  come  in 
his  eyesight,  for  they  Baid  that  they  would  come  for  the 
Bang's  deceit."  Now  who  are  these  "  Waslisce  menn  '."  The 
translation  of  the  Chronicle  has  "  Welshmen;"  Malmesbury 
calls  thorn  -•  Walenses/5  but  tells  the  story  rather  differently, 
Baying  that  Godwine  came  to  Beverstone  with  an  army,  and 
i  out  as  the  reason  for  his  assembling  it,  "ut  "Walenses 
compescerent,  qui,  tyrannidem  in  Ue^eni  meditantea, 
oppidum  in  pago  Herefordensi  obfirmaverant,  ubi  tune 
SwanuSj  unus  ex  t \  1  i i >->  Godwini,  militia'  prsetendebat  excubias." 
This  last  clause  is  not  easy  i"  understand,  and  sounds  like  a 
misinterpretation  of  the  words  of  the  Chronicle,  which  I  take 
to  mean  Bimply  that  the  castle  was  built  within  the  limits  of 
Swegen's  Earldom.  1  Buspect  also  that  the  worthy  monk 
of  Malmesbury  wandered  slightly  in  his  ethnology,  and 
mistook  for  Welshmen  people  who  were  nearer  akin  to  his 
own  French  friends.  Certainly  the  proceedings  attributed 
to  these  •'  Waelisce  menn/'  their  castle-building  and  their 
familiarity  with  King  Eadward,  are  something  not  a  little 
extraordinary  mi  the  part  of  genuine  Cymry,  subjects  of 
either  Gruffydd.  Dr.  Lingard  interprets  "  W»Hsce  "  hereto 
mean  Bimplv  in  its  original  Bense,  "foreigners,"  Le.,  in  this 
case,  Frenchmen,  and  Dr.  Lappenberg  silently  takes  thesame 
view.  I  do  not  however  understand  the  former  writer, 
wlidi  he  says  that  "three  armies  from  the  three  Earldoms 
of  Godwin,  Sweyn,  and  Harold,  directed  their  march 
<  I  Langtree  in  Gloucestershire,  to  punish,  as  was 
pretended,  tin-  depredations  committed  en  the  lands  of 
Harold  by  tin-  French  garrison  of  a  castle  in  Herefordshire." 
Now  the  version  which  mentions  the  castle  in  Hereford, says 
oothing  about    armies   at    Langtree,    but    of   a    gathering 

i     mi   i!ii     primitive      wore    Wal$h   and  ■trangera."     Common 
Smith,     "To       wealth  ol   England, cap.  18 

■   fr rhi  in   «  1 1 1 •  - 1 1 


ON  THE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OP  EARL  GODWIN E.      51 

originally  designed  to  be  peaceful,  at  Beverstone ;  the  pretext 
of  punishment  is  from  Malmesbury,  while  I  do  not  know 
the  authority  for  saying  the  incursions  were  made  on  the 
lands  of  Harold,  whose  Earldom  was  on  the  other  side  of 
England. 

The  other  difficulty  is  in  the  other  account :  Godwine's 
demand  in  the  Chronicle  is  for  the  surrender  of 
Eustace  and  his  men,  "  and  the  Frenchmen  who  French  in 
were  in  the  castle."  This,  in  Florence  and  Dover  Castle- 
Hoveden,  appears  as  "  insuper  et  Normannos  et 
Bononienses,  qui  castellum  in  DoroverniaB  clivo  tenuerunt." 
But  Dr.  Lappenberg  interprets  it  to  mean  "  all  the  French- 
men who  were  in  the  castle  in  Herefordshire  ;  "  adding, 
"  either  Florence  must  have  had  before  him  a  defective  and 
unintelligible  MS.,  or  Eadward  must  already  have  entrusted 
the  Castle  of  Dover  to  the  French  ;  a  supposition  which 
would  account  for  the  insolence  of  Eustace,  but  which  is 
highly  improbable."  How  "  the  castle "  can  mean  "  the 
castle  in  Herefordshire,"  I  am  wholly  at  a  loss  to  understand, 
as  in  the  version  of  the  Chronicle  which  contains  this 
passage,  there  is  nothing  at  all  about  the  Herefordshire 
castle.  There  is  indeed  no  castle  mentioned  at  all,  and  the 
allusion  is  far  from  clear,  but  I  think  that  the  authority  of 
Florence  is  quite  sufficient  to  make  us  interpret  the  "  castle  " 
of  Dover  Castle.  Dr.  Lingard  infers  from  the  passage,  that 
while  Eustace  hastened  to  the  King  to  complain  of  the 
insult,  many  of  his  followers  obtained  possession  of,  or 
admission  into,  the  "  Castle  on  the  Cliff."  This  seems  a 
very  probable  explanation. 

Now  which  version  are  we  to  believe  1     It  is  of  course  our 
business  to  reconcile  both  as  far  as  possible,  but 
if  this  attempt  fails,  I  think  our  credence  is  most     Harmony  of 
due  to  the  second  version  of  the  Chronicle,  that  theversions- 
followed  by  Florence.     The  other  is  evidently  the 
work  of  a  partisan  ef  Godwine's,  striving  to  put  his  conduct 
in   the  most  favourable   light,   while  this  one,   though  not 
manifesting  any  animus  against  him,  makes  no  such  studious 
apologies.     From  one  expression,  "  the  people  were  ordered 
out    over    all    this    north-end    and    Siward's   Earldom    and 
Leofric's  and  elsewhere,"  it  is  clear  that  the  account  was 
composed  out  of  Godwine's  jurisdiction.     I  accept,  however, 
the  statement  of  the  former,  that  the  fray  took  place  on 


QM    Till:    LIFE    AND    DBATfl    OF    EARL    GODWINS. 

Eustace's  return,  because  that  narrative  enters  into  some 
small  details  of  his  journey,  which  there  could  .be  no 
motive  for  inventing.  1  also  accept  its  statement  that 
chastisemenl  was  ordered  by  the  King,  and  that  Godwine 
refused  to  ohey.  Bui  1  must  confess  that  1  doubt  whether 
Godwine  went  into  Gloucestershire  with  quite  such  peaceable 
intentions  as  the  first  version  represents  him.  He  would  pro- 
bably go  prepared  for  either  result,  with  a  body  of  followers 
sufficient  to  overawe  the  King  and  his  foreign  favourites, 
and  ready  to  appeal  to  arms  if  necessary.  This  first  version 
represents  them  as  going  peaceably  to  a  Witenagemot,  and 
implies  that  resistance  only  came  into  their  heads  as  an 
afterthought.4  1  think  no  formal  Gemot  was  summoned  at 
Gloucester,  for  if  so,  why  could  not  the  matter  have  been 
judged  then  and  there  instead  of  being  adjourned  to  another 
assembly  at  Southwark  '.  Dr.  Lingard  seems  also  to  reject  this 
first  Witenagemot  at  Gloucester.  I  therefore  adopt  the  second 
version,  only  correcting  it  from  the  first  by  the  statement 
that  it  was  on  Eustace's  return  that  the  affray  happened  ; 
and  taking  in  the  fact  that  Godwine  refused  obedience  to 
Ivi  Iward's  commands  to  chastise  the  people  of  Dover.  His 
appeal  for  a  juster  treatment  of  his  people  having  been 
once  rejected,  it  would  be  repeated  at  the  head  of  the  choicest 
men  of  the  three  Earldoms,  coupled  with  threats  of  an 
appeal  to  force  if  justice  were  any  longer  denied.  Any 
wrongs  committed  by  foreigners  in  Herefordshire,  or  else- 
where, would  of  course  excite  Godwine  and  his  party  still 
more.  Etadulf  and  his  Frenchmen  would  be  naturally 
anxious  for  battle;  Siward  and  his  Danes  might  likely 
enough  have  some  grudge  against  Godwine  and  hisWest 
■  ns;  Leofric  of  Mercia  naturally  steps  iii  as  mediator 
between    the   extreme   parties,   and   counsels  a    peaceable 

settlement    in    the    Witenagei ,      This   seems   far   more 

probable  than  the  adjournment  from  one  Gemot  at  Gloucester 
to  another  at  Southwark,  while  the  gathering  together  of  so 
many  great  earls  and  thanes  would  almost  present  the 
appearance  of  a  formal  assembjy  of  the  Witan,  so  thai  it 
mi.'lii  be  loosely  spoken  of  as  if  it  had  really  been  one. 
To  the  Gemot  .'it  Southwark  all  England  seems  to  bave 

4  Mr.   Kemble   in  Incidentally    telling       not    enter    fcl    large  into    the    question 

tl  a i       Itui   in   Ihh  list  di   Qe i     (ii    260)   he 

thou  -ii  lie  doc  i      c< tfl  the  ( •  louccster  onei 


ON   THE   LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF   EARL    GODW1NE.  53 

come,  ready  for  discussion  either  with  words  or  with  blows 
as  occasion  might  serve.  The  conclusion  every  one  knows, 
namely,  the  banishment  of  Godwine  and  his  sons  ;  Swegen 
was  first  outlawed,  doubtless,  professedly  at  least,  for  his  old 
offence  ;  Godwine,  Harold,  and  the  rest,5  refusing  to  appear 
unless  hostages  were  given  for  their  safety,  were  banished, 
being  allowed  five  days  to  take  them  out  of  the  realm.  God- 
wine, with  Gytha,  Swegen,  Tostig  and  Judith,  and  Gyrth, 
went  to  Flanders — "  Baldwines  land,"  as  the  chroniclers  call 
it — to  the  court  of  Tostig's  father-in-law  ;  Harold  and  Leof- 
wine,  for  some  unexplained  cause,  chose  Ireland6  for  their  re- 
fuge. No  mention  is  made  of  the  younger  children  ;  possibly 
they  were  not  born.  An  act  of  treachery  on  the  part  of 
Eadward,  or  those  who  acted  in  his  name,  may  be  accepted 
without  hesitation,  as  recorded  by  the  chronicler  less 
favourable  to  Godwine.  Harold  and  Leofwine  went  to 
Bristol  to  take  ship  ;  Bishop  Ealdred  was  sent  with  a  force 
to  overtake  them,  "but  they  could  not,  or  they  would  not." 
The  foreigners  now  have  it  all  their  own  way  ;  even  Queen 
Eadgyth  is  banished  to  a  monastery,  divers  bishoprics  and 
dignities  are  conferred  on  Frenchmen  ;  Harold's  earldom, 
however,  falls  to  the  lot  of  iElfgar,  the  son  of  Leofric. ' 

In  the  various  narratives  of  Godwine's  return,  there  is 
no  important  difference.  But  we  cannot  help 
observing  the  wide  difference  of  feeling  displayed  Return  of 
by  the  people  in  different  parts  of  the  kingdom.  Godwine- 
Harold  lands  at  Porlock  as  an  enemy  ;  all 
Somerset  and  Devon  meet  to  oppose  him  in  arms,  and 
several  men  of  rank  are  killed  in  open  combat  ;  whereas,  as 
Godwine  and  his  other  sons  sail  along  the  coasts  of  Wight, 
of  Sussex,  and  of  Kent,  the  inhabitants  everywhere  flock  to 
their  standard,  vowing  to  live  and  die  with  them.  It  is  a 
glorious  tale  to  read  how  England  stood  ready  to  receive  her 
champions  ;  how  no  influence  could  induce  a  single  man  to 
lift  a  weapon  against  the  national  chiefs  ;  how  the  foreign 
intruders,  counts,  bishops,  and  all,  fled  wildly  to  escape  in 
any  quarter  from  the  vengeance  of  the  nation  which  they 
had  insulted.     The  Somersetshire  story  is  the   only  dark 

5  "  Tliey  very  properly  declined  under  Conquest,  Harold's  sons  take  refuge  in 
Buch  circumstances  to  appear."  (Kemble,  Ireland,  ami  tln-nce  return  to  Sow  erst  t- 
Saxons  in  England,  ii,  231.)  shire,  just  as  their  father  did. 

6  It   should    be   noticed   that  after   the 


•"'1  OX    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EARL    GODWINS, 

Bhade  on  the  picture.  My  own  notion  is,  as  I  have  before 
hinted,  that  the  government  of  Swegen,  as  might  be  expected 
from  his  character,  had  been  Less  popular  than  that  of 
Godwine  and  Harold,  and  that  some  old  grudge  may 
probably  have  led  to  the  collision.  But  in  any  ease  the 
difference  of  feeling  in  the  two  districts  needs  explanation, 
and  it  may  possibly  be  a  Btain  upon  Harold's  character,  if 
he,  for  once  in  his  life,  resorted  to  unnecessary  violence.  In 
either  new,  it  is  uot  fair  in  Thierry  to  omit  all  mention  of 
Harold's  Somersetshire  affray  ;  while,  on  the  ether  hand,  it  is 
equally  unfair  in  M.  de  Bonnechose  to  represent  Godwine 
and  Harold  as  plundering  in  Sussex  and  Kent,  on  the  mere 
testimony  of  such  a  writer  as  Wendover,  in  opposition  to  the 
earlier  authorities.  That  there  was  some  standing  feud 
between  the  men  of  Somerset  and  the  house  of  Godwine  we 
may  infer  from  the  fact  that,  when  Harold's  sons,  after  the 
Conquest,  landed  in  that  county,  they  were  resisted,  just  as 
their  father  had  been,  by  the  people  of  the  district  headed 
by  an  English  commander. 

Tint-  was  achieved  the  great  triumph  of  the  national 
party.  In  the  words  of  the  Chronicle,  "they  outlawed  all 
the  Frenchmen,  who  before  had  upreared  unjust  law,  and 
judged  unjusl  judgments,  and  counselled  ill  counsel  in  this 

land,  except  so  many  as  they  agreed  upon,  \\h the  King 

liked  to  have  with  him,  who  were  true  to  him  and  to  all  his 

people."     This  was  a  great  error,  which  Godwine,  in  some 

accounts,  i-  stated  to  have  opposed  in  vain  ;  when  the  hour  of 

trial  came,  when  Godwine  and  Llarold  and  Stigand  were  no 

longer  at  hand  to  maintain  the  cause  of  England,  these  foreign 

priests  and  knights  became  chief  agents  in  carrying  out  her 

subjugation.     For  the  present,  England  was  England  once 

again  ;  Godwine  the  Earl,  and  Stigand  the  Archbishop,  stood 

forth  as  the  chiefs  of  the  national  State  and  the  national 

Church;    Harold    returned   to   his  old    Earldom;   Eadgyth 

to    lea-    strange  and   melancholy    royalty  ;     one   alone   of 

thai   greal   house  appeared   uol  to  share  the  general   j<»v. 

■  n,  touched   with   penitence  for  his  crimes,  had  gone 

barefooted  to  Jerusalem,  and  died  Bhortly  after  on 

i  hi-  return,  either  in  Lycia  or  at  Constantinople. 

The  latter  is  the  statement  of  the  Chronicle,  the 

formerof  Florence  and  others;   Malmesbury  alone 

r<  pre  'Mi    him  a    being  slain  by  the  Saracens,  the  others  as 


ON   THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EARL    GODWINE.  55 

dying  of  a  disorder  occasioned  by  the  extreme  cold.  But 
all  seem  to  agree  in  representing  this  pilgrimage  as  an 
expiation  voluntarily  undertaken  at  the  bidding  of  his  own 
conscience.  Dr.  Lingard,  oppressed  by  the  seeming  necessity 
of  making  something  out  in  behalf  of  Saint  Eadward,  tells 
us,  "  but  to  Sweyn  Edward  was  inexorable.  He  had  been 
guilty  of  a  most  inhuman  and  perfidious  murder,  and  seeing 
himself  abandoned  by  his  family,  he  submitted  to  the  discipline 
of  the  ecclesiastical  canons."  Now,  I  really  am  quite  unable 
to  find,  at  any  rate  in  the  writers  nearest  to  the  time,  anything 
at  all  about  Eadward's  inexorable  justice,  about  Swegen's 
abandonment  by  his  family,  or  about  the  discipline  of  the 
ecclesiastical  canons.  From  the  Chronicle  onwards  they 
represent  Swegen  as  having  already  gone  to  Jerusalem, 
starting  direct  from  Bruges,  and  as  having  no  share  in  the 
return  of  his  father  and  brothers.  They  say  that  Eadward 
restored  their  honours  to  Godwine  and  his  sons,  except 
Swegen,  "  who  had  already  gone  " — jam  abierat.  Florence, 
and  those  who  copy  from  him,  add  "  ductus  pcenitentia,"  or, 
as  Malmesbury  phrases  it,  "  pro  conscientia  Brunonis  cognati 
interempti."  This  latter  writer  does  not  indeed  directly 
state  that  Swegen  was  already  gone,  but  this  is  because  he 
does  not  follow  chronological  order,  but  gives  us  little 
separate  biographies  of  Swegen  and  Tostig.  The  only 
narrative  I  can  find  at  all  like  that  of  Dr.  Lingard  is  contained 
in  the  veracious  chronicle  of  Wendover,  among  all  the  Norman 
scandals  against  the  family,  which  Dr.  Lingard,  whenever 
he  allows  himself  the  free  use  of  his  own  clear  judgment,  is 
the  first  to  reject.  Wendover  does  not  use  the  pluperfect 
tense,  and  for  "  pcenitentia  ductus,"  says,  "  pcenitentiam 
agens."  Now,  while  the  former  phrase  must  strictly  imply 
"  led  by  repentance,"  i.  e.  in  his  own  mind,  the  latter  may 
fairly  mean  "  submitting  to  the  discipline  of  the  ecclesiastical 
canons."  But  according  to  the  more  trustworthy  statements, 
if  Swegen  was  indeed  a  great  criminal,  he  was  also,  according 
to  the  ideas  of  those  times,  a  great  penitent,  and  it  is  rather 
hard  to  deprive  him  of  that  character,  merely  to  exalt 
St.  Eadward  and  the  ecclesiastical  canons.  But  even 
Wendover  says  nothing  about  the  inexorableness  of  the 
King  and  the  abandonment  of  Swegen  by  his  family. 
Eadward  had  no  opportunity  to  be  inexorable,  nor  Godwine 
to  abandon  a  son  who  was  somewhere  between  Bruges  and 


56  OH    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EAEL    GODWINE. 

Jerusalem.  What  might  have  happened,  whether  Swcgen 
had  abandoned  the  world  for  rwr.  or  only  for  a  season  ; 
whether,  it'  he  had  lived  to  return,  he  would  have  applied  for 
the  restitution  of  his  Earldom,  or  whether  it*  he  had, 
Eadward  would  have  been  inexorable  or  Swegen  been 
abandoned  by  his  family,  are  points  which  I  cannot  profess 
to  determine  ;  they  do  nol  belong  to  history,  but  to  that 
philosophy  of  romance7  which  J)r.  Lingard  is  generally 
the  firsl   to  despise. 

According  to  some  Norman  writers,  Godwine  delivered  to 
the  King,  as  hostages  for  his  good  behaviour,  his 
lwine  son  Wulfhoth, and  his  grandson  Haken,8  theson  of 
Swegen,  and  Edward  committed  them  to  the  safe 
keeping  of  his  cousin,  the  Duke  of  the  Normans. 
According:  to  one  account,  il  was  to  reclaim  these  hostages 
that  Harold  afterwards  went  on  his  unfortunate  journey  into 
Normandy.  But  I  must  Gonfess  thai  1  Bee  very  little  reason 
to  believe  that  Buch  hostages  were  given  at  all.  The  Btory 
mi  tin'  authority  of  Eadmer,  William  of  Poitou,  the 
Roman  do  Rou,  and  the  later  writers^  Bromton  and 
Hemingburgh.  Against  it  is  the  inherent  improbability  of  the 
case,  the  entire  silence  ofthe  early  English  authorities,  and  a 
Btatement  not  easily  reconciled  with  it  in  at  least  one 
Norman  writer.  Ordericus  Vitalis.  The  Chronicle  and 
Florence  mosl  distinctly  tell  us  that  Godwine  and  all  his 
family  were  restored  to  entire  favour  with  the  Kin--,  and  to 
all  their  possessions  and  honours,  Swegen  alone  excepted,  i'ov 
the  reasons  before  given.  How  can  this  be  reconciled  with 
the  -tat i 'in i 'tit  thai  a  sod  and  a  grandson  of  Godwine  were  at 
this  M  rv  moment  sent  into  captivity  in  a  foreign  land  !  And 
whin  G-odwine  and  thr  national  party  were  in  the  full  Bwing 
of  triumph,  when  the  name  of  Norman  was  almosl  Bynonymous 
with  that  of  outlaw,  it  does  3eem  wholly  incredible  thai  the 
weak  monarch  should  have  been  allowed  to  send  two  English- 
men of  the  dominanl  familj  as  hostages  to  the  very  prince 
whose   subjects   were   being   driven    ou1    of  the   kingdom, 

■   i'j  Talking  of  the*  philo*  relatea  the    story    in   nearly  the     un< 

n'.|.liv  ol  romance,"  I    may  mention  th  I  m  un,or, 

,,  has  in  th  ned  Dr    Lappenberg  says  that   Homing- 

,;   .  i  ills  the  son  of  Swej  ne,  "  <  ttherin.  ' 

riolationa  i  .1  In  the  1  listorical  Societj  sedition  .-it  l<  act, 

■  .,   ,    i .  he  fl  ures  as  "  i facu  ."  ■■>  •  be  <i<hh  in 

lurnii  i  be     W  itan,  Bromton. 

.ii  i    then  If.       Thierrj 


ON  THE  LIFE  AND  DEATH  OF  EARL  GODWIN E.      57 

Florence,  in  recording  the  death  of  William  in  1087,  tells 
us  that,  on  his  deathbed  he  released  from  prison,  among 
others,  "  Wulfnoth,  the  brother  of  King  Harold,  whom  he 
had  kept  in  prison  from  his  boyhood,"  but  that  the  worse 
tyrant  who  succeeded  him  speedily  remanded  the  unfortunate 
prince  to  a  dungeon  at  Winchester.  But  he  does  not  say 
that  Wulfnoth  was  a  hostage  ;  he  might  have  been  im- 
prisoned after  William's  conquest  of  England  ;  in  which 
case  he  must  certainly  have  been  the  youngest  of  the 
brothers.  Ordericus,  as  we  have  also  seen,  saj^s  nothing  of 
Wnlfnoth's  being  either  a  hostage  or  a  prisoner,  but  repre- 
sents him  as  living  piously,  and  apparently  peaceably,  as  a 
monk  at  Salisbury.9  On  the  whole  I  incline  to  believe  that 
this  story  of  the  hostages  is  simply  one  of  the  many  fictions 
of  the  Norman  party.  The  mode  in  which  it  probably  arose 
I  shall  have  to  discuss  when  I  come  to  treat  of  the  life  of 
Harold. 

The  later  writers  generally  afford  less  entertainment  in 
their  narration  of  these  events  than  might  perhaps  have  been 
expected  ;  but  I  cannot  resist  the  temptation  of  inserting  the 
inimitable,  though  not  over-historical,  relation  of  them  to  be 
found  in  good  Bishop  Godwin,  in  the  life  of  Archbishop 
Ilobert.  "  He  [Robert]  began,  therefore,  to  beat  into  the 
King's  head  (that  was  a  mild  and  soft-natured  gentleman) 
how  hard  a  hand  his  mother  held  upon  him  when  he  lived 
in  Normandy  :  how  likely  it  was  that  his  brother  came  to 
his  death  by  the  practise  of  her  and  Earle  Godwyn  ;  and 
lastly,  that  she  used  the  company  of  Alwyn,  Bishop  of 
Winchester,  somewhat  more  familiarly  than  an  honest  woman 
needed.  The  King  somewhat  too  rashly  crediting  these 
tales,  without  any  further  examination  or  debating  of  the 
matter,  seased  upon  all  his  mother's  goods,  and  committed 
her  to  prison  in  the  Nunry  of  Warwell ;  banished  Earl 
Godwyn  and  his  sonnes,  and  commanded  Alwyn,  upon  pain 
of  death,  not  to  come  forth  of  Winchester."  Then  follows 
the  story  of  the  ploughshares. 

9  Dr.   Lingard  quoting  the  passage  of  the  second  capture  mentioned  by  Florence 

Ord<  TH-uss:ns,uAlfgar,atter  the  conquest,  and  by  Dr.  Lingard  himself  in  p.  51.')!      1 

became  a  monk  at  Rheims,  in  Champagne.  do  not  see  how  the  statements  of  Florence 

Wulfnoth,  so  long  the  prisoner  of  William,  and  Ordericus  can  be  reconciled,  and   1 

only  obtained  his   liberty  to  embrace  the  somewhat   doubt    the  existence    of    this 

same  profession  at  Salisbury."  i.  4  1(>.   But  /EWgar. 
when  did  Wulfnoth  obtain  bis  liberty  after 

Vdl,.    XTI.  T 


ON    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EAIM,    OOOWINE. 


§  6.     HEATH  AND  CllAUACTKU  OF  GODWIN  E. 

The  great  Karl  of  the  West-Saxons  did  not  Long  enjoy  bis 
restored  ascendancy.  In  L053,  the  year  after  his 
return,  he  died.  The  Chronicle  informs  us  only 
'  :  that  he  was  taken  ill.  while  dining  with  the  King 
;it  Winchester,  "on  the  second  day  of  Master," 
when  he  fell  down  suddenly  in  a  tit.  was  carried  out  into  the 
King's  chamber  in  the  expectation  of  his  recovery,  but  that 
he  never  recovered,  and  died  on  the  next  Thursday.1 
Florence  adds,  that  his  sons.  Harold.  Tostig,  and  Gyrth, 
carried  him  out.  On  this  the  Norman  fabulists  have  built 
up,  as  might  have  been  expected,  a  marvellous  superstructure. 
Such  a  death  of  their  great  enemy  might  by  itself  have  been 
represi  uted  as  a  manifest  judgment  on  the  traitor  ;  but  this 
would  hardly  have  been  enough.  We  are  told,  therefore,  by 
[ngulf,  or  pseudo-Jngulf — 1  will  not  enter  into  that  question 
— and  by  Malmesbury,  that  as  Eadward  and  Godwine  were 
Bitting  at  table,  discoursing  about  the  King's  late  brother 
.Hll'n- 1.  Godwine  Baid  that  he  believed  the  King  still 
Suspected  him  of  having  a  hand  ill  his  death,  but  thai  he 
prayed  his  next  morsel  might  choke  him  if  he  were  guilty  of 
any  share  iii  it.  Of  course  his  next  morsel  did  choke  him  ; 
he  died  then  and  there,  and  was  carried  out  by  Harold. 
Now  it  perhaps  occurred  to  the  uext  generation,  that,  under 
the  circumstances  as  imagined  by  them,  the  deceased  /Elfred 
was  .-i  rather  extraordinary  subjeel  of  discourse  to  arise 
between  Eadward  and  Godwine.  Henry  of  Huntingdon, 
gifted,  it  may  be,  with  less  power  of  invention  than  some 
others,   makes  the  conversation  take  a  somewhat  different 

I  urn.  and  a  hardly  more  probable  one.    Godwine,  "'/'//'/•'  suns 

el  proditor  "  is  reclining  by  8  ing  Eadward  .'it  Windsor,  \\  hen 
he  apparently  volunteers  the  remark,  that  he  has  been  often 
falsely  accused  of  plotting  againsl  the  King,  but  that  he 
trusts,  if  there  be  a   true  and   just   God   in  heaven,  he  will 

make  the  piece  of   bread    choke  him    if  he   ever  did    so 

)>lo|.      The  true  and    |u   I   God,    we   are  told,  heard    the   voice 

0      ;         pom  '."i.rt.    post  of  the  Chronicle.     Hoveden  oopiee    Flo 

i  ii     Lnppi  ,  reooe. 

"On   the  Mill  i    [|   '.    In  at    in--  .n  ,   in  mediaeval    Latin,  (<• 

'•■mi-  davi      Hut    Florence    meant  have  acquired  the  more 
ii,.  fifth  day  ol  ihi  See  Ducangewi  voc. 


ON    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EARL    GODWIN  K.  59 

of  the  traitor,  who,  as  the  chronicler  charitably  adds, 
"eodem  pane  strangulatus  mortem  praegustavit  seternam." 
But  this  was  a  very  lame  story.  The  conversation  about 
YElfrcd  was  too  good  to  be  lost,  so  some  means  must  be 
found  to  account  for  the  introduction  of  a  topic  which 
one  would  have  expected  both  parties  to  avoid.  Some 
ingenious  person  hit  upon  an  ancient  legend  which 
Malmesbury  had  indeed  recorded  in  its  proper  place,  but  had 
not  thought  of  transferring  to  this.  There  was  an  old 
scandal  against  iEthelstan,  otherwise  one  of  our  noblest 
monarchs,  to  the  effect  that  he  exposed  his  brother  Eadwine 
at  sea,  on  a  false  charge  of  conspiracy,  brought  by  his 
cup-bearer.  Seven  years  after,  the  cup-bearer,  handing- 
wine  to  the  King,  slips  with  one  foot,  recovers  himself  with 
the  other,  and  adds  the  facetious  remark,  "  So  brother 
helps  brother."  But  King  JEthelstan  is  thereby  reminded 
how  this  same  man  had  made  him  deprive  himself  of  the 
help  of  his  brother,  and  takes  care  that,  however  strong  he 
may  be  on  his  feet,  he  shall  presently  be  shorter  by  the 
head,  which  had  no  brother  to  help  it.  Thus  in  iEthelred 
of  Rievaux,  in  Wendover,  in  Bromton  and  Knighton,  we 
read  how,  as  Eadward  and  Godwine  are  at  table,  the  cup- 
bearer slips  and  recovers  himself,  how  Godwine  says,  "  So 
brother  helps  brother,"  how  Eadward  answers,  "  So  might 
my  brother  iElfred  have  helped  me,  but  for  the  treason 
of  Godwine."  Then,  of  course,  Godwine  curses  himself  and 
dies.  One  or  two  little  improvements  are  to  be  found  in 
different  writers.  Thus  Bromton  makes  Harold  appear  as 
the  cup-bearer,  and  his  father's  remark  is  addressed  to  him. 
One  only  wonders  that  the  disputes  between  Harold  and 
Tostig  were  not  somehow  lugged  in  here  also.  The  same 
Bromton  puts  into  the  royal  saint's  mouth,  on  seeing 
Godwine's  fall,  the  brief  and  polite  remark,  "  Drag  out  the 
dog  !  "  Wendover,  who  says  that  Eadward  blessed  the  morsel 
before  Godwine  swallowed  it,  expands  this  laconic  terseness 
into,  "  Drag  out  that  dog,  and  bury  him  in  the  highway,  for 
he  is  unworthy  of  Christian  burial."  On  this  his  sons  carry 
out  the  corpse,  and  bury  it  in  the  Old  Minster,3  without  the 
King's  knowledge. 

■  /.,.  the  Cathedral    ("  in    episcopate      by  Alfred  the  Great,  afterwards  failed 
Wintonise,"   as    Malmesbury   lias  it),  as       Hyde  Abbey. 
opposed  to  the  ''new  minster"  founded 


60  OS    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    BARL    GODWIN"  K. 

Such  was,  as  Dr.  Lappenberg  truly  observes,  "  the  last 
attempt  of  the  Norman   party  to  avenge  them- 
n,ar  •        Belves    upon     the   lion's   skin   of   their   deadliest 
mc-     enemy."     We  have  seen  bo*  simple  and  natural 
the  tale  is  in   its  first  estate,  and   how   it  has 
gradually  grown   into  the  lull  dimensions  bestowed  upon  it 
by   Norman  calumny.     Bach  passer-by   has  deemed  it  his 
duty  to  throw  an  additional   stone  upon   the  corpse  of  the 
dead   traitor.     We,  at  this  distance  of  time,  may  be  allowed 
lasi   their  fables  aside,  and  to  draw  our  information  from 
the  more   trustworthy  records  of  his  own  time  and  nation. 
The  impression  conveyed  by  them  is  that  the  great  Karl  was 
a  man.  in  his  own  age,  of  unrivalled  natural  ability,  and  of 
unrivalled  acquired  experience,   who  devoted  the  whole  of 
his  mighty  powers  to  the  genuine  service  of  his  country,  but 
around   whom   there  hung  the  dark  suspicion  *  of  one  foul 
crime,   never  indeed   proved,   but  on  the  other  hand  never 
fully   disproved.     That   Godwine  was  innocent  is  the  con- 
clusion to  which  the  weight  of  evidence  inclines,  lmt  that  lie 
should  have  been  even  suspected   tells  against  his  general 
character.     When  the  iEtheling  Eadward  at  a   later  period 
died  I3  ;it  the  court  of  his  uncle,  and  opened  the  way 

he  succession  of  Earold,  the  advantage  to  the  latter  was 

so  palpable  that  i  only  wonders  that  he  was  never  accused 

of  ;i  hand  in  his  death.5  Yet  I  am  not  aware  that  even 
Norman  enmity  ever  ventured  upon  such  a  calumny,  while 
English  writers  have  at  least  Buspected  Godwine  of  the 
murder  of  Alfred  under  far  more  aggravated  circumstances. 
We  may  therefore  fairly  conclude  thai  the  charge  which 
would  have  been  at  once  felt  as  carrying  its  own  refutation 
with  it  in  the  case  "I  the  son,  had  not  the  same  intrinsic 
improbability  when  applied  to  the  lather.  Godwine  was  a 
bold,   far-seeing,  unscrupulous  politician,  seeking  the  good  of 

Iwine  indeed   appears   also    eon-  in  the   two  latter  with   liis  great   ii\:;ls 

1.   two  "!•  three   other  1 -  "l  Siward    and    Leofrio       Bromton    indeed 

work  repugnant  to  the  feelings  of  our  age.  in  thai      Emma      «;i^     Bpoiled 

Such  are  the  disinterment  0]  Harold  the  "  Godwini  oonsiliis,"  but  it  ia  clear  that  it 

■  >   '   ter,  and  the  w  ta  done  by  Badward'a  mi  re tion,  and 

bj   her     on  Dr.  Lappenberg  baa  made  out  a  tolerably 

■  -i      But  in  none  of  theae  is  God-  \  '  ein  the  Kii         u  I    cation, 

i  1    the  sole  or  the  prime  '  Palgrave  and  one  or  two  other  modern 

II  don<  by  the  command  writ<  ra  bint  ;>i  it ,  lmt  I  remember  nothing 

mil  < iiiilwiiic  hi    ilu<   sun    in    1  lie  old  authors,  though 

,;    ears  in  company  with  so 1  Saxo    dot      make     Harold    murder    an 

1  11  n  "i  the  !■•  aim  :  in  the  ESadwnrd,  even  the  holy  king  him  elf, 
two  ■                            '  ■   I                  Wc 


ON   THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OP    EARL   GODWINE.  Gl 

his  country,  but  not  neglecting  his  own  or  that  of  his 
family.  Like  nearly  every  other  exalted  person  of  his  time, 
he  did  not  scruple  to  enrich  himself  at  the  expense  of  the 
monastic  orders,0  and  he  showed  more  regard  to  political 
than  to  ecclesiastical  propriety  in  the  promotion  of  Stigand 
to  the  highest  place  in  the  English  Church.  His  own  family 
he  loaded  with  the  honours  of  the  state  ;  in  promoting  such 
a  son  as  Harold,  he  consulted  the  good  of  his  country  as 
much  as  his  own  paternal  feelings  ;  but  it  was  an  unworthy 
nepotism  which  led  to  the  restitution  of  the  murderer  Swegen. 
The  distinguishing  point  in  God  wine's  character  among  the 
Danes  and  English  who  surround  him, is  his  being  so  eminently 
and  strictly  a  politician.  He  stands  out  as  something  quite 
unlike  the  fierce,  violent,  generous,  openhearted,  bloody- 
handed  chief  of  vikings  or  bandits  which  one  regards  as 
the  type  of  the  half-civilised  leader  of  his  day.  He  was 
indeed  a  brave  warrior,  and  owed  his  first  promotion 
in  a  great  measure  to  his  military  capacity ;  but  the 
character  of  the  warrior  is  with  him  something  altogether 
secondary.  His  special  home  is  not  the  battle-field,  but  the 
Witenagemot :  friends  and  enemies  alike  extol  his  eloquence, 
his  power  of  persuasion,  which  could  sway  his  auditors  in 
what  direction  he  pleased.  His  foes  insinuate  that  while 
thus  gifted  with  the  nobler,  he  did  not  altogether  eschew 
the  baser  arts  which  have  been  familiar  to  the  politicians 
of  all  ages.  Bribes  and  promises,  favour  and  disfavour 
discreetly  apportioned,  are  mentioned  among  the  engines  of 
his  policy.  He  is  the  minister,  the  parliamentary  leader; 
Eorl  and  Ceorl,  Dane  and  Saxon,  alike  submit  to  his 
influence,  but  it  is  always  influence,  never  violence  ;  he  is  often 
accused  of  fraud,  never  of  force  ;7  with  any  man  of  Teutonic 
speech  his  controvers}7  is  always  one  of  words  and  policy  ; 
it  is  against  the  Norman  alone  that  he  resorts  to  the  spear 
and  the  battle-axe.  A  true  politician,  he  knew  how  to  bide 
his  time  and  adapt  himself  to  circumstances ;  an  Englishman, 

6  This  accusation,  as  regards  Godwine,  got  possession  of  the  nunnery  of  Berkeley, 

rests  on  the  very  unsuspicious  testimony  (See  Fosbroke's  History  of  Berkeley,  p.  7.) 

of  the  Chronicle  ;  as  regards  Harold,  on  No  one  can  doubt  that  the  story  is  the 

the   very    suspicious   one   of   Domesday.  merest  fable,  but  it  marks  the    estimate 

(See  Ellis's  Introduction,!.  313.  ii.  142.)  of  the  man.     Godwine  is  represented  as 

1  Archdeacon  Mapes,  more   familiarly  gaining  his  point  by  art,  Leofric  or  Siward 

known  by  his  Christian  name,  has  trans-  would    probably    have    been    introduced 

mitted   a   strange  story  of  the  nefarious  expelling  the  inmates  vi  et  nrmis. 
trick  by  which  Godwine  is  said  to  have 


OB    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    feARL    GODWINS. 

the  Future  chief  of  the  English  party,  he  knew  how  to  submit 
to  the  Danish  rule,  and  how  to  rise  to  greatness  under  it;  he 
knew  also  how  Long  thai  rule  was  to  he  borne,  and  when  it  was 
to  be  broken  off.  When  first  standing  forth  as  the  champion  of 
the  sons  of  Emma,  he  yielded,  because  he  saw  resistance  was 
vain,  to  the  -  :i  of  the  first  Harold.     When  the  male 

line  of  the  great  Cnut  was  extinct,  he  saw  (liar  the  moment 
was  come  to  raise  up  again  the  throne  of  Cerdic  and  Alfred, 
and  for  England  to  have  once  more  a  King  of  her  own 
blood.  The  pretensions  of  Svend  and  of  Magnus  he  entirely 
aside  ;  perhaps,  as  Thierry  imagines,  he  might  have 
secured  his  own  election  when  Eadward  was  unwilling  to 
accept  the  proffered  crown  ;  hut  his  ambition  was  of  a 
cautious  and  practical  kind  ;  he  knew  that  to  rule  in  the 
name  of  a  weak  sovereign  was  a  less  invidious  position  than 
himself  to  wear  a  disputed  diadem.  According  to  a  refined 
political  creed  of  which  his  times  had  no  notion,  he  may 
have  earned  the  names  of  rebel  and  traitor  by  an  armed 
opposition  to  his  sovereign,  by  returning  like  a  conqueror 
from  the  banishment  to  which  Kingand  Witan  had  sentenced 
him.  Godwine's  guilt  or  innocence  in  the  matter  simply 
turns  upon  tin'  old  question  of  non-resistance  to  authority 
in  any  case.  This  I  will  not  enter  upon  here.  But 
undoubtedly  many  Englishmen  reverence  the  names  of 
I  lampden  and  Sidney  ;  all.  1  believe,  unite  in  homage  to  those 
of  Langton  and  Fitzwalter,  and  to  the  Great  Charter  which 
they  wrung  by  open  rebellion  from  the  despot  of  their 
times.  Winn  Godwine  appealed  to  arms  against  foreign 
domination,  beat  least  did  do  more  than  they.  An  atrocious 
deed  of  blood  Is  perpetrated  by  the  King's  foreign  favourites 
within  Godwine's  own  earldom ;  in  any  case  the  King  protects 
the  guilty,  most  probably  he  requires  Godwine  himself  to 
punish  the  innocent,  [fa  subject  may  in  anj  case  <liaw  his 
Bword  against  his  sovereign,  surely  he  may  in  such  a  ease  as 
Unquestionable  mo  I  m<  oof  the  eleventh  century  allowed 
themselves  that  libertj  on  far  Blighter  provocations.  He  is 
banished,  the  euiltv  remain  unpunished,  the  foreign  influence 
U  predominant,  lie  returns,  prepared  for  battle  indeed,  but 
do  battle  if  Deeded  ;  everywhere  he  comes  with  a  friendly 
greeting,  everywhere  he  is  received  as  a  friend.  The  voice 
•  .fan  injured  people  demand  his  restoration  ;  placed  again 
m  bifi  old   honoui     there  i     nol    the  slightest  sign  of  any 


ON    THE    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OP    EARL    GODWIN E.  63 

deviation  from  his  old  politic  moderation  ;  not  an  English- 
man is  harmed  in  life,  limb,  or  estate  ;  of  the  foreigners 
themselves  not  a  man  is  personally  injured,  even  banishment 
is  confined  to  those  who  had  wrought  injustice  in  the  realm. 
Whatever  his  birth  and  parentage,  whether  the  son  of  the 
South-Saxon  captain  or  of  the  western  peasant,  he  had  won 
his  greatness  for  himself;  he  died  the  virtual  sovereign  of 
England,  and  transmitted  his  power  to  a  nobler,  hardly  a 
greater,  successor.  Between  him  and  his  son  there  is  the 
same  sort  of  difference  as  between  the  great  father  and  son 
of  Macedonian  history ;  Godwine  is  the  Philip,  Harold  the 
Alexander,  of  his  house.  Harold  appears  as  a  hero,  with  all 
the  virtues  and  the  faults  of  the  heroic  character  ;  Godwine 
is  as  far  from  a  hero  as  any  man  on  record ;  a  cool,  crafty, 
deliberate  politician  ;  moderate,  conciliatory,  persuasive,  not 
clear  perhaps  from  fraud  and  corruption,  but  never  tempted 
into  violence  or  insolence.  Traitor  or  no  traitor,  he  was  at 
least  England's  chosen  leader ;  he  ruled  her  well,  and  she 
mourned  his  loss.  We  have  seen  his  character  as  drawn  by 
his  enemies,  let  us  conclude  with  the  picture  as  transmitted 
by  admiring  and  lamenting  friends.  The  old  biographer  of 
Eadward,  quoted  by  Stow,s  knows  not,  or  regards  not,  the 
accusations  of  perfidy  against  the  father,  of  violence  against 
the  son.  In  his  eyes  Godwine  and  Harold  stand  forth  as  the 
pattern  of  every  princely  virtue. 

"  Duke  Godwine  (saith  he)  and  his  sonnes  being  reconciled 
to  the  King,  and  the  country  being  quiet,  in  the  second  yeere 
after  died  the  said  duke  of  happie  memorie,  whose  death 
was  the  sorrow  of  the  people  ;  him  their  father,  him  the 
nourisher  of  them  and  the  kingdome  with  continuall  weeping 
they  bewailed  ;  he  was  buried  wTith  worthie  honor  in  the  old 
]\I<»nasterie  of  Winchester,  giving  to  the  same  church  gifts, 
ornaments,  and  rentes  of  lands.     Harold  succeeded  in  his 

8  Stow    quotes    from    what     he    calls  original  which  he  employed.     If  anyone 

"Vita   Edwardi;"  now   the    only  "Vita  should   object,    with    M.   de    Donneehose 

Edwardi  "  I  know  is  that  of  iEthelred  of  (ii.  100),  to  its  authority,  that  an  author 

Rievaux,    who     certainly    speaks    in    a  who  dedicates  his  work  to  Queen  Eadgyth 

widely  different  strain.     I  perceive  that  is  not  altogether  an  unprejudiced  witness 

Dr.  Lingard  (i.   344)  quotes  second-hand  as  to  the    character   of  her   father   and 

from  Stow,  and  Mr.  Thorpe  (Lappenberg,  brother,   it  is   easy   to   place   him  in   a 

ii.  250)  and   M.  de    Bonnechose  (ii.    92)  dilemma;   as  these  who  give  the   worst 

third-hand  from  Dr.  Lingard.     But  Stow  character   of  Godwine   and  Harold  add 

cannot  have  invented  the  bit  grapby,  and  that    Eadgyth   did   not  at  all    resemble 

1  trust  that  some  one  versed  in  MSS.. and  them,  and   even  took    the    Norman   side 

early    printed    books    may    discover    the  ugainst  the  latter. 


64  ON    TIIK    LIFE    AND    DEATH    OF    EARL    GODWINS. 

Dukedome,  which  was  a  great  comfort  to  the  whole  English 
nation,  for  in  vertue  both  of  bodie  and  minde  ho  excelled  all 
people  as  another  .In  las  Macchabeus,  and  was  a  friende  to  his 
countrie,  diligently  supplying  his  father's  place,  and  walking 
in  his  Bteppes,  that  is  to  say.  in  patience,  mercie,  and 
afifabilitie  to  well  willers,  but  to  disquiel  persons,  theeves, 
ami  robbers,  with  a  lyon's  countenance  he  threatened  his 
just  Beveritie." 

EDWARD  A.  FREEMAN. 


Win  ii  originally  writing  the  present  essay,  I  was  not 
aware  that  tin'  Chronicle  of  Radulphus  Niger,  referred  to 
by  Sharon  Turner  in  support  of  Godwine's  peasant  origin, 
existed  in  print.  I  have  since  found  that  it  was  published 
in  L85]  by  the  Caxton  Society,  and  I  have  accordingly 
referred  to  the  passage.  He  gives  us  the  following  account 
of  Godwine  : — 

"  Anno  ah  ineariiatione  Domini  mlxti  Edwardus  films 
Ethelredi,  frater  Edmundi  Ironside  ex  patre,  frater  et 
Ilardeennti  ex  Emma  niatre,  suscepit  regnum  Anglorum, 
auxilio  Godwini  comitis  cujus  filiam  duxit,  Bed  earn  minimi 
cognovit,  unde  ambo  in  coelibatu  permanserunt.  I  lie  rex 
Westmonasterium  fecit  el  ditavit,  multaque  miracula  ■ 
Godwinus  comes  filius  bubidcifuit ;  in  mensa  re^-is  Edwardi 
offa  sufifocatus  est,  ft  ab  Earaldo  filio  sub  mensa  extractus. 
Hie  Godwinus  a  rege  Cnutone  nutritus,  processu  temporis 
in  Daciam  emu  breve  regius  transmissus,callide  dux  it  sororem 
Cnutonis."     P.  L60. 

The  l.i  t  paragraph  I  have  already  referred  to.  In  an 
earlier  portion,  under  the  reign  of  Harthacnut,  lie  gives  his 
version  of  the  death  ofiElired,  which  is  Borneo  bal  Btrange  : — 

"Edwardum  fratrem  suum  a  Normannis  revocans,  secum 

pacifice   aliquamdiu    habuit.      Nam    alter   frater,   Aduredus 

Bcilicet,  ad  Btipitem  ligatus  a  Godwino   in    Hely   peremptus 

ber    decimatifi    commilitonibus  apud   Guldedune,   post 

mortem   Haroldi,   antequam  regnarel    Hardecnutus  consilio 

indi  archiepiscopi."     I'.  I  57. 

The  i'   i i 1 1 1 <  1 1 \   of  this  Chronicle,  though  somewhat   late, 

ij  without  its  value.     Ii  clearly  points  to  an  independent 

h   tradition  as  to  Godwine's   peasant  origin,  as  it   is 

nii|>"  to    appose  thai    Etadulphua  Niger  borrowed   bis 

informal  i"ii  fr<  'in  i  be  K  nyl  linca  Sacra 


ON  THE  BOOK  OF  DEVOTIONS, 

DEPOSITED    BY    CARDINAL    HOWARD    IN    THE    LIBRARY    OF    THE    DOMINICAN    CONVENT    AT 
BORNHEIM    IN    1659. 

BY  THE  REV.  JOSEPH  HUNTER,  F.S.A. 

I  am  permitted  by  Lady  Stourton  to  whom  it  now  belongs, 
to  lay  before  the  Institute  a  manuscript  which  will,  I  doubt 
not,  be  found,  both  on  account  of  its  beauty  as  a  work  of 
art,  and  of  some  circumstances  of  historical  interest  with 
which  it  is  surrounded,  to  be  eminently  deserving  their 
attention. 

It  is  a  book  of  Catholic  devotions,  one  of  the  class  called 
Missals  in  ordinary  parlance  ;  but  like  many  other  manu- 
scripts usually  so  denominated,  not  a  Missal  in  any  proper 
sense  of  the  word,  but  one  of  the  class  more  properly  called 
Ilorcp,  being  a  miscellany  of  prayers,  collects,  psalms,  anti- 
phons  and  pious  ejaculations,  adapted  to  the  private  use  of 
a  person  of  a  devotional  turn  of  mind ;  and  we  may  add, 
for  some  person  living  in  the  world  and  not  wholly  given  up 
to  the  religious  life.  It  is  adorned  with  various  miniatures, 
representing,  for  the  most  part,  early  saints  in  the  Christian 
Calendar  with  principal  events  in  their  lives,  or  peculiar 
events  in  the  history  of  the  Saviour.  The  text  which  follows 
the  drawings,  has  usually  reference,  more  or  less  direct,  to 
the  person  or  events  which  are  there  represented. 

In  form  it  is  five  inches  by  three  and  three  quarters,  and 
two  inches  in  thickness.  It  is  of  the  finest  vellum,  and  is 
bound  in  crimson  velvet,  with  silver  corners  slightly 
enchased.  The  number  of  leaves  is  284,  and  there  are  34 
large  miniatures.  The  clasps  have  been  removed.  Some- 
thing appears  to  be  wanting  which  preceded  the  shield  of 
the  arms  of  Hastings  and  the  calendar  at  the  beginning  ; 
and  a  very  accurate  observer  who  prepared  an  analysis  of  its 
contents,  Mr.  C.  Weld,  has  remarked  a  slight  dislocation  or 
perhaps  the  loss  of  a  leaf  near  the  middle  of  the  volume. 

Besides   the   miniatures,  there  are  ornamental  borders  to 

VOL.    XTT.  K 


OJN    THE    Book    OF    DEVOTIONS. 

every  page,  consisting  of  flowers,  animals,  and  arabesques, 
well  selected,  varied,  and  drawn,  while  the  larger  works  are 
remarkable  for  the  i.-i-t'1  with  which  they  are  designed,  and 
the  delicacy  with  which  they  are  executed.  Attention  may 
be  called  to  the  architecture  and  back-grounds  of  many  of 
them,  to  the  observance  of  the  rules  of  perspective,  to  the 
air  which  is  given  to  the  figures,  and  to  the  expression  in 
the  countenances.  Altogether,  there  are  few  works  existing 
of  this  class  in  England  which  in  these  respects  can  pretend 
tn  nioiv  than  a  comparison  with  this  manuscript,  and 
scarcely  any  thai  surpass  it  in  beauty. 

It  is  a  work  of  French  or  Flemish  art  ;  and  the  costume 
guides  us  with  tolerable  certainty,  to  the  latter  half  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  1470  to  Usu,  as  the  period  of  the  execu- 
tion. Concurring  to  the  same  conclusion,  is  the  language 
of  a  note  in  the  English  tongue  near  the  beginning — "The 
9ume  of  these  Indulgences  been  xxvi.  thousand  yeres  and 
wwi.  dales|  This  writen  in  the  chapel  of  Jherusalem,  and 
this  is  registred  in  Rome/'  This  will  at  least  prove  that  it 
eannol  bave  been  written  much  later  than  the  date  which  is 
here  assigned  to  it. 

Tin'  introduction  of  these  low  words  of  English  while  all 
the  rest  is  in  Latin,  seems  to  show  that  it  was  prepared 
originally  for  the  use  of  some  person  of  the  English  nation. 
But  this  admits  of  still  stronger  proof  from  the  selection 
which  is  made  of  the  names  of  s;iints  whose  days  arc  here 
particularly  indicated  in  the  calendar.  There  is  an  evident 
leaning  to  the  introduction  of  the  English  saints.  Thus  we 
have  St.  Chad,  St.  Cuthbert,  St.  Richard,  Elphege,  Dunstan, 
AMliolin.  Swithen,  Wolfram,  St.  Alban,  and  some  others; 
persons  whom  an  Englishman  may  be  supposed  to  wish  to 
have  placed  in  bis  private  calendar,  bul  not  claiming  parti* 
cular  interest  with  a  poison  of  any  other  nation. 

Assuming  then,  thai  we  have  sufficienl  reason  to  believe 
thai  it  was  a  work  of  foreign  art,  French  or  Flemish,  exe- 
cuted by  ;i  person  eminent  in  this  branch  of  art,  about  a.d. 
I  175,  and  prepared  for  the  use  <>l  an  Englishman,  it  may 
ho  added,  thai  bo  costh  a  work  would  hardly  have  been  pre- 
pared hut  at  the  expense  of  some  poison  of  wealth  and  con- 
sideration; .'Hi1 1  i  ho  next  question  is,  are  there  any  means  of 
determining  for  whom  tin'  hook  was  originally  prepared. 

It   musl  be  acknowledged,  that  here  wo  have  no  external 


ON    THE    BOOK    OF    DEVOTIONS.  67 

evidence  whatever  :  but  the  book  seems  itself  to  carry  with 
it  an  indication  which  can  scarcely  mislead,  of  the  person 
for  whom  it  was  executed,  and  to  whom  it  originally 
belonged. 

On  the  first  leaf  we  have  an  heraldic  drawing  of  singular 
beauty,  and,  doubtless,  by  the  same  hand  that  prepared  the 
miniatures  in  the  volume.  It  presents  the  arms  of  Hastings, 
the  black  maunch,  surrounded  by  the  Garter.  Now  this 
must  have  been  the  insignia  of  some  member  of  the  family 
of  Hastings  who  had  been  admitted  into  the  Order.  Of 
these  there  was  only  one  who  lived  within  the  period  to 
which  the  book  can  possibly  be  assigned,  namely,  William, 
Lord  Hastings,  who  was  made  a  Knight  of  the  Garter  in 
1461.  and  who  was  put  to  death  by  the  Protector,  Richard, 
Duke  of  Gloucester,  in  1483.  Two  Hastings',  in  later  gene- 
rations of  the  family,  viz.  :  Francis,  Earl  of  Huntingdon, 
elected  into  the  Order  in  1549,  and  Sir  Edward  Hastings, 
Lord  Hastings  of  Loughborough,  in  1555,  lived  too  late  to 
be  the  owner  of  the  shield  here  so  beautifully  delineated. 

We  seem,  therefore,  driven  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
book  was  originally  prepared  for  William,  Lord  Hastings, 
the  Lord  Chamberlain  in  the  reign  of  King  Edward  IV. 
The  religious  character  of  Lord  Hastings  is  manifested  in 
the  ecclesiastical  foundations  made  by  him,  and  his  care  in 
providing  for  the  solemnities  of  his  funeral  and  obits  ;  while 
his  long  residence  at  Calais  affords  a  presumption  that  he 
may  have  been  brought  into  connection  with  some  eminent 
French  or  Flemish  artist,  by  whom  the  work  was  executed. 

It  did  not,  however,  remain  in  the  family  of  Hastings ; 
and  when  we  next  get  any  authentic  information  respecting 
it,  Ave  find  it  in  possession  of  the  family  of  the  Earl  of 
Arundel,  first,  the  Fitz- Alans  (so  called)  or  Arundels,  and 
next  the  Howards,  who  enjoyed  that  eminent  dignity  by 
descent  from  the  Arundels.  It  will  be  more  convenient, 
and  the  facts  will  be  presented  in  a  more  intelligible  manner, 
if  we  trace  the  history  of  the  book  for  the  last  two  centuries 
backwards,  beginning  with  the  present  possessor. 

It  was  acquired  by  Lady  Stourton,  in  1835,  by  purchase 
from  the  English  Dominicans  in  their  convent  at  Hinckley, 
in  Leicestershire.  This  Society  was  settled  originally  at 
Bornheim,  near  Antwerp ;  they  fled  to  England  in  1794,  when 
the  French  overran  the  Low  Countries.     They  first  found  a 


68  ON    Till:    BOOK    OF    DEVOTIONS. 

settlement  at   Carshalton,  in   Surrey,  from  whence,  in  1810, 
tin ■  \  removed  to  Einckley.1 

This  convent  was  founded  in  the  year  1658,  bythe  Baron 
ilr  Bornheinij  according  to  Mr.  Petre,  but  Philip  Howard, 
a  Dominican,  (the  third  son  of  Henry  Frederick,  Earl  of 
Arundel)  who  was  afterwards  made  a  Cardinal,  had  so  much 
concern  in  the  foundation,  that  he  has  usually  been  consi- 
dered as  tin-  founder.     He  was,  at  least,  the  first  Prior. 

Among  the  gifts  which  he  bestowed  on  the  convent  was 
this  precious  volume.  This  had  been  the  uniform  tradition  of 
the  House,  and  it  is  put  beyond  doubt,  by  a  memorandum 
in  tin'  hunk  itself,  in  the  hand-writing,  as  I  am  informed) 
of  Father  Vincent  Tony,  who  was  for  a  long  time  the 
Vicar-General  of  the  Dominican  Order  in  England,  and  a 
contemporary  of  Cardinal  Howard.  It  is  in  these  terms  : 
"Conventus  Anglo-Bornhemiensis,  dono-datus  ab  Em'"" 
Dno  Cardinal]  de  Norfolcia  fundatore  ejusdem  Conventus, 
1659.— V.  T." 

It  is  thus  traced,  on  what  we  may  deem  sufficient  evi- 
dence, to  the  possession  of  a  member  of  the  house  of  Arundel 
in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century. 

In  a  hand-writing  of  about  a  century  earlier,  we  find 
another  piece  of  evidence  to  the  connection  of  it  at  that 
time  with  ;iii  earlier  member  of  the  same  illustrious  house, 
but  one  who  lived  before  the  dignity  had  descended  upon 
the  Howards.  This  was  Henry  Arundel  (or  Fitz-Alan), 
Lord  Maltravers,  then  the  son  and  heir-apparent  of  William, 
Earl  e|'  Arundel,  and  himself  afterwards  Earl  of  Arundel, 
the  lasl  of  the  earls  of  the  ancient  male  line  of  that  hon.se. 
Maltravers,  it  need  hardly  be  observed,  was  an  old  barony, 
merged  into  the  Earldom  of  Arundel,  and  was  generally 
adopted  for  the  designation  of  (he  eldest  sons  of  the  Earls 
during  their  father's  life.  This  Henry,  Lord  Maltravers,  was 
hem  about  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry 
VIII..  1509,  and  succeeded  his  father  in  I  :>  13.  Me  bald 
various  offices  of  trust,  and  was  indeed  one  of  the  most 
conspicuous  noblemen  of  the  time.  He  died  in  1579.  The 
book  contains  a  couplet  written  h\  him  on  a  blank  leaf. 

A  brief  genealogical  statement  will  shew  the  descent  from 

of  tin'  English  Colleger  and.Convi  dI    i   tabli  bed  on  il><'  Contini  m."    Bj 
ill"  Hon   I  dward  Petre,  :i",  1849,  p.  1 1.' 


ON    THE    BOOK    OF    DEVOTIONS.  69 

him  of  Cardinal  Howard,   and  the  probability  that  a  book 
once  his  might  fall  into  the  Cardinal's  hands. 

Lord  Maltravers  and  Earl  of  Arundel,  had  one  son,  Henry, 
called  Lord  Maltravers,  who  died  without  issue  in  1556,  at 
the  age  of  nineteen,  and  two  daughters ;  Jane,  Lady 
Lumley,  from  whom  there  are  no  descendants,  and  Mary, 
who  married  Thomas  Howard,  the  fourth  Duke  of  Norfolk 
of  the  Howards.  This  lady  died  on  August  25,  1557,  at 
Arundel  Place,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Clement  Danes,  and  there 
her  only  child  was  born  on  the  28th  of  the  preceding  month 
of  July,  a  son  named  Philip.  This  Philip  became  Earl  of 
Arundel  in  right  of  his  maternal  descent,  the  superior  title 
of  Duke  of  Norfolk  having  been  lost  by  his  father's  attain- 
der. Philip  was  the  father  of  Thomas  Howard,  Earl  of 
Arundel,  who  is  honoured  in  his  line  for  the  patronage 
which  he  extended  to  the  arts,  and  for  his  great  services  to 
his  country  in  having  enriched  it  with  so  many  choice 
remains  of  antiquity.  He  was  the  father  of  Henry  Frede- 
rick, Earl  of  Arundel,  the  father  of  Cardinal  Howard  :  so 
that  the  Cardinal  wras  the  fifth  in  descent  from  Henry, 
Lord  Maltravers,  who  has  inscribed  this  couplet  on  a  blank 
page  of  the  book  : — 

When  you  yor  prayers  doe  rehers 
Remembre  Henry  Mawtrevers. 

These  few  words,  however,  open  two  questions,  both  re- 
quiring to  be  answered  if  we  propose  to  give  a  trustworthy 
account  of  the  descent  of  this  book  from  persons  who  lived 
in  the  reign  of  King  Henry  VIII.  :  First,  to  whom  did 
Lord  Maltravers  address  this  couplet  1  and  secondly,  how  it 
happened  that  when  the  book  was  in  other  hands  than  his, 
it  should  still  remain  in  the  possession  of  the  Arundel 
family  % 

Both  these  questions  may,  I  think,  receive  a  satisfactory 
solution. 

And  now  it  is  necessary  to  advert  to  a  circumstance  to 
which,  hitherto,  no  allusion  has  been  made,  that  there  are 
bound  up  with  the  beautiful  book  we  have  been  treating  of, 
ten  leaves,  forming  another  book,  similar  in  form  to  the  one 
before  described,  but  of  far  inferior  execution  ;  and  similar 
in  subject  also,  being  the  "  Office  of  the  Holy  Trinity."  This 
portion  of  the  volume  contains  its  own  story  :  there  being 


70  OH    THE    BOOK    OF    DEVOTIONS. 

written  in  it  in  the  hand  of*  the  Princess  Mary,  daughter  of 
King  Henry  VJI1.  the  following  "words  : — 

Myne  own.-  good  Kate  a*-  ofte  as  you  can  not  se  me  bndyly  with  your 
prayers  I  pray  you  vygyte  me  and  tryth  tins  specially  because 
it  is  to  ih<-  hole  Trynitielwherin  you  Bhal  doo  a  great  pleasure 
unto  me  whycb  am  your  lovyng  mystres  and  (  vex  \\vll  be 

M  VHYE 

Tin'  ten-leaved  book,  annexed  to  the  principal  book,  was 
therefore  the  gift  of  the  Princess  Mary  to  some  lady  of 
her  household,  then  about  to  leave  her  service,  and  the 
lady's  name  was  Catherine.  We  have  further  assistance 
towards  ascertaining  who  this  lady  was,  in  finding  depicted 
on  tli«'  second  leaf  the  arms  of  Arundel  ;  but  not  Arundel 
only,  but  Arundel  quartering  Maltravers,  plainly  guiding  us 
in  the  Lord  Maltravers  of  the  time.  And  when  we  find 
that  the  Lord  Maltravers.  of  whom  we  have  been  speaking, 
married  a  lady  of  rank  whose  name  was  Catherine,  is  it  too 
much  to  presume  thai  this  was  a  farewell  gift  of  the  Princess 
Mary  to  a  lady  of  her  household,  in  contemplation  of  her 
becoming  Lady  Maltravers  '.  Or  thai  the  other  portion  of 
the  volume  was  a  gift,  at  the  same  time,  of  Lord  .Maltravers 
to  the  same  Lady,  who  caused  them  both  to  be  bound 
together  in  the  volume  as  we  now  have  it. 

There  is  something  of  the  sentimental  in  the  couplet 
inscribed  by  Lord  Maltravers,  which  certainly  favours  the 
notion  that  if  it  were  presented  by  him,  it  was  presented 
under  no  ordinary  circumstances  :  a  signification  not  onbj  of 
more  than  common  regard,  inn  of  a  devotional  spirit  in  the 
giver,  and  a  recognition  of  the  same  spirit  in  the  person  to 
whom  it  was  presented:  while  this  view  of  the  Bubject 
explains  in  the  mosi  satisfactory  manner  how  the  hook 
remained  in  the  family  of  Arundel,  and  descended  in  the 
line  of  that  house.  Or  if  it  be  thought  too  bold  a  conjec- 
ture, that  it  was  presented  as  a  token  of  affection  to  Lady 
Catherine  by  Lord  Maltravers  before  their  marriage,  the 
interesting  supposition  may  be  formed  respecting  it, 
thai  it  had  been  the  property  of  Lady  Catherine  before  her 
marriage,  and  that  this  couplet  bad  been  written  in  it  by 
Maltravers  either  before  or  subsequent  to  their  union. 
Blither  supposition  serves  equally  well  to  show  how  it  is 
found  descending  from  the  time  of  King  Henry  VIII.  in 
the   line   of  the   Earl   of  Arundel,  Bince    ii    was   from   this 


ON   THE    BOOK   OF    DEVOTIONS.  71 

union  that  the  persons  who  afterwards  enjoyed  the  dignity 
of  Earl  of  Arundel  descended.  The  question  simply  is, 
whether  it  is  more  probable  that  the  book  was  an  offering 
of  gallantry  or  affection  to  the  young  lady,  who  was  about 
to  become  his  bride,  or  that  it  was  already  hers,  and  she 
permitted  him,  before  or  after  marriage,  to  inscribe  the 
couplet,  intended  to  call  him  to  her  remembrance  in  her 
more  serious  hours. 

The  Lady  Catherine,  who  married  Lord  Maltravers,  was 
one  of  the  daughters  of  Thomas  Grey,  Marquis  of  Dorset ; 
and  though  I  have  not  succeeded  in  finding  any  list  of  the 
household  of  the  Princess  Mary  sufficiently  early,  yet  it  is 
highly  probable  that  she  may  have  been  one  of  that  house- 
hold, and  spoken  to  by  the  Princess  in  the  terms  of  familiarity 
which  we  see  that  she  used  :  for  she  was  no  very  distant 
relative  of  the  Princess  ;  her  grandfather,  Thomas  Grey, 
Marquis  of  Dorset,  having  been  half-brother  to  Queen 
Elizabeth  of  York,  grandmother  of  the  Princess.  Add,  that 
the  Greys  were  a  cultivated,  a  learned,  and  a  devout  family, 
and  that  Lord  Maltravers,  then  become  Earl  of  Arundel,  was 
a  strenuous  supporter  of  the  claims  of  the  Princess  Mary  to 
the  crown,  even  as  against  the  claims  of  the  Lady  Jane  Grey, 
who  was  niece  to  Lady  Catherine. 

On  the  whole  then,  the  history  of  the  book  seems  to  be 
this  : — that  it  was  prepared  by  some  eminent  French  or 
Flemish  artist  for  William,  Lord  Hastings,  the  Lord  Deputy 
of  Calais  about  the  year  1475  :  that  it  passed,  it  is  not 
known  how,  into  the  possession  of  either  the  family  of 
Grey  or  that  of  Arundel,  and  was  the  property  of  the 
Countess  of  Arundel,  who  was  originally  Lady  Catherine 
Grey,  one  of  the  household  of  the  Princess  Mary;  that  while 
in  her  possession,  there  was  bound  up  with  it  a  smaller 
piece,  being  "  The  Office  of  the  Holy  Trinity,"  which  had 
been  a  present  to  Lady  Catherine  from  the  Princess  ;  that 
they  became  jointly  the  property  of  the  grandson  of  Lady 
Catherine  and  the  Lord  Maltravers  Earl  of  Arundel,  Philip 
Howard,  Earl  of  Arundel,  from  whom  they  descended  to  his 
great  grandson,  Philip  Howard,  who  bestowed  the  book  on 
his  convent  of  Dominicans  at  Bornheim  ;  that  it  remained  in 
the  possession  of  this  community  when,  in  1794,  they  fled 
to  England  ;  and  that  it  was  disposed  of  by  them  to  its 
present  possessor  in  1835. 


72  <>N    THE    BOOK    OF    DEVOTIONS. 

It  remains  to  1"'  added,  that  while  the  manuscript  was  in 
possession  of  the  Dominicans  at  Bornheim,  and  they  were 
still  residing  at  that  place,  it  was  broughl  under  the  notice 
nf  English  antiquaries  in  a  communication  to  the  Gentle- 
man's Magazine,  anonymous,  but  by  Mr.  Webb,  who  gave 
a  brief  description  <>f  it.  This  was  booh  followed  by  a  com- 
munication  from  tin1  Abbe  Mann,  of  Brussels,  containing  fur- 
ther details,  including  fac-similes  of  tin-  couplet  written  by 
Lord  Maltravers,  ami  of  the  motive  inscription  of  the  Prin- 
cess Mary,  Both  these  writers  followed  a  tradition  of  the 
Dominicans  that  the  manuscript  had  been  the  property  of 
Mary,  Queen  of  Scots,  and  presented  by  her  to  one  of  her 
attendants,  named  Catherine.  But  this  attribution  of  it 
was  shown  to  be  erroneous,  in  a  subsequent  communication  to 
tin  same  Miscellany,  by  Mr.  Brooke,  the  Somerset  Herald  at 
Arms,  who  perceived,  what  no  one  could  doubt,  that  the  hand 
writing  of  the  passage  subscribed  with  the  name  "Marve" 
was  nut  that  of  the  Queen  of  Scots,  but  of  the  Princess 
Mary  of  England,  lie  also  pointed  out  Lady  Catherine 
Grey  as  the  lady  to  whom,  in  all  probability,  the  latter  por- 
tion of  the  volume  had  been  presented,  ami  he  showed  how 
it  would  naturally  descend  from  Lord  and  Lady  Maltravers 
to  Philip  Howard,  the  Cardinal  of  Norfolk.  These  commu- 
oications  maybe  found  in  Gent.  Mag.  lor  1789,  pp.  77!'  and 
1078;  and  for  L790,  p.  33. 


<©rtgtnal  ^Documents. 

LETTER  RELATING  TO  THE  WARS  OF    EDWARD  III.  IN  FRANCE, 
AND  THE  PUBLIC  AFFAIRS  IN  THE  YEAR  1346. 

FOUND    AMONGST   THE    MUNIMENTS    OF    ALAN    CLAYTON    LOWNDES,    ESQ.    OF    BARHINGTON 
HALL,    ESSEX,    AND    COMMUNICATED    BY    WILLIAM    CLAYTON,    ESQ. 

We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Clayton  for  a  transcript  of  an  original  letter, 
without  date,  addressed  to  "Dame  Alys  de  la  Rokele,"  by  some  person 
unnamed,  who  should  seem  to  have  been  in  attendance  on  Queen  Isabella, 
widow  of  Edward  II.  It  communicated  some  news  that  had  reached  the 
Queen  of  a  great  battle,  in  which  the  King  of  Navarre,  the  Duke  of 
Burgundy,  Sir  John  of  France,  the  Duke  of  Normandy,  the  Count  of 
Blasois,  the  Duke  of  Athens,  the  Duke  of  Britany,  the  Count  of  Ilurbonie 
(qy.  Aubigny),  the  Count  of  Blois,  and  the  Count  of  Armagnac  had  been 
taken  prisoners.  It  also  mentioned  a  victory  by  the  fleet  of  the  north  over 
the  Scots,  and  the  taking  of  Calais  and  Boulogne.  It  is  written  in  French, 
on  a  slip  of  parchment  lOf  inches  by  2.-J-,  and  was  found  among  the 
muniments  of  Alan  Clayton  Lowndes,  Esq.  of  Barrington  Hall,  Essex, 
annexed  to  a  roll  in  the  nature  of  a  rent-roil  or  custumal,  showing  the  rents 
and  services  of  the  tenants  of  the  Manor  of  Wykes,  near  Manningtree,  in 
the  same  county.  The  roll  bears  date  the  27th  Edw.  L,  but  the  letter 
must  of  course  have  been  written  several  years  later.  On  the  back  of 
the  letter,  in  a  contemporary  hand,  were  some  memoranda  or  notes  of 
services  (days'  work),  partly  rendered  and  partly  due,  of  some  tenants 
of  the  Manor  of  Wykes,  and  among  them  of  a  few  who,  from  the  difference 
in  christian  names  only  from  some  on  the  roll,  were  probably  their  sons  or 
other  heirs.  The  letter  read  in  extenso,  except  where  the  abbreviated 
words  seem  to  admit  of  doubt,  is  as  follows : 

Honn's  ez  reuerencys  en  touez  chosys  trechere  dame,  volyez  sawer  qe 
ce  sunt  le  nouelys  qe  vynderunt  ale  Reygne  Issabel  ore  lundi  procheyn  de 
le  grauns  qe  sunt  prys  de  Fraunce,  le  roy  de  Nawerne,  le  duk  de  Burgoyne, 
Syre  Johan  de  Fraunce,  duk  de  Normondye,  le  counte  de  Blasoyne,  le  duk 
de  Athoneys,  le  duk  de  Bretaynne,  le  counte  de  Hurbonie,  le  counte 
de  Bloys,  le  counte  de  Ermanak.  Ez  sews  furunt  le  seyniurys  qe  fuerunt 
de  le  baytalye.  Ez  barount  de  Stafforde  ez  Cralbe,  ez  Syre  Johan  Darsy, 
cu  le  '  flote  de  Norz,  sucrunt  de  vers  les  ezscos,  ez  les  pryterunt,  ez  les  hut 
amene  a  noztere  seyniur  le  roy.  Ez  la  vile  de  Caleys  la  meyte  ezt  ars,  ez 
la  vile  rendu;  ez  la  vile  de  Boloynie  ezt  ars  ez  rendu:  ez  nous  ahuiiz  - 
perdu  nos  archerys  ez  gransmye 3  de  nos   awtre  gens. 

§  Adcuz  trechere  dame  ez  vou  doyne  bono  vye  ez  lono-e.  A  dame  Alys 
de  la  Rokele. 

'  In  the  original,  "  le  le  flote."  '  Grauns  mye  !  great  part    My  or  mi, 

"   Probably  "  ahvuiiz,"  tor  avons.  the  half.    See  Lacombe,  au«l  Kclham. 

vol..    XII.  I. 


7  I  ORIGIN  \l.    DOCUMENTS. 

This  news  it  has  been  found  impossible  to  identify  with  any  events  of  that 

period.  It  must  have  been  false  in  its  details,  though  most  likely  some 
it  battle  had  been  fought,  the  results  of  which  were  thus  misrepresented. 
At  no  time  do  we  find  the  above-mentioned  princes  and  nobles,  or  the 
greater  part  of  them,  prisoners.  Boulogne  was  not  taken  by  the  English  at 
the  same  time  as  Calais;  and  the  surrender  of  the  latter  was  not  contem- 
poraneous with  any  great  battle.  The  report  respecting  those  towns  makes 
it  evident  that  the  letter  was  written  while  the  war  was  carried  on  in  that 
part  of  Frame,  and  before  Calais  had  been  any  considerable  time  in  the 
possession  of  the  English.  The  only  campaign  in  that  locality  before  the 
taking  of  Calais  was  that  in  L346-7,  which  was  signalised  by  the  victory 
of  Creasy,  and  the  siege  and  surrender  of  Calais.  That  battle  was  fought 
on  the  26th  of  August,  1 3 4 G .  The  victorious  Edward,  without  delay, 
marched  through  the  Rouhmnois,  burnt  St.  Josse,  Neuchatel,  and  Bstaples, 
and  reached  Calais  on  the  31st  of  August.  The  siege  commenced  a  few 
days  after,  and  continued  till  August  in  the  following  year,  when  the  place 
surrendered  ;  it  remained  in  the  hands  of  the  English  till  1558.  The 
affair  of  the  fleet  with  the  Scots  is  not  very  intelligible.  Lord  Stafford 
was  at  Cressy,  and  therefore  could  hardly  have  been  in  that  expedition. 
David,  King  of  Scots,  was  taken  prisoner  at  Neville's  Cross,  in  October 
1346.  An  attack  by  the  fleet  may  have  occurred  shortly  before  that  event, 
but  was  less  likely  to  have  happened  in  the  following  year.  We  may 
therefore  conclude  from  all  these  circumstances,  that  the  battle  referred  to 
was  that  of  Cressy,  and  that  the  letter  was  written  very  shortly  after  it, 
viz..  early  in  September,  1^-lG. 

We  have  not  found  the  names  of  any  distinguished  prisoners  taken  at 
Cre--v.  Froissart  is  silent  on  the  subject,  and  from  the  description  of  the 
battle  it  is  most  likely  they  were  very  few  .  The  I  'mint  of  Blois  was  among  the 
sl.iin  :  Lord  Aubigny  was  present  and  attended  King  Philip  from  the  field  ; 
the  Duke  of  Normandy,  afterwards  King  John,  was  engaged  in  the  siege  of 
Aiguillon,  in  Guienne  ;  the  Duke  of  Britany,  Charles  of  Blois,  was  taken 
prisoner  the  following  year  at  Roche  d'  Errien.  If  the  King  of  Navarre  and 
Duke  of  Burgundy  had  borne  a  share  in  that  campaign,  much  more,  had 
they  been  captured,  Froissart  would  hardly  have  failed  to  mention  them. 

Boulogne,  near  Paris,  had  been  taken  and   burnt    a   few    weeks    before:  this 

may  account  for  the  report  as  to  Boulogne-sur-mer,  which  no  doubt  was 
the  town  meant  in  the  letter. 

Though  not  able  to  discover  exactly  who  Maine  Alys  de  la  Rokele  was. 
we  would  make  a  estionj  ae  i"  how  this  letter  may  have  happened 

to  find  a  place  among  the  muniments  of  the  Barrington  Hall  Estate.  The 
memoranda  at  the  back  seem  to  show  that,  baving  fulfilled  its  miBBion,  it 
came  into  the  hands  of  some  steward  of  the  manor  mentioned  in  the  Roll 
to  which  it  was  annexed,  who  made  that  use  ol  the  back  of  it  to  winch  at 
nil  times  letters  bave  been  subject,  uml  noted  thereon  a  few  particulars 
to  what  tenants' services  were  in  arrear  ;  and  though  attached  to  the 
Roll  for  a  temporary  purpose,  it  baa  accidentally  been  preserved  to  the 
pr<  i  nl  time.  We  are  thus  led  to  look  for  some  connexion  between  the 
rard  and  the  lady  to  whom  the  lettei  was  addressed;  and  if,  after  so 
long  a  time,  we  should  find  the  evidence  fail  to  show  this  distinctly,  we  maj 

perhaps    be   able   to   establish    g I    grounda   for   believing  that  such  a 

coi  .it      In    Hadox's   Form.   Angl.,  p.  349,  \t  a   powei  oi 

attorney  from  William  de  Bohun,  Earl  oi  Northampton,  dated  at  Raxnsden 


ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS.  75 

Belhouse  (Essex),  the  6th  of  June,  in  33  Edward  III.  (1359),  authorising 
his  dear  and  well-beloved  Godfrey  de  la  Rokele  to  deliver  seisin  of  certain 
lands  at  Duwnham  (Essex)  that  had  been  given   by  the  Earl  in  exchange, 
and  to  accept  seisin  of  others  that  had  been  taken  in  lieu  of  them.      This 
was  business  likely  to  be  transacted  by  a  steward.      A  few  years  later,  viz., 
in  44  Edward  III.  (1370).  a  Godfrey  de  Rokele  was  steward  of  the  Honor  of 
Rayleigh  and   Hundred   of  Rochford,    in  Essex,1  which  then  belonged  to 
Humphry  de  Bohim,  who,  as  heir  both  of  his  father  and  uncle,  was  Earl  of 
Hereford,  Essex,  and  Northampton  ;  the  same  having  been  granted  by  Ed- 
ward III.  in  1340  to  his  father,  William  de  Bohun  Earl  of  Northampton,  who 
died  in  1360.-  This  family,  as  is  well  known,  held  numerous  manors  in  Essex. 
Among  them  were  those  of  Wykes  and  Hatfield  Regis  ;  the  former  had  been 
confirmed  in  tail  general  to  William  Earl  of  Northampton  in  6  Edward  III. 
(1333), 3  and  on    his   death   it   descended    to    his    before-mentioned    Bon 
Humphry,  Earl  of  Hereford,  Essex,  and  Northampton,  who  died,  seised  of 
it   in   1372  ;  4  the  latter,  which  in  the  seventeenth  century  became  part  of 
the  Barrington  Hall  Estate,  also  devolved  on  him,  having  been  granted  to 
his  grandparents  Humphry  de  Bohun,  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex,  and  the 
Princess  Elizabeth   his  wife,  and  their  heirs,  by  her  brother  Edward  II.5 
Another  part  of  their  patrimonial  property  was  the  seiguory  of  the  Manor 
of  South  Okendon,  in  Essex,  which   for  several  generations  had  been  held 
of  them  by  the  Essex  family  of  Rokele  ;  but  had  been  recently  carried,  by 
the  marriage  of  one  of  two  coheiresses  of  the  elder  branch,  to  the  family  of 
Bruyn.6     The  Rokeles  were  a  knightly  family,    and  the   coheiress  who 
married  a  Bruyn,  namely  Isolda,  daughter  of  Philip  de  Rokele  who  died  in 
1295,  was  one  of  the  ladies  attending  on  Queen  Eleanor,'  the  mother  of 
Edward  II.  and  Princess  Elizabeth,  Countess  of  Hereford  and  Essex.     If, 
as  seems  highly  probable,  a  cadet  of  the   Rokele  family  were  steward  to 
either  of  the  Earls  above-mentioned,  that  was  not  by  any  means  an  ignoble 
condition,  unbecoming  the  son  of  a  knight  ;  but  an  office  to  which,  seeing 
the  long  feudal  relationship  that  had  subsisted  between  the  two  families,  he 
was  likely  to  have  been  appointed  ;  and  the  interval  of  twenty-four  years 
between  the  supposed  date  of  this  letter  and  the  time  when   Godfrey  de 
Rokele  appears  to  have   been    steward    of   the   Honor  of  Rayleigh   and 
Hundred  of  Rochford,  does  not  render  it  improbable  that  he  may  also  have 
been  the  steward  of  Wykes  and   other  manors  of  William  Earl  of  North- 
ampton, when  the  letter  was  written.     Dame  Alys  de  la  Rokele,  whom  we 
do  not  find  mentioned  elsewhere,  may  have  been  his  mother  or  other  near 
relative,  if  not  his  wife.      The  connexion  of  the  Rokeles  with   the  Bohuns 
fully  suffices  to  account  for  her  having  some  friend  in  the  Court  of  Queen 
Isabella,  and  as  Humphry,  Earl  of  Hereford  and  Essex,  and  his  brother 
William,  Earl  of  Northampton,  were  actively  engaged  in  the  campaign  of 
1346,  the  Rokeles,  and  especially  the  steward  of  the  latter,  could  not  fail 
to  take  great  interest  in  the  events  of  the  war,  even  if  none  of  their  own 
family  were  among  the  retainers  who  fought  under  the  banner  of  the  gallant 
Earl  William,  when  he  led  the  second  divison  at  Creasy. 

\V.  S.  WALFORD. 

1  Cal.   Rot.  Pat.  p.    186;    Morant,  i.  *  Morant,  to. 

p.  277.  ■  Morant,  ii.  p.  503. 

-'  Morant,  i.  p.  -74.  "  Morant, i.  p.  99. 

3  Cal.Rot.l'at.  p.  llo  ;  Morant, i.  p.lu'7.  '   Ibid,  and  Hail.  MS.  1541,  p.  .'». 


Poccrtiings  at  the  /tunings  of  the  :iUchncoIogicnl  Institute. 


December  1,    IS")  1. 

(i.taviis    fiiOBGAK,    Esq.   M.P.,  F.S.A.,    in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  IfoBOAH  gave  the  following  description   of   a  remarkable   Roman 
tomb,  vi  rv  recently  found  at  Caerwent,  Monmouthshire  : — 

"  On  20th  November  last,  a  curious  ancient  Bepulohre  was  discovered  by 
Borne  workmen  who  were  making  deep  drains  in  a  field   in  the  immediate 

-~  vicinity  of  Caerwent,  Monmouthshire.  The 
field  adjoins  the  south  side  of  the  turnpike 
load  leading  from  Caerwent  to  Newport  ; 
the  grave  is  about  20  feet  from  the  road, 
and  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  Caer- 
went. This  road  is  a  portion  of  the  Julia 
Strata,  the  ancient  Roman  way,  which 
passed  through  the  middle  ot  the  rectangular 
space  enclosed  within  the  stone  walls  of  the 
Roman  station,  Venta  Silunun,  or  Caer- 
went.1 It  is  probable  that  other  graves 
may  exist  by  the  side  of  this  road,  though 
p  the  drainers  have  not  met  with  any  re- 
mains of  that  nature. 

"  The  grave,  of  which  the  top  was  about 
four  feet  below  the  surface,  consisted  of  an 
oblong  outer  chamber,  8  feet  9  inches 
long.  '.'>  feet  6  inches  wide,  and  3  feet  high, 
neatly  constructed  with  large  thin  slahs  of 
paving  stone  without  anj  cement.  The 
sides  oonsisted  each  of  two  slabs,  one  of 

which    was    li    feel    long    and    .">    wide,   and 

the  other  smaller,  l'   feel  9  inches  by  3 
feel  ;  the  ends  consisted  each  of  one  slab. 

The    slabs     were     about    3     inches    thick, 

\eiv  neatly   squared,  and  being  set  upon 

-J   their  edges,  formed  B  rectangular  chamber, 

■     i . — i — i — j  the  earth  retaining  them  in  their  position. 

Within  this  ohamber  was  a  large  roughly 

bewn  stone  coffin,  formed  out  <>i  a  single 

block    of  the   buff-coloured     and  tone    found    in   the   neighbourhood,  the 

t  lui  ton  rod  of  the  New    Ps  sage.     This  coffin  was  externally  <  feel  3 


\  |  .  ii.  on, and  an  account 

ii   in  < 'u\<' a 
i  Monmouth  ihire,    vol    I 


Roman  remains  Found  there  are  described, 
\  rcbsologia,  rol.  ii.   p.  8  ;  i  ol,  f»  p.  40 : 

vol    mi.  p    1 10. 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 


I  I 


inches  long,  by  3  feet  at  the  head,  2  feet  6  inches  at  the  feet,  and  2  feet 
in  depth.  The  space  between  the  coffin  and  the  slabs  forming  the  walls  of 
the  chamber,  was  closely  filled  in  with  what  seemed  to  be  small  coal, 
onburnt,  rammed  in  tight  and  hard.  This  only  came  up  to  the  top  of  the 
coffin,  which  was  covered  with  a  very  large  slab  of  the  same  stone,  8  inches 
thick,  roughly  hewn  like  the  coffin,  without  any  letters,  characters, 
emblems,  or  sculpture  of  any  kind.     The  top  of  this  stone  was  some  inches 


1  2  3  FEET. 

Section  ot  a  Roman  Tomb  found  at  Caerwent. 

below  the  upper  edge  of  the  upright  slabs  forming  the  chamber,  and  the 
cavity  between  the  sides  and  ends  of  the  cover  of  the  coffin,  and  the  walls 
of  the  chamber  was,  as  it  were,  roofed  in  by  smaller  slabs  of  paving  stone 
which  rested  on  the  top  of  the  cover  and  the  edges  of  the  slabs.  This  is 
the  description  I  received  from  the  workmen  who  found  it,  but  who  before 
they  gave  notice  to  any  one  opened  and  examined  it,  and  it  had  been  rifled 
before  I  beard  of  the  discovery.  On  removing  the  stone  cover,  the  stone  chest 
was  found  to  contain  a  leaden  coffin.  This,  however,  consisted  of  a  closely 
fitting  leaden  lining  of  the  cavity  in  the  stone,  soldered  at  the  corners,  and 
lapped  about  1^  inches  upon  the  sides  of  the  stone  coffin,  the  exterior  edge 
of  which  is  somewhat  rounded,  as  shown  in  the  section.  The  lid  of  the 
leaden  lining  was  a  plain  oblong  sheet  of  lead  laid  over  the  cavity,  and 
unsoldered  ;  it  had  been,  however,  supported  by  three  iron  bars  laid  across 
the  cavity  for  that  purpose,  but  these  were  so  corroded  by  decay  as  to 
have  become  only  a  mass  of  yellow  ochreous  rust,  and  had  fallen  to  the 
bottom,  leaving  however  marks  on  the  lead  and  stone.  On  stripping  back 
the  lead,  the  workmen  told  me  the  coffin  was  found  to  be  filled  with  clear 
water,  at  the  bottom  of  which  the  skeleton  was  lying,  partly  covered  with 
ochreous  sediment.  They  emptied  out  all  the  water,  took  out  all  the 
bones,  and  carefully  felt  with  their  hands  through  all  the  sediment,  in  the 
hopes  of,  as  one  told  me,  of  finding  rings,  and  from  what  I  have  since 
heard  there  is  reason  to  believe   that   something  was  found,  though  they 


78  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 

declared  to  me  that  they  found  nothing.  The  interior  of  the  leaden  lining 
w.i-  6  feet  3  inches  long,  and  18  inches  wide  at  the  head,  16  at  the  feet, 
and  1-  inches  deep.  The  head  was  towards  the  east,  and  the  hones  were 
of  a  fnll-grown  man  in  the  prime  of  life,  as  I  judge  from  the  state 
of  the  jaw  and  the  teeth  :  the  workmen  had,  however,  extracted  all  the 
teeth,  and  though  the  bones  were  tolerably  hard,  the  skull  was  broken  in 
l'\  having  fallen  down,  and  most  of  the  hones  were  altogether 
wanting,  or  broken  up.  In  the  absence  of  all  sculpturo  or  inscription,  and 
anything  that  may  have  been  found  in  the  coffin  having  been  lost,  it  is 
impossible  to  form  any  conjecture  as  to  the  person  interred  ;  from  the 
locality  we  may,  1  tliink,  conclude  that  he  was  a  Roman  inhabitant  of 
Caerwent,  and  a  person  of  distinction  from  the  mode  of  his  interment. 
Specially  remarkable  circumstances,  however,  seem  to  me  to  be,  the  leaden 
lining  to  the  Btone  coffin,  and  the  singular  fact  of  the  coffin  being  sur- 
rounded by  a  closely  rammed  body  of  small  coal.  This  must  have  been 
brought  from  a  considerable  distance,  the  nearest  spots  now  known  from  which 
Ould  be  procured  being  either  the  Forest  of  Dean,  or  the  Monmouth- 
shire coal  field,  either  being  some  12  or  15  miles  distant.  In  the  excava- 
tions made  to  get  to  the  grave,  a  great  quantity  of  large  pieces  of  stones 
of  different  sorts  were  found.  Borne  were  of  the  Charston  sandstone,  some 
of  hard  grit  stone,  and  some  mountain  limestone.  Many  were  much 
blackened  with  smoke,  some  were  reddened  by  the  action  of  lire,  and 
Borne  of  the  limestone  was  partly  burnl  into  lime  on  the  outside.  I  was 
informed  that  these  stones  had  the  appearance  of  having  been  arranged  as 
forming  flues,  or  passages  to  carry  off  smoke,  and  that  one  run  in  the 
direction  of  the  road,  and  another  towards  Caerwent.  1  did  not,  however, 
see  them,  and  it  is  difficult  to  understand  the  use  of  BUch  flues  of  rough 
Stones,  apart  from  any  building,  and  running  near  the  then  surface  of  the 
ground,  perhaps  in  a  heap  of  stones  above  it.  The  ground  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  coffins  had  all  been  tilled  in,  and  consisted  of  gravelly  earth  and 
stones  of  various  sizes,  but  these  larger  stones  were  all  together  near  the 
grave,  though  rather  above  it,  and  between  it  and  the  road.  The  field 
-  meadow,  of  which  the  surface  was  a  smooth  sward,  with  no 
indication  of  anj thing  beneath  it." 

Btone  cists  containing  coffins  of  had,  of  the  Roman  period,  have  very 
rarelj  been  found  in  England.  Mr.  Hawkins  Btated,  in  his  account  of  the 
Roman  sarcophagus  found  in  the  MinorieB,  and  now  preserved  at  the 
British  Museum,  that  it  presented  the  only  example  of  that  mode  of  inter- 
ment which  had  fallen   under  bis  observation.5     Hasted  relates   that   in 

ftVel   at   Whatinere  Hall,    in  the  parish   of  Slurry,    Kent,   a  large 
slab  wa-  ton  ml  at  B  depth  of   5  feet,    under  w  hich  wa>  a  -tone  coll  in  enclos- 

aother  of  lead,  put   together  in  six  pieces  without  solder.      It  con- 

ta  ned  a  skeleton  of  small  Mature.     An  earthen  found  near  the 

spot,  which  was  Bituated  on  or  v«  r\  mar  the  Roman  toad  from  Canterbury 

to  the  station  at  Reculver. 

Mr.    STates   observed  that  the  remarkable  feature    of  the    interment 

bed  bj    Mr.   Morgan,    namely,  the  coal  used  for  filling  the  space 

around  the  stom  ted  the  enquiry  whether  coal  had  been  used 

I  or  worked  to  any  extent  by  the  Romans,  during  their  occupation 

ot   Britain.     Ii  wa    probable  that  their  workings  were  not  carried  to  any 

,\l  •   I-  ■      I  I    I     I'    'I         I  ll     I      "I     K<   III,   VOl     Ml.    |i     G  I  ... 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  79 

great  (lcpt)i,  and  in  some  parts  of  South  Wales  it  was  well  known  that 
coal  might  he  ohtained  almost  immediately  under  the  surface. 

Mr.  Clayton  remarked  that  according  to  the  facts  which  had  fallen  under 
his  observation  in  Northumberland,  in  the  course  of  his  late  explorations  at 
Housesteads  and  other  sites  on  the  Roman  wall,  there  is  abundant 
evidence  that  fossil  fuel  was  used  by  the  Romans.  The  Stations  per  lineam 
valli  were  certainly  supplied  with  coal,  which  must  have  proved  a  valuable 
resource  in  that  severe  climate  ;  traces  of  ancient  workings  had  been 
observed,  and  in  the  buildings  which  Mr.  Clayton  had  excavated,  he  had 
repeatedly  observed  the  soot  and  cinders,  indicating  frequent  use  of  coal  in 
the  Roman  settlements  in  the  north. 

Mr.  MORGAN  observed  that  he  hoped  to  see  the  site  of  Venta  Silurian, 
which  might  be  termed  the  Monmouthshire  Pompeii,  fully  explored  ;  such 
an  investigation  could  not  fail  amply  to  repay  the  labours  of  the  archaeolo- 
gist, and  it  had  for  some  time  past  been  contemplated  by  the  Caerleon 
Antiquarian  Association.  He  hoped  that  a  commencement  would  be  made 
during  the  ensuing  spring. 

The  Rev.  Joseph  Hunter  gave  an  account  of  an  illuminated  Book  of 
Prayers,  presented  to  the  convent  of  Bornheim  by  Cardinal  Howard,  and 
produced  on  this  occasion  by  the  obliging  permission  of  Lady  Stourton, 
now  the  possessor  of  this  beautiful  MS.  Mr.  Hunter's  memoir  is  given  in 
this  volume.      See  page  65. 

Mr.  Alexander  Nesbitt  gave  the  following  description  of  the  "  Dun- 
vegan  Cup,"  which,  through  the  kindness  of  Norman  Mac  Leod,  Esq., 
was  brought  for  examination.  A  representation  of  this  curious  wooden 
vessel  was  communicated  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  by  W.  Daniell, 
Esq.,  R.  A.,  in  1819,  and  it  has  been  engraved  in  the  Archasologia, 
vol.  xxii.,  pi.  33,  p.  407.  Another  representation,  from  a  drawing  by 
Mrs.  Mac  Leod,  is  given  by  Dr.  Wilson,  in  his  "  Prehistoric  Annals," 
p.  670. 

"  The  very  singular  drinking-cup  known  as  the  Dunvegan  Cup,  from  its 
having  been  long  preserved  at  Dunvegan  Castle,  in  the  Isle  of  Skve,  as  an 
heirloom  of  the  Mac  Leods  of  Mac  Leod,  has  been  mentioned  by  Sir  Walter 
Scott  in  the  notes  to  the  Lord  of  the  Isles,  by  Dr.  Wilson  in  his 
Archaeology  and  Prehistoric  Annals  of  Scotland,  and  in  the  Proceedings 
of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland  for  1852,  vol.  i.,  p.  8.  The 
extreme  rarity  of  such  examples  of  the  skill  of  ancient  Irish  silversmiths, 
and  the  very  curious  nature  of  its  ornamentation,  may  warrant  a  somewhat 
more  detailed  notice  than  has  hitherto  been  published. 

"  It  is  a  cup  of  wood,  probably  either  yew  or  alder,  such  as  in  Ireland  is 
called  a  '  mother, '  square  above  and  rounded  below,  placed  on  four  legs, 
and  almost  covered  with  mountings  of  silver,  decorated  with  niello  and 
gilding  ;  the  whole  measures  10|  inches  in  height,  A\  inches  in  breadth  at 
the  mouth,  and  5.J,  at  the  broadest  point,  which  is  somewhat  below  the 
middle.  Dr.  Wilson  (Proc.  of  the  Soc.  of  Antiqu.  of  Scotland,  1852, 
Part  I.,  p.  S)  surmises  that  the  cup  is  older  than  the  inscription,  which  is 
on  a  broad  silver  rim  at  the  mouth,  and  bears  the  date  of  1403  ;  however 
this  may  be,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the  whole  of  the  ornamental 
mounting  is  of  the  same  period,  or  that  this  period  is  not  far  distant  from 
the  date  given  by  the  inscription.  The  same  ornaments  in  niello  are  to  be 
found  upon  the  rim  at  the  mouth  and  on  the  lower  part,  and  the  pierced 
work  of  parts  shows  an  evident  imitation  of  the  tracery  and  foliations  of  a 


80  PBOCEEDINGfl    AT    KRETINGS   OF 

late  period  of  pointed  architecture  ;  mixed,  however,  with  those,  are  to  be 
fouiul  the  filagree  ornaments  and  the  knotwork  which  in  England  charac- 
terise the  work,  of  very  early  times,  but  which  are  well  known  to  have 
remained  in  086  in  Ireland  until  native  art  was  entirely  superseded  by 
English,  and  in  the  Celtic  parte  of  Scotland,  almost  until  our  own  time. 
There  are  no  traces  of  that  singular  ornamentation  produced  by  the  inter- 
lacing of  animals  bo  much  used  in  Irish  work  of  the  Kith  and  XI  1th 
centuries,  That  dislike  of  uniformity  and  the  ingenuity  in  inventing  new- 
varieties  of  ornament,  which  are  manifested  in  Irish  work  of  all  dates,  are 
fully  displayed  here  ;  with  very  \'<  *  exceptions,  all  the  corresponding  parts, 
though  alike  in  form,  have  entirely  different  ornaments. 

"  Many  different  processes  have  been  employed  in  the  decoration  of  the 
silver  mountings,  viz.,  gilding,  which  has  been  used  on  almost  every  part 
of  the  Burface  not  covered  by  niello;  inlaying  of  niello  into  patterns  out  for 
its  reception  ;  raising  a  pattern  in  relief  in  thin  silver,  probably  by  stamping 
with  a  die  ;  piercing  plates  with  foliated  openings;  attaching  wires  of  various 
sizes  and  forms,  some  flat  and  some  twisted,  or  filagree  work  ;  and  engraving. 
Besides  these,  additional  variety  of  effect  has  been  produced  by  placing 
behind  BOme  of  the  pierced  openings  small  plates  of  silver  hatched  or 
engraved  on  their  surface,  and  not  gilt,  in  order  that  they  might  contrast 
with  the  gilded  silver  through  which  the  openings  are  pierced  ;  behind  other 
openings  remains  of  cloth  are  found,  winch,  though  now  completely  faded 
and  almost  colourless,  may  once,  by  its  bright  colour,  have  produced  an 
effective  contrast  to  the  surrounding  metal.  Empty  sockets  remain  which 
once  held  Btones  01"  glass,  and  others  of  smaller  size  still  retain  heads  of 
coral. 

"  These  various  methods  of  decoration  are  applied  in  the  following 
manner  ;  the  mouth  has  a  rim  of  solid  silver  gilt,  2  inches  in  depth,  on  the 
opteide  of  which  is  engraved  an  inscription  in  black  letter  and  in  two  lines; 
the  Bpace8  between  the  letters  are  hatched  with  fine  lines  intersecting 
diagonally.  The  angles  of  the  rim  have  strips  ornamented  with  niello. 
Tie-  inside  is  unite  plain,  excepting  that  the  letters  il)<3  are  repeated  on 
each  side  upon  a  small  hatched  Bpace. 

•'  Aln.nt  1  '  inches  above  the  feel  is  a  projecting  ledge  •:  of  an  inch  in 
width;  tlii-  is  covered  with  thin  silver;  that  which  covers  the  upper 
surface  is  ll.it,  and  bears  a  raised  pattern,  apparently  stamped  :  the  under 
surface  is  curved  and  plain.  At  each  angle  of  the  upper  Burface  is  one  of 
the  empty  ockets  mentioned  above,  and  on  each  side  two  three-sided 
pyramids  with  granulated  surface-,  making  them  resemble  piles  of  pins' 
heads,  From  the  rim  to  the  ledges  run  straight  strip-  of  thin  silver 
embracing  the  angles  ;  Lh<  se  are  stamped  <>r  repoussd  in  patterns,  and  in 
other  part-  pierced,  and  the  surface  covered  with  oielloor  gilding  ;  beneath 
the  openings  small  pieces  of  i  agraved  silver  have  beeu  placed,  most  (,t'  crhioh 

are  now  (ranting  ;    by  this  meani  three  different  col >.  viz.,  those  ,,f  the 

gilding,  tin-   ilver,  and  the  niello,  are  broughl  into  play.     Midway  between 

are  other  bands,  I   ol  an  b  broad,  the  central  parts  of  whioh  are 

enlarged  into  circles  of  J  '  inch  diameter;  thi  te  bands  are  highly  ornamented 
with  filagree  ol  rieti  of  pattern,  and  with  pierced  foliated  openings; 

<>■  of  the  circle    these  opening  ■  are    ..  arranged  as  in  boi legree  to 

nble  tin-  ti  circular  < lotbic  window. 

"  In  between  the  hands  in  the  centre  and  at  the  angles  both 

and  below,  was  fixed  a    mall    lip  of  silver  gilt,  and  ornamented  with 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  81 

filagree,  1|  inch  long  by  )  inch  broad,  each  slip  having  a  small  coral  bead 
at  one  end  ;  of  these  only  seven  now  remain. 

"  In  the  part  below  the  ledge,  the  central  bands  are  similar  (though  of 
different  patterns)  to  those  occupying  the  same  position  above  ;  those  at 
the  angles,  however,  differ  from  the  angle-bands  of  the  upper  part;  they 
are  wider,  and  are  ornamented  with  filagree,  disposed  in  compartments 
divided  by  narrow  strips,  with  patterns  in  niello.  There  are  no  small 
strips  on  this  part  of  the  cup. 

"  These  bands  all  meet  a  circle  3  inches  in  diameter,  which  bears  upon  it 
a  knot  pattern  ;  in  the  centre  of  this,  at  the  bottom  of  the  cup,  is  an 
empty  socket,  1 1  inch  in  diameter,  which  no  doubt  once  held  either  a 
stone  or  a  piece  of  mosaic  glass. 

"  The  legs  are  meant  to  represent  human  legs,  but  show  no  attempt  at 
correct  modelling;  their  only  ornament  is  a  twisted  wire  running  down  the 
front ;  the  feet  are  covered  by  shoes,  which  have  a  coating  of  niello,  the 
legs  being  gilt. 

"  From  the  above  detail,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  cup,  when  in  a  perfect 
state,  presented  a  very  curious  polychromatic  effect;  including  that  of  the 
wood,  not  less  than  six,  and  perhaps  even  seven,  colours  were  brought  into 
play  in  its  decoration. 

"  Excepting  in  the  rim,  the  silver  is  used  with  great  economy  ;  it  is  too 
thin  to  possess  sufficient  strength,  and  accordingly  many  parts  have 
suffered  much  from  handling  ;  in  such  portions  of  the  ornament  as  are  much 
raised,  the  filagree  work  is  fixed  upon  thin  plates  which  are  let  into  sockets, 
and  the  back  is  packed  with  cloth  or  pieces  of  wood. 

"  The  inscription  on  the  rim  is  in  that  character  in  which  many  letters  (as 
i,  m,  n,  and  u)  are  scarcely  distinguishable  ;  it  has  consequently  been 
repeatedly  mis-read  ;  which  has  happened  particularly  with  the  proper  names. 
The  following  reading,  that  of  Mr.  Eugene  Curry,  of  the  Brehon  Law 
Commission,  it  is  believed,  is  correct : — 


Kahla  inge  y  neill       uxor    ioh'is     meg 
93°   Oculi   omn    i  |  te  spat  doe  et  tu  das 


uigir  p'ncipis  de 
esca  illor  I  te  op° 


firraanac     me     n* 
fecit.  Atio  do'.  14. 


i.e.  Katherina  ingen  ui  Neill  (O'Neill's  daughter)  uxor  Johannis 
Meguighir  (Mac  Guire)  principis  de  Firmanach  (Fermanagh)  me  fieri  fecit. 
Anno  Domini,  1493°.  Oculi  omnium  in  te  spectant  Domine  et  tu  das 
escam  illorum  in  tempore  opportune 

"  The  latter  part,  it  will  be  seen,  is  the  15th  verse  of  the  144th  Psalm. 

"  John  Mac  Guire  is  mentioned  several  times  in  the  Annals  of  the  Four 
Masters;  he  became  one  of  the  chiefs  of  the  clan  in  1484,  when  two 
Maguires  were  nominated  after  the  murder  of  Gilla  Patrick  by  his  five 
brothers,  at  the  altar  of  the  church  of  Achadh-Uchair.  Nothing  is  recorded 
of  him  in  these  annals  except  the  successful  forays  which  he  made  chiefly 
upon  other  branches  of  the  Maguires,  and  his  death  in  1503,  which  is  thus 
chronicled  :  — 

"  1503.  Maguire,  i.e.  John,  son  of  Philip,  son  of  Thomas  More,  i.e. 
Gilla  Duv,  the  choice  of  the  Chieftains  of  Ireland,  in  his  time  the  most 
merciful  and  humane  of  the  Irish,  the  best  protector  of  his  country  and 
lands,  the  most  warlike  opponent  of  inimical  tribes  and  neighbours,  the 
best  in  jurisdiction,  authority,  and  reputation,  both  in  Church  and  State, 
died  in  his  fortress  at  Enniskillcn,  on  Sunday,  the  7th  of  the  Calends  of 

VOL.  XII.  M 


82  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

April,  after  having  heard  mass,  and  after  the  victory  of  Unction  ami 
Penance,  and  was  buried  in  the  monastery  of  the  friars  at  Donegal,  which 
he  had  selected  "  (as  his  place  of  interment). 

"  Of  Katharine  O'Neill  no  notice  seems  to  occur  in  these  Annals." 

Mr.  Walford  communicated  the  following  notice  of  the  fragment  of  a 
sepulchral  brass,  purchased  in  London  for  the  British  Museum.  It  is  a 
portion  of  a  .-mall  kneeling  figure  in  armour,  No  clue  has  been  obtained 
srtain  from  what  church  it  had  been  taken. 

The  quarterings  upon  the  tabard  of  the  figure  on  this  brass  are  as 
follows:  1.  Lozengy  arg.  and  </«.,  Fitz  William;  2.  Chequy  or  andoer., 
Warenne;  ■">.  Arg.  a  chief gu.,  overall  a  bend  <<:.,  Cromwell;  4.  Chequy 
or  and  gu.,  a  chief  erm.,  Tatshall;  5.  Erm.  a  fess  gu.,  Barnake;  6.  Arg. 
.">  cinquefoils  and  a  canton  gu.,  Dry  by  of  Tatshall;  7.  Gu.  a  lion  ramp,  or, 
Albini;  8.  Az.  3  garbs  or,  Blundeville;  9.  A:,  a  wolf's  head  erased  arg., 
Lupus;  10.  Arg.  a  cross  engrailed  gu.,  Green  of  Drayton;  11.  Chequy 
('/•and  a~.  within  a  bordure  gu.,  Mauduit;  L2.  Crti.  3  waterbougets  erm., 
Rooa  of  Derbyshire  and  Notts  ;  13.  Quarterly  or  and  <iu.  within  a  horduro 
bezanty,  Rochford;  14.  Missing;  15,  As  the  1st.  On  the  honour  point 
18  an  annulet. 

The  person  represented  in  this  tabard  was  evidently  a  Fitz  William,  and 
as  the  quarterings  comprise  those  of  Green  of  Drayton  and  Mauduit,  he 
must  in  all  probability  have  been  a  descendant  of  Sir  John  Fitz  William 
who  died  in  1  118,  by  ESleanor,  daughter  of  Sir  Henry  Green  of  Drayton, 
by  his  wife  Matilda,  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir  Thomas  Mauduit.  The 
annulet  is  no  doubt  a  mark  of  cadency,  and  may  be  assumed  to  have 
indicated,  at  the  date  of  this  brass,  a  fifth  sen  ;  and  Beeing  thai  no  male 
adant  of  that  Sir  John  Fitz  William  appears  to  have  had  five  sons 
within  the  period  to  which  th'-  brass  can  be  referred,  except  John  Fitz 
William,  of  Sprotborough,  who  was  living  in  9th  Henry  VIIL,  and  Sir 
William  Fitz  William  of  Gainspark,  who  died  in  1534  ;  the  person  repre- 
sented was  most  likelj  either  Ralph,  the  fifth  son  of  the  former,  <>r  Thomas, 
the  fifth  son  of  the  latter.  Of  this  Ralph  little  seem-  known  but  that  he 
travelled  into  Spain,  an  event  in  those  days  sufficiently  rare  to  he  recorded. 
Win  n  or  where  he  died  dees  not  appear,  though,  as  he  did  not  subscribe 
die  tion  of  Vouchers  made  by  bis  brother  Hugh  in  L565  (See 
Bridge's    Collins,   iv.    pp.    ."'7  it    is  probable    he  was    not    then 

ither  was  a  Damoryand  an  heiress,  and  if  the  brass  repre- 
sents him,  we  ma)  Buppose  the  missing  coat,  No.  14,  was  Damory.  Thomas, 
the  fifth  Bon  of  Sir  William  Fitz  William  of  Gainspark,  was  of  Norborough, 
Northamptonshire  :  when  be  died,  or  where  he  was  buried,  does  not  appear. 
lie  wom  a  balf-brother  of  Anne,  wife  of  Sir  Anthony  Coke  of  Romford. 
The  quartered  eu.it  of  her  father,  as  impaled  with  her  husband's  on  hia 
temh,  is  given  in  Lysons'  Environs  of  London,  iv.  pp.  L93  1.  The 
rings  differ  materially  from  these.  Thej  compri  e  Lisures,  Lacy, 
Bertram,  Clinton,  Marmion,  and  Fitzhugh ;  while  Green,  Mauduit,  Rooa, 
and  Rochford  are  absent  li  might,  then  fen,  lie  supposed  that  these 
i..-   th.-   arms   of  her   brother,   but   the    Pedigree  in    Bridge's 

that    the    FitZ    Williams    were 

titled  to  quartei  Green  and  Mauduit;  I'm-,  though  the  male  issue  of 

li.i  1   failed,  they,   who  repn  tented   ■>     i  ter,   were  net    the    heir-, 

a  i.i  ah.  i   of  then  ancostn       v  Sir   Anthonv 

•  !:.•■ I  in  1576,  which  would    eem  to  be  ■>   lew  yean    later  than  this 


TIM-:    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    IXSTITLTK. 


83 


brass;  and  probably  in  the  meantime  the  error  had  heen  discovered,  and 
the  quartered  coat  recomposed.  To  the  quarterings  given  hy  Lysons,  the 
above-mentioned  Ralph  had  as  much  right  as  Thomas  or  his  father  ;  and 
therefore  the  variation  between  them  and  these  does  not  determine  to 
which  of  those  two  fifth  sons  the  brass  is  to  be  appropriated.  Neither 
branch  of  the  family  appears  to  have  had  any  right  to  the  arms  of  the 
ancient  Earls  of  Chester.  The  only  ground  for  their  claiming  them  seems 
to  have  been  their  descent  from  Albreda,  daughter  and  heiress  of  Robert  de 
Lisures,  who  had  been  the  widow  of  Richard  Fitz  Eustace,  Constable  of 
Chester,  and  was  half-sister  of  Robert  de  Lacy,  Lord  of  Pontefract,  who 
died  without  issue,  and  was  succeeded 
by  a  half-brother  of  Albreda,  that  took 
the  name  of  de  Lacy,  and  became  con- 
stable of  Chester. 

The  Rev.  F.  Dyson  described  the  re- 
mains of  a  singular  cruciform  conduit 
funned  of  stone  and  wood,  found  at  the 
Holy  Well,  Malvern  Wells,  dining 
the  construction  of  some  new  baths  in 
September  last.  A  block  of  blue  lias 
rock,  measuring  about  22  in.  by  18  in., 
formed  the  centre  of  four  water-courses  ; 
three  of  these  contributed  streams  of 
very  pure  water,  which  flowed  out  through 
the  fourth  in  an  easterly  direction  through 
a  trunk  of  oak.  The  channels  for  the 
water  measured  5  to  6  inches  in  dia- 
meter. Some  portions  of  the  old  stone  covering  had  subsequently  been 
found.  Mr.  Dyson  stated  the  supposition,  that  the  cruciform  fashion  of 
this  conduit  might  have  had  some  connexion  with  the  name  of  the  "  Holy 
Well." 

9ntfgttitfe*  ana"  fflSHToriui  af  3rt  erfttbttrtr. 

By  Mr.  Falkxer,  of  Deddington. — A  bronze  socketed  celt,  found  at 
Danes  Hill,  near  Deddington,  Oxfordshire.  A  bronze  Roman  lamp,  with 
two  burners,  described  as  found  at  King's  Holme,  near  Gloucester,  where 
Roman  remains  have,  at  various  times,  been  discovered.  A  bronze  lamp 
with  a  single  burner,  found  there  in  1790,  a  bronze  patera,  stilyard,  and 
several  other  reliques  of  the  Roman  period,  are  represented  in  the 
Archfcologia,  vol.  x.,  p.  132.  They  were  in  the  possession  of  Samuel 
Lysons.  A  leaden  coffin  with  various  antiquities  had  been  brought  to 
light  there  a  few  years  before,  and  more  recently  an  amphora  and  numerous 
Roman  coins  were  found.1 

By  Mr.  Way. — Impressions  from  two  British  or  Gaulish  gold  coins. 
lately  found  in  Surrey  and  Kent.  One  of  them,  now  in  the  collection  of 
the  Bon.  R.  Neville,  had  been  picked  up  by  a  labourer  engaged  in  "  fag- 
ging "  oats,  last  harvest,  in  the  West  Field,  at  Ilathresham  Farm  in  the 
parish  of  Eorley,  Dear   Reigate.     The  soil  is  clayey,   and  the  field  had 


1  Archseologia,  vol.  vii.  pp.  :i7''.  379  ; 
vol.  xviii.  ]>.  1 '__.  The  place  called  Kings- 
holme    is  situated   on  the    Krmin   Street, 


and  remains  of  buildings  were  to  be  seen 
there  supposed  to  he  the  site  of  a  residence 
of  tin-  kings  of  Mercia. 


84 


PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 


been  ploughed  rather  deeper  than  in  previous  seasons.  One  side  of  this 
coin  is  convex  and  plain  ;  on  the  other,  which  is  in  remarkable  preservation, 
appears  the  horse  galloping  to  the  left,  with  certain  symbols  in  the 
held.  According  to  the  observations  whiqjp  Mr.  Way  had  received  from 
Mr.  Evans,  this  Coin  is  of  B  very  rare  and  unpublished  type.  It  is  singu- 
lar in  two  respects,  as  having  so  well  formed  a  horse,  in  conjunction  with 
the  plain  OT  nearly  plain  obverse,  and  in  having  above  the  horse  the 
symbol  of  a  hand  clenched,  and  apparently  holding  a  branch.  A  hand 
below  the  horse,  Mr.  Evans  Btated,  is  not  uncommon  on  a  class  of  Gaulish 
coin-  with  the  androcephalous  horse,  but  he  bad  not  met  with  the  hand  in 
any  position  on  a  British  coin.     The  class  of  cuius  to  which  this  belongs, 

was.  however,  current  and  Btruck  in  both 
countries.  The  weight  is  83  grains.  The 
other  gold  coin  had  been  recently  picked 
up  by  Mr.  Worsfold  of  Dovor,  on  the  sur- 
face of  ploughed  land  on  a  farm  called 
Stone  Heap,  in  the  parish  of  Northbrook, 
north-west  of  Dovor.  Mr.  Worsfold  had 
sought  in  vain  for  any  cairn  or  barrow 
from  which  the  name  of  tins  farm  might 
have  been  derived  ;  he  informed  Mr.  Way 
that  he  intended  to  present  the  coin  to  the 
Dovor  museum,  which  has  recently  been 
enriched  by  numerous  local  antiquities, 
especially  the  collections  formed  by  the 
Rev.  W.  Vallance.  This  coin  is  of  a  type, 
as  Mr.  Evans  remarks,  of  ordinary  occur- 
rence both  in  Kent  and  elsewhere  ;  and 
the  only  remarkable  feature  is  an  adjunct 
under  the  horse,  which  appears  to  be  in- 
tended for  a  bird. 

By    Mr.  c.  Tucker.— A  large    bronze 

Bpear-head,  found  with  Beveral  others  in  a 
very    decayed    condition,    at    a     spot    called 

"Bloody  Tool,''  in  the  parish  of  South 
Brent,  Devonshire,  on  the  verge  of 
ooor.  The  place  is  now  a  swampv 
hollow,  but  no  longer  a  pool,  and  no 
record  b  is  been  found  of  .m\  conflict 
which  might  explain  the  name  assigned 
to  it.  With  the  spears,  whioh  were  acci- 
dentally brought  to  lighl  in  digging,  there 
were  four  pieces  oi  broti  q  tube,  which 
maj  bavebeen  fixed  on  the  lower  extremi- 
of  ile-   •baft-.     Th(  i ivets  of 

bronze  bj  which  the  spear-heads  were 
attached  to  the  baft,  remain  pi  rfect.  The 
length  of  the  -pear  head,  n  nearlj 
could  be  a  jcei  tained,  bad  been  I  I  inche  . 
the  "Nile  i  breadth  of  the  blade, 
The  length  of  the  tulx  iboul  7  inche  :  diameter,  even-tenths, 
laperiti  tremity,    which    i-   closed   like   the  ferrule  of  a 


■\" 


t     I 


( 


1 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  86 

walking-cane.  The  spear-heads,  with  one  exception,  were  barbed,  and 
bear  resemblance  to  that  found  in  the  Severn,  near  Worcester,  represented 
in  this  Journal)  vol.  ii.,  p.  187,  and  supposed  to  have  been  a  fishing-spear. 
The  blade  in  that  example,  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Jabez  Allies, 
is  shorter,  and  of  greater  breadth  ;  in  both  the  socket  is  singularly  short. 
See  Mr.  Allies'  Antiquities  of  Worcestershire,  2nd  edit.,  p.  30.  All  the 
spears  found  at  Bloody  Pool  were  broken  into  three  pieces,  and  within 
their  blades  is  a  sort  of  core,  not  metallic  ;  none  appeared  in  the  ferrules. 

Mr.  Franks  observed  that  there  had  existed  much  uncertainty  in  regard 
to  the  ancient  use  of  rivets  to  affix  bronze  spear-heads  to  the  shaft.  No 
example  of  a  bronze  rivet,  as  he  believed,  had  previously  been  noticed  ;  he 
had  been  disposed  to  think  they  were  rarely,  if  ever,  used,  and  that  they 
were  formed  of  wood.  Spear-heads  of  bronze  are  either  formed  with  side- 
loops,  or  apertures  in  the  blade  itself,  supplying  the  means  of  attachment 
to  the  shaft  ;  or  where  no  adjustment  of  this  kind  is  found,  the  socket  is 
perforated  for  a  rivet,  which  would  necessarily  injure  the  strength  of  the 
wooden  shaft.  Mr.  Clibborn,  who  had  carefully  investigated  this  subject 
in  Ireland,  where  bronze  spears  occur  in  great  variety,  thought  that  the 
rivets  might  have  been  of  iron. 

By  Mr.  G.  V.  Du  Noyer. — Representations  of  the  ancient  cross  and 
effigy  of  St.  Gobnet,  an  Irish  saint  who  lived  in  the  seventh  century. 
Amongst  the  remarkable  early  oratories  of  stone  existing  in  the  great 
Island  of  Aran,  in  the  Bay  of  Galway,  as  noticed  by  Dr.  Petrie  (Round 
Towers  of  Ireland,  p.  346)  there  is  one  of  diminutive  size  assigned  to  this 
saint.  Near  the  old  church  of  Ballyvourney,  co.  Cork,  are  the  foundations 
of  her  house,  according  to  tradition,  or  more  probably  of  her  church  ;  this  was 
a  circular  building,  of  the  bee-hive  form,  about  20  feet  in  diameter,  and  the 
upright  stones  which  formed  the  doorway  are  still  standing.  In  the 
Ordnance  Survey  the  site  is  erroneously  marked  as  the  "  Base  of  a  round 
tower."  Within  a  few  fields  of  Ballyvourney  chapel  stands  "  St.  Gobnet 's 
stone."  (See  woodcut.)  On  the  S.  face  of  this  slab  is  engraved,  in  lines 
now  becoming  faint,  a  cross  pattee  within  a  circle  of  two  lines,  measuring 
13  \  inches  in  diameter,  and  on  the  top  of  the  circle  is  an  outline  of  a 
human  figure  in  profile,  most  rudely  designed.  A  long  cloak  completely 
envelopes  the  figure  from  the  neck  to  the  feet,  and  the  hair  appears  to  be 
divided  over  the  forehead  and  falls  behind.  In  one  hand  is  represented  a 
short  pastoral  crook  or  cambatta,  which  seems  to  be  of  that  peculiar  Irish 
form,  of  which  examples  in  bronze  are  preserved  in  the  Museum  of  the  Royal 
Irish  Academy.  Mr.  Du  Noyer  regards  this  little  figure  as  representing 
St.  Gobnet  herself,  and  thinks,  from  the  form  of  the  pastoral  stall',  that  tlie 
slab  may  be  contemporaneous  with  her  times.  Mr.  Westwood  expressed 
his  opinion,  that  its  date  is  not  later  than  the  eighth,  and  possibly  as  early 
as  the  seventh  century.  The  effigy  of  St.  Gobnet,  who  was  believed  to  be 
descended  from  Conor  the  Great,  King  of  Ireland,  is  of  oak,  measuring  27 
inches  in  length,  and  G  inches  across  the  breast,  and  it  is  preserved  in  the 
Roman  Catholic  chapel  at  Ballyvourney.  This  little  image  is  regarded  by 
the  country  people  with  peculiar  veneration  ;  it  is  exhibited  on  the  altar,  on 
her  feast  day,  and  scarcely  on  any  other  occasion.  It  was  originally  painted 
in  oil  colour,  the  mantle  being  dark  blue,  the  skirt  of  the  robe  below  the 
girdle  deep  crimson,  the  upper  part  of  the  figure  and  the  amis  pale  yellow, 
which  may  have  been  white  now  discoloured  by  time.  Over  the  head  is 
thrown  a  veil  or  coverebief,  the   left    hand   is  raised   and   laid    flat    on   the 


86 


PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OP 


bosom,  whilst  the  right  falls  straight  at  the  Bide  and  grasps  the  mantle. 
Such  wooden  effigies,  Mr.  Du  Noyer  observed, are  veryrare  in  Ireland  :  he 
supposed  the  date  of  this  figure  to  be  the  middle  of  the  XlVth  century. 


i 

Bv  Mr.  Farrer.-  An  antique  tripod  candelabrum,  and  o  tazza,  both  "I 
bronze, from  Italy.  An  ivory  cup  loulptured  with  subjects  From  tlio  history 
•  ■I  Noah,  and  Bel  with  jewels  ;  apposed  to  be  o  work  of  the  \  I tli  or  Xllth 
contui  ure  <»l  St.  John  the  oulpturod  in  ivory  ;  heighl 

tuple  of  JCIVth  centun  art,  from  Flanders.  A  small 
shrine,  in  form  of  ■■!  miniature  chapel  with  a  high  ridged  roof,  encased  in 
silver  plate  with  repou  <  ornament  ;  on  the  fronl  are  throe  figure  .  the 
central  one  in  pontificals  with  ;i  cro  ior  in  the   left   hand  :  on  either  side  is 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  87 

a  figure  in  armour.  Date,  about  1470. — A  steel  hunting-horn,  elaborately 
chased  with  foliage  in  strong  relief,  and  a  steel  guard  of  a  sword,  chased 
with  chivalrous  subjects. — A  silver  medallion,  representing  William,  Duke 
of  Saxony,  1586,  represented  on  horseback,  with  a  display  of  heraldic 
escutcheons  surrounding  the  figure. 

By  Mr.  Nesbitt. — Casts  from  several  carvings  in  ivory  of  mediaeval 
Greek  or  Byzantine  style.  The  most  remarkable  of  these  measures  9f  in. 
by  6|  ;  it  formerly  was  a  part  of  the  richly-decorated  cover  of  a  MS. 
belonging  to  the  Cathedral  of  Besancon  ;  and  an  engraving  of  it  in  this 
state  will  be  found  in  Gori  (Thesaurus  Veterum  Diptychorum)  ;  it  is  now 
preserved  in  the  Cabinet  des  Antiques  of  the  Bibliotheque  Impcriale  at 
Paris.  From  its  form  it  would  seem  probable  that  it  was  originally  the 
central  piece  of  a  triptych.  The  figures  sculptured  upon  it  are  about  6  in. 
in  height,  and  represent  Christ  standing  upon  an  elevated  pedestal  of  three 
stages,  two  circular  and  one  square,  and  placing  his  hands  upon  the  heads 
of  an  emperor  and  empress,  the  former  of  whom  stands  on  his  right, 
and  the  latter  on  his  left.  On  one  side  of  the  head  of  Christ  are  the 
letters  IC,  and  on  the  other  XC ;  over  the  emperor  the  inscription 
PflMANOC  BACIA€VC  PHMAiniM,  and  over  the  empress, 
€VAOKIA  BACIAIC  PnMAIHN.  The  persons  represented  are 
therefore  Romanus  Diogenes,  Emperor  of  the  East  from  10G7  to  1071,  and 
his  wife  Eudocia,  widow  of  Constantine  Ducas. 

As  in  consequence  of  the  unvarying  character  of  Byzantine  art  there  is 
great  difficulty  in  assigning  to  their  proper  period  the  examples  which 
occur,  one  of  the  date  of  which  as  in  thi3  case,  there  can  be  no  doubt,  is  of 
peculiar  interest  and  importance,  and  it  may  be  desirable  to  notice  in  some 
detail  the  costume  of  the  several  figures,  and  the  distinctive  peculiarities  of 
the  style  of  the  sculpture. 

The  figure  of  Christ  is  attired  in  a  loose  tunic  with  large  sleeves,  over 
which  is  worn  a  piece  of  drapery  (  ?  a  toga)  a  part  of  which  is  fastened 
round  the  body,  while  another  part  is  thrown  over  the  left  shoulder,  and 
hangs  down  over  the  left  arm.  The  feet  have  no  shoes  but  only  sandals. 
A  nimbus  with  three  rays  surrounds  the  head. 

The  costume  of  Romanus  consists  of — 1.  An  inner  garment  with  embroi- 
dered sleeves  fitting  somewhat  tightly  to  the  arm.  2.  A  robe  reaching 
to  the  feet,  with  loose  sleeves,  and  embroidered  on  the  shoulders,  at  the 
bottom,  and  the  sides  (the  dalmatic  ?).  3.  A  broad  strip  of  rich  embroidery 
hanging  down  before  and  behind  (the  head  being  passed  through  an  aperture), 
the  end  brought  round  in  front  from  the  right  side  across  the  body,  and 
carried  over  the  left  arm  (the  Pallium  Imperatorium  ?).  The  empress  has 
garments  of  precisely  the  same  fashion  as  the  two  first  of  the  emperor,  but 
the  outer  garment  is  a  cloak  fastened  over  the  right  shoulder  and  held  up 
by  the  left  arm,  this  cloak  is  entirely  covered  with  embroidery,  and  on  the 
breast  is  a  large  patch  also  of  embroidery,  but  of  a  different  pattern.  This 
is  clearly  the  same  decoration  as  that  which  in  the  mosaics  of  S.  Vitale  in 
Ravenna  is  seen  in  gold  on  the  purple  robe  of  the  Emperor  Justinian,  and 
in  purple  on  the  white  robes  of  his  attendants.  It  is  also  to  be  observed 
on  the  robes  of  consular  figures  on  diptychs,  as  on  that  of  Halbcrstadt,  and 
may  possibly  be  the  representative  of  the  latus  clavis. 

The  crowns  worn  by  the  emperor  and  empress  are  very  nearly  alike,  a 
broad  fillet  with  a  quatre-foil  ornament  in  front  ;  on  that  of  Eudocia  there 
seem  to  have  been  ornaments  at  the  sides  as  well  as  in   front.      The   fillet 


PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 

appears  to  enclose  a  cap,  and  long  pendant-;  hang  on  each  side.  The  feet- 
's by  embroidered  shoes.  Plain  nimbi  surround  the  heads.  The 
right  hand  of  the  emperor  and  the  left  of  the  empress  are  placed  on  their 
hearts,  probably  as  a  sign  of  devotion.  In  the  Hotel  de  Cluny  is  a  Byzantine 
lief  in  ivory,  the  design  of  which  resembles  most  closely  that  of  the 
Bubject  of  this  notice.  Christ  places  his  hands  on  the  heads  of  the  Emperor 
Otho  II.  and  hi-  wife  Theophano,  daughter  of  Etomanus  III..  Emperor  of 
the  Bast.  This  lias  been  supposed  to  he  commemorative  of  the  marriage 
of  these  personages,  A.-.D.  972,  hut  M.  Lenormant,  in  the  notice  which 
panies  tin;  engraving  of  the  bas-relief  of  Romanus  in  tin-  last  vol.  of 
the  Tresor  de  Numismatique  et  de  Giyptique,  inclines  to  the  opinion,  that 
on  this  last  the  coronation  of  Komanus  and  Eudocia  is  commemorated. 

The  figures  in  this  instance  are  unnaturally  long  and  very  stiff'  in 
attitude  ;  the  faces  are  lung  and  meagre,  and  wanting  in  expression, 
although  as  well  as  the  hands,  naturally  modelled.  The  feet  of  the 
emperor  and  empress  are  absurdly  small,  those  of  Christ  natural.  The 
draperies  of  the  figure  of  Christ  are  arranged  with  some  elegance,  though 
with  a  tendency  to  long  straight  folds  ;  those  of  the  imperial  figures  have 
almost  the  >ti,l'ue.-s  and  straightncss  of  hoards,  they  are  almost  covered  by 
a  conventional  representation  of  embroider?  or  jewel-work.  On  the  whole, 
however,  this  bas-relief  shows  a  state  of  the  art  of  sculpture  far  superior  to 
any  contemporary  work  in  the  west  of  Europe. 

Another  of  the  casts  exhibited,  the  original  of  which  is  believed  to  exist 
in  a  private  collection  in  Paris,  would  appear  to  be  of  Byzantine  work,  but 
of  a  much  earlier  date,  probably  anterior  to  the  period  of  the  [conoclasts. 
Ppon  it  Christ  is  represented  as  a  young  beardless  man,  the  face  is  pecu- 
liarly full,  and  the  figure  rather  short  in  its  proportions,  it  has,  however, 
little  trace  of  antique  art.  Over  the  figure  is  an  arch,  in  the  spandrels 
of  which  are  peacocks. 

Twenty-four  other  casts  were  from  a  twelve-sided  box,  preserved   in  the 

treasury  "t    the    Cathedral  of  Sens,  twelve  being  from   the  sides  and  twelve 

from  tin   cover  which  slopes  on  every  side  and  meets  in  a  point  at  the  top. 

A  band  of  enamelled  copper,  apparently  Limoges  work,  of  aboul  1300,  is 

fixed  round  the  bottom  of  the  lid.     The  bos  has  evidently  been  taken  to 

pieces  and  reconstructed.     The  date  of  the  ivory  bas-reliefs  may  he  placed 

with   Bome  probability  in  the  Xlth  or  Xllth  centuries.     The  subjects  are 

chiefly  from  the  histories  of  Joseph  and  of  David.     The  figures  have  a  fair 

of  life  and  movement,  and  some  half-figures  of  angels,  in  the  upper 

if  the  pieces  belonging  to  the  cover,  some  grace  and  beauty  ;  the 

it  not  very  finished  or  careful.     The  whole  have  been 

engraved  ami  noticed  in  Millin'    Voyti   e  dan-   lea   Departements  da  Midi 

de  hi  Prance. 

By  the  Rev.  T.  IP  so.  The  central  portion  of  an  ivory  triptych  repre- 
senting the  Virgin  with  the  infant   Saviour  in  the    upper  compartment,    and 

below  if  the  Crucifixion,  with  the  Virgin  and  Si .  John;  date,  X I Vth  century. 
It  wa-  found  in  Saydon  square  in  the  Uinories,  September,  1853. 

dr.  Hewitt.— A  specimen  of  the  ••  New  pattern  Artillery  helmet," 
for  an  officer,  a  recently  proposed.  It  is  formed  of  felt  with  a  knob  for  a 
plume  on  the  crown  of  the  head,  from   which  diverge  four  bands  of  gilt 

forming  a  framework  resembling  the  supposed  load  piece  found  at 
Leckhampton,  exhibited  by  Captain  Pell  at  the  previous  meeting  (Journal, 
vol.   \i.  p.  413).     Mi.  Hewitt  pointed  out  the  remarkable  analogy  of  form 


THE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE.  89 

ami  construction,  which  appears  to  corroborate  the  belief  that  the  relique 
found  in  Gloucestersliire  had  been  part  of  a  defence,  for  the  head,  and 
offered  some  remarks,  on  examples  of  helmets  in  later  times  with  a  ring 
on  the  apex,  probably  for  the  attachment  of  the  cointise  ;  especially  that 
supplied  by  the  sculptured  effigies  of  Sir  William  de  Staunton,  who  died 
132G  (Stothard's  Monumental  Effigies,  p.  47). 

By  Mr.  Octavius  Morgan,  M.P. — A  leaden  disk,  diameter  2\  inches, 
charged  with  a  lion  rampant  ;  it  was  found  during  recent  repairs  of  St. 
Wollos'  Church,  Newport,  Monmouthshire. — A  singular  object  of  brass, 
purchased  at  Nuremberg,  apparently  a  kind  of  seolipile  intended  to  be  used 
with  a  small  lamp  for  fumigation,  or  diffusing  scent  in  an  apartment  ;  it  is 
a  curious  example  of  the  ingenuity  and  caprice  of  the  old  German  workers 
in  metal. 

By  Mr.  Fitch. — An  enamelled  ornament  of  copper,  bearing  general 
resemblance  to  a  six-petaled  flower  ;  it  was  found  at  Southacre,  Norfolk. 
It  is  formed  with  a  small  loop  on  one  side,  in  the  same  manner  as  certain 
enamelled  escutcheons,  of  which  several  examples  have  been  given  in  this 
Journal,  and  like  these,  it  was  probably  a  pendant  decoration  attached  to 
horse-furniture.  The  object  recently  added  to  Mr.  Fitch's  cabinet  of  Norfolk 
antiquities,  is,  however,  of  a  fashion  hitherto  not  noticed  ;  a  six-leaved 
ornament  is  introduced  on  a  blue  ground  in  the  centre,  and  thence  radiate 
six  projections,  each  charged  with  a  quatrefoil  filled  with  blue  enamel. 
Diameter  about  2\  inches.     Date,  probably  XVIth  century. 

By  Mr.  W.  J.  Berxhard  Smith. — A  richly-engraved  wheel-lock  of  steel, 
of  most  elaborate  workmanship.  Amongst  the  ornaments  is  conspicuously 
introduced  the  double-headed  eagle  of  the  Empire. 

Impressions  from  Seals. — By  the  Hon.  R.  C.  Neville.— Impression 
from  a  small  brass  matrix,  of  pointed-oval  form,  found  in  front  of  the 
V  Brick  House,"  at  Debden,  Essex,  on  October  16,  ult.  The  device  is  a 
tonsured  head,  seen  in  profile,  and  over  it  is  a  mullet.  The  inscription  is 
as  follows — capvt  SERVl  uei.2     Date,  XlVth  century. 

January  5,  1855. 
Frederic  Odvry,  Esq.,  Treas.  Soc.  Aniiqu.,  in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  E.  W.  Godwin  sent  an  account  of  the  recent  excavation  of  an  exten- 
sive Roman  villa  at  Colerne,  about  six  miles  from  Bath,  and  exhibited  a 
ground-plan,  with  representations  of  the  mosaic  floors  which  have  been 
uncovered  through  the  exertions  of  the  Rev.  G.  Heathcote,  Vicar  of  Colerne, 
and  under  Mr.  Godwin's  directions.  His  memoir  will  be  given  hereafter. 
It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  owner  of  the  site  is  not  disposed  to  preserve 
these  remains,  in  which  he  takes  no  interest,  and  the  building  will  probably 
ere  long  be  again  concealed  from  view. 

Mr.  Greville  J.  Chester  communicated  a  note  of  bis  recent  examina- 
tion of  a  tumulus  on  Pen  Hill,  one  of  the  highest  parts  of  the  Mendip  range. 
The  mound  was  curiously  constructed.  The  outside  was  completely  covered 
with  large  pieces  of  red  sandstone,  beneath  which  there  was  fine  earth.  In 
the  centre  were  two  layers  of  stones,  between  which  appeared  a  large 
deposit  of  charred  wood  and  wood-ashes,  but  no  traces  of  bones  were  to  be 

-  This  inscription  lias  occurred  on  on  the  fictitious  matrix  of  stone,  noticed 
other  mediaeval  seals.     It  was  introduced      in  this  Journal,  vol.  x.,  p.  <'<:;. 

VOL.   XII.  K 


90  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS. 

discerned.  MoBt  of  the  barrows  in  the  neighbourhood,  Mr.  Chester  oh- 
served,  bad  been  opened  several  years  ago  :  in  some  of  them  urns  had  been 
found,  and,  in  one  instance,  weapons  of  flint. 

The  Rev.  11.  M.  Si  \kiii  communicated  an  account  of  Roman  remains 
found  during  the  previous  montb  at  Combe  Down,  near  Bath,  and  of  a 
remarkable  inscription  of  which  he  Bent  representations,  On  Dec,  11,  in  the 
ationsina  garden  belonging  to  Major  Graham,  the  workmen 
found  two  stone  coffins,  placed  north  and  south,  the  feet  being  towards  the 
south.  They  measured  externally  about  6  feet  8  inches  by  1  foot  3  inches, 
the  length  <>t'  the  cavity  being  about  6  feet  -">  inches,  and  the  ends  of  the 
coffins  were  rounded,  as  noticed  in  other  Roman  interments  at  Bath.  The 
cover  of  one  of  these  coffins  was  unite  plain  :  within  were  found  some  very 

bones,  the  thigh  bone  measured  18  inches  in  length,  and  -1  inches  in 
girth  :  a  jaw  bone  of  unusual  size  was  also  found,  with  the  teeth  in  good 
preservation,  and  Beveral  fragments  of  iron,  supposed  to  have  been  the 
nails  of  Roman  sandals.  The  other  coffin  had  its  covering  formed  of  four 
Btones,  one  of  them  being  an  inscribed  tablet,  taken  doubtless  from  some 
Roman  structure  and  applied  to  the  purpose  here  described.  This  stone, 
which  measures  about  2  feet  7  inches  by  18  inches,  covered  the  breast  and 
body  of  the  corpse.  There  were  three  skeletons  without  skulls  deposited 
outside  this  coffin  on  the  east  side  of  it,  and  within  itwas  found  a  skeleton 
with  a  perfect  scull  and  jaw,  the  latter  discoloured  by  a  small  bronze  coin, 
now  nearly  decomposed,  which  had  probably  been  placed  in  the  mouth  as  a 
naulum  for  the  transit  over  the  Styx.  At  the  feet  lay  three  bcuIIs,  sup- 
posed to  have  belonged  to  the  bodies,  of  which  the  headless  remains  were 
found  outside  the  coffin.  The  position  of  these  coffins  is  17  feet  to  the 
north  of  the  three  interments  found  in  the  same  plol  of  ground  lasl  Bpring, 

er  with  the  stone  cists  containing  burned  bones  and  the  head  of  a 
horse,  ribed   by  Mr.  Scarth  in  this  Journal,  vol,  si.,  pp.  281,  40& 

dderable  quantity  of  coarse  unbaked  pottery  and  a  few  fragments  of 
'•  Samian  "  ware  were  found  around  the  coffins.  The  tablet  brought  to 
ingular  position  has  been  regarded  by  antiquaries,  who  take 
interest  in  the  vestiges  of  the  Roman  period,  as  a  valuable  addition  to  the 
inscriptions  which  relate  to  Britain.  Some  portions  of  it-  surface  have 
Buffered  injury,  and  various  interpretations  have  been  proposed,  no  slight 
difficulty  having  arisen  in  deciphering  an  inscription  in  damaged  condition, 
by  the  aid  of  facsimiles  and  impressions  taken  with  moistened  paper,  which 

upplied  by  the  kindness  of  Mr.  Scarth,  A  discussion  took  place  on 
the    i  »n,    in    which   the    Rev.    Jo  eph    Hunter,    l>r.   Bruce, 

Mr.  Pranks,  and  other  members  took  pi  rt. 

A  'e  accurate  representation  having  keen  subsequently  obtained,  we 

have  been   favoured  with  the  following  observations   by   the  Rev.  Joseph 

1 1  untir  :  — 

"  The  copy  of  the  Bath  inscription  (as  shown  in  the  woodcut)  differs  in 

.in  the  copy  originally  sent  from  Bath  to  the 

to,  and  in  a  private  communication  to  m\  elf;   so  thai  any  attempt 

the  one  mill   needs  differ  from  an  attempt  upon  the  other. 

oce  i     in   the    ub  titution  of  -\\ a  lid  for  \.c  lib 

where  th<  <  and  the  R  were  bo  decided  in  the  (in  t  oopj  b  -  uol  to  leave  room 

oi  amended  n  ac1 

••  I  think  with  you  thai   we  have  now     ol    the  in  cription  a     correct]) 

docipl  and,  with  the  exception  of  i  ae  word,  I   think 


92  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 

the  reading  and  moaning  may  be  as  well  made  out.     I  do  not  at  all  think  if 
1  saw  the  original  I  should  fi  rm  a  different  judgment. 

PRO    SALVTE    MPERATORIS    CAESARIS    MARC  I    AYRELII 
ANTONIHI    I'll    FELICIS    tNYIC 
TI    AYGVSTI    .    .    .    HAEVIVS     LVGVST] 
LIBERTVS    LDJVTOB    PROCVRATORVAI    PB    tM 
PIA    KVI\\    OPPRESSVW    \    SOLO    I 
TIT  VI  l' 

"  For  the  safety. — or  whatever  salus  in  this  connection,  where  we  for  ever 
find  it,  may  mean, — of  the  Emperor  Csesar  .Marcus  Aurelius  Antoninus  Pius, 
happy,  invincible  (or  unconquered)  Augustus  (supply  a  prenomen  where  the 
is  damaged,  probably  one  represented  by  two  letters,  as  cn)  Nsevius, 
a  freedman  of  Augustus  the  adjutor  of  the  procurators,  (then  cornea  the 
doubtful  word,  which  perhaps  may  he  PROVINCIE,)  restored  from  its  founda- 
tions (this  building,  temple,  or  whatever  it  was,  for  the  edifice  was  there 
to  speak  for  itself),  when  it  had  been  thrown  down  by  an  impious  act  of 
ruination. 

••  Another  reading  of  the  doubtful  word  may  be  PRIMARIVS,  and  I  think 
some  one  suggested  PRETORIVM.  1  fear  the  word  is  too  far  gone  for  any 
one  tu  venture  to  pronounce  conclusively  what  the  reading  of  it  is. 

••  A  question  arising  upon  this  inscription  is,  which  of  the  emperors, 
who  called  themselves  Antoninus,  it  commemorates.  It  is  a  question  of 
about  fifty  years  \.<  .  180 — 230.  On  a  first  view  one  would  refer  it  to 
Marcus  Aurelius,  the  immediate  successor  of  Antoninus  Pius,  the  first  of 
the  Antonines,  and  I  see  not  why  it  should  not  belong  to  his  reign,  unless 
i  lie  shown  (a  point  1  have  not  examined)  that  his  name  is  never  found 
in  inscriptions  with  the  additions  Felix  and  [nvictus.  If  it  shall  appear 
that  his  name  dor-  not  occur  with  these  additions,  then  undoubtedly  it  may 
signed  to  the  three  years'  reign  of  Eeliogabalus,  or  to  any  intermediate 
emperor  who  called  himself  Antoninus,  and  who  is  known  to  have  used 
those  additions.  But  at  present  1  see  no  improbability  in  assigning  it  to 
the  emperor  so  well  known  by  bis  name  of  Marcus  Aurelius. 

•■  There  cannot,  I  conceive,  be  a  doubt  that  there  had  been  some  tumult 

at  Bath,  whether  a  religious  or  a  political  ferment  we  should  probably  know 

bad  not  the  edifice  been  left  to  -peak  For  itself.  An  edifice  of  some  kind  had 
been  destroyed  which  this  public  officer  of  the  Btate  restored.  I  should  he 
glad  to  think  that  it  was  a  temple  or  other  building  raised  for  purposes  of 
heathen  devotion,  and  that  the  discovery  made  known  to  us  by  Mr.  S earth 
might  Bupply  the  occasion  of  bringing  any  Roman  inscription  to  bear 
upon  that  very  dark  Bubject,  the  Btate  of  Britain  in  the  Roman  times  in 
re  peel  to  the  prevalence  of  Christianity.     <>n  this  it   would  be  premature 

r  more  than   a    possible    iUggG    tioD   ;    but    the   conjecture   receives  wiinc 

countenance  from  the  fact,  thai  another  of  the  Bath  inscriptions,  of  very  near 

the  date  to  which   this  nni  i    be  assigned,  records  the   restoration  to  its 

proper  u  a  of  a  '  Locum  Religiosum  per  insolentiam  erutum.'      Professor 

.  who  wrote  a  Dissertation  on  thi^  inscription,  printed  in  the  Philoso- 

ctions,  vol.  \l\iib,  •"■  d    it  to  the  reign  ofSeverus. 

••  NflBviufl  the  Adjutor,  a  Roman  officer,  to  whose  duties  sufficient  atten 

t '.ii     eem    bardly  to  have  been  paid  bj  the  writers  on  Roman  Antiquities, 

■  em  to  have  been  the  proper  officer  to    uperintend  this  re  edification. 

I    bolievo,  is   not    found   in  any  other  inscription  discovered  in 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  93 

England.  But  in  Gruter,  civ.,  no.  9,  we  have — P.  Naevius,  Adjutor,  in  an 
inscription  found  at  Tarracona.  We  find  also,  in  Gruter,  ccclxxi.,  no.  8, 
Adjutore  Procc.  Civitatis  Senonum  Tricassinorum  Meldorum,  &c,  which 
shows  that  the  Adjutor  to  the  Procurators  is  not  an  officer  unknown  to 
inscriptions." 

We  are  also  indehted  to  the  learned  historian  of  the  Roman  Wall  for 
the  following  remarks  : — 

"  I  have  carefully  examined  the  corrected  copy  of  the  Bath  inscription. 
In  transmitting  my  views  of  the  way  in  which  it  is  to  be  read  I  beg 
that  they  may  be  regarded  simply  as  a  contribution  towards  ascertaining 
truth.  In  the  case  of  inscriptions  that  are  damaged  or  obscure  it  is 
always  dangerous  to  pronounce  an  opinion  without  having  submitted  each 
letter  to  the  examination  of  both  sight  and  touch,  which  I  have  not  had 
it  in  my  power  to  do.  As  far  as  my  present  knowledge  goes,  I  am  dis- 
posed to  expand  the  inscription  thus  : — 

Pro  salute  Imperatoris  Csesaris  Marci  Aurelii  Antonini  Pii  Felicis 
Invicti  Augusti  .  .  .  Nsevius  Augusti  libertus  adjutor  Procuratorum 
principia  ruina  oppressa  a  solo  restituit. 

"  It  may  be  translated  in  something  like  this  form: — For  the  safety 
of  the  Emperor  Caesar  Marcus  Aurelius  Antoninus,  the  pious,  fortunate  and 
invincible  Augustus.  .  .  Xtevius,  the  freedman  of  Augustus  and  the  assistant 
of  the  Procurators  restored  these  chief  military  quarters,  which  had 
fallen  to  ruin. 

"  The  first  question  that  arises  here  is  respecting  the  emperor  specially 
addressed.  I  find  that  the  names  and  epithets  used  in  this  inscription 
are  in  others  applied  both  to  Caracalla  and  Heliogabalus,  with  the  exception 
of  the  word  invictus ;  and  in  no  other  instance  that  I  can  find  is  this 
applied  to  either  of  these  emperors.  I  incline  to  Mr.  Franks'  opinion,  that 
Heliogabalus  is  the  person  here  intended,  for  the  following  reasons : — 
1.  On  the  murder  of  Heliogabalus  his  name  seems  to  have  been  erased  from 
inscriptions,  or  the  slabs  themselves  thrown  down.  This  stone  having  been 
used  to  cover  a  tomb  must  have  previously  been  removed  from  its  original 
position.  2.  From  the  indistinctness  of  some  of  the  letters,  I  take  it  for 
granted  that  the  inscription  is  not  deeply  carved  ;  this,  together  with  the 
omission  of  the  A  in  Caisaris,  and  the  occurrence  of  tied  letters,  seem  to 
indicate  the  later,  rather  than  the  earlier  period.  3.  Had  Caracalla  been 
the  person  intended,  one  of  his  well-known  epithets,  such  as  Parthicus, 
Britannicus,  or  Germanicus,  would  probably  have  occupied  the  place  of 
invictus;  so  far  as  I  have  noticed,  Heliogabalus  had  earned  no  such  dis- 
tinctions :  his  flatterers  therefore,  on  his  assuming  the  purple,  would  have 
no  resource  left  but  to  bestow  upon  him  the  indefinite  title  of  invictus. 

"  The  next  thing  which  occurs  is  the  name  of  the  dedicator.  Mr. 
Hunter  remarked  that  the  name  naevivs  occurred  in  Gruter.  It  is  not 
without  interest  to  observe,  that  one  of  the  examples  furnished  by  that 
author  (p.  civ.,  no.  9)  contains  that  name  with  the  epithet  adjutor 
appended. 


TVTELAK 

V.    S. 

r.   NAEVIVS 
ADIVTOR. 


"  The  Nsevius  of  the  slab  tumid  at  Bath  was  a  freedman  of  Augustus,  and 


'.'I  PRO<  BEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OF 

an  assistant  or  secretary  of  the  procurators  of  the  province.  We  are  not 
without  an  authority  For  the  reading  Adjvtor  Pfocuratorum.     In  Gruter, 

p.  CCClxxi.,  no.  8,  the  following  occurs  : 

MEMORIAE    .    AVREU 

DEMETRI    .    ADIVTuKI 
PROCC 

With  reference  to  the  office  of  procurator,  Dr.  William  Smith,  in  his 
Dictionary  of  Antiquities,  art,  Provincia,  has  tliis  remark:  —  'No 
quaestors  w<  re  Bent  to  the  provinces  of  the  Caesar.  In  place  of  the  quaes* 
tors,  there  were  Procuratores  Ccesaris,  who  were  either  equites  or  freed- 
men  of  the  Caesar.  The  procuratores  Looked  after  the  taxes,  paid  the 
troops,  and  generally  were  entrusted  with  the  interests  of  the  tiscus.' 
The  individual  in  question  was  a  freedman  of  the  emperor's,  and  though 
at  the  time  that  the  dedication  was  made  he  was  only  an  assistant  to  the 
procurators,  he  might   he   in  training  for  the  personal  assumption  of  the 

••  The  woid  which  I  conceive  to  he  prindpia  presents  the  greatest  diffi- 
culty. It  appears  that  the  stone  is  damaged  in  this  part.  We  are  neces- 
sarily driven  to  conjecture  in  order  to  supply  the  vacuity  hetween  the  N 
and  the  i  at  the  end  of  the  fourth  line.  The  inscription  speaks  of  the 
restoration  of  something  which  had  become  ruinous.  If  I  correctly  read 
the  other  parts  of  the  inscription  which  seem  to  he  quite  plain,  this  is  the 
only  word  left  to  reveal  to  US  the  precise  object  of  the  dedicator's  exertions. 

In  the  Btation  at    Lanchester,  a  Blab  has  been  foimd  (Horsley,    Durham, 

No.  .\ii.j,  containing  on  its  third  and  fourth  Lines  the  folio  win.;'  words  : — 

PRINCTPIA    ET    ARMAMEN 
TARIA    C0NLAP8A    EU  >lli\  IT 

Here  we  have  evidence  that  there  was  a  class  of  buildings  called  prindpia 
which  like  other  buildings  would  fall  into  ruin  and  require  restoration. 
This  word  seems  best  to  Buit  the  damaged  part  of  the  inscription  before 
The  only  letters  that  we  require  to  draw  upon  the  imagination  for  are 
the  first  i  i"  the  word,  which  has  probably  been  attached  to  the  top  of  the 
left  limh  of  the  n.  and  the  o,  for  which  there  is  sufficient  room  on  that 
injured  part  of  the  atone  between  the  n  and  the  i.  Perhaps  the  word 
prindpia  might  be  translated  officers'  barracks.  The  remainder  of  the 
inscription  requires  no  remai  h 

We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Scarth's  kindness  for  the  friendly  permission  to 

at,  with  these  remarks  by  Mr.  Hunter  and  Dr.  Bruce,  the  accompanying 

representation  of  ihi>  inscription,  previously  to  the  publication  of  a  memoir 

on  the  Bubject,  which  Mr.  Scarth  has  prepared  for  the  forthcoming  volume 

of  the  Transaction    of   the   Somersetshire    Archaeological  Society.     We 

refei    our   readei     to  the  more  lull  statement   which  will  there  be 

of   the   various  interpretations  offered  bj   other  antiquaries.      The 

I     tone,   it  1 1 1 : i \  be  observed   in  conclusion,  was  purchased  by  Mr, 

bortlj  alter  the  discovery,  and  pre  ented  to  the  Batb  Institution, 

where  it  maj  now  be  examined,  through   the  liberality  of  thai  zealou    and 

intelligent  investigator  of  the  remain    of  Aqua   Holis, 

Mr.  Poyntek  offered  some  observations  on   the  early  Christian  

which  decorate  the  vault    of  the  mo  qui    of  Sta.  Sophia  at  Constantinople. 
lie  pi., dm  •  d  of  the  brilliant   vitrified  materials   employed    in 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  95 

these  works,  comprising  ml,  green,  two  shades  of  blue,  gray,  amber- 
coloured  tesserae,  and  tessera)  enclosing  a  thin  foil  of  gold  or  silver  ;  the 
silver,  which  is  remarkably  brilliant  in  effect,  being,  as  it  is  believed, 
peculiar  to  these  mosaics.  These  specimens  had  been  given  to  Mr. 
Poynterby  a  member  of  the  diplomatic  body  at  Constantinople  ;  they  had 
fallen  and  been  thrown  aside  during  the  recent  repairs  of  Sta.  Sophia. 
They  had  apparently  been  originally  set  in  a  layer  of  fine  plaster. 

Mr.  DlGBT  WYATT  gave  an  account  of  the  peculiar  character  of  the 
mosaics  of  Sta.  Sophia,  with  remarks  on  the  distinctive  peculiarities  of 
Roman  and  Greek  mosaics.  He  brought  for  examination  the  work  recently 
produced  by  the  Prussian  Government,  illustrating  the  Christian  monu- 
ments of  Constantinople,  from  the  Vth  to  the  Xllth  century.1  For  the 
opportunity  of  inspecting  this  splendid  volume,  the  members  of  our 
Society  were  indebted  to  the  Institute  of  British  Architects,  from  whose 
library  it  was  brought,  and  Mr.  Wyatt  also  laid  before  the  meeting,  through 
the  kindness  of  Professor  Donaldson,  the  publication  entitled,  "  Aya 
Sophia,  «fcc,  as  recently  restored  by  order  of  H.M.  the  Sultan  Abdul 
Medjid  ;  "  from  the  drawings  of  the  Chev.  Gaspard  Fossati,  the  Architect 
employed  during  the  works  carried  out  in  1847-48.2  The  first  church 
•dedicated  by  Constantine  or  Constantius,  326-360,  was  destroyed  by  fire 
in  the  Vlth  century,  and  rebuilt  by  Justinian  ;  it  was  completed  in  537, 
every  care  being  taken  in  its  construction  and  decoration  to  obviate  the  risk 
of  injury  from  any  like  disaster,  and  it  has  been  preserved  to  the  present 
time  notwithstanding  the  frequent  conflagrations  that  have  occurred  at 
Constantinople.  In  1453,  Mahommed  II.  destroyed  all  the  arrangements 
adapted  to  Christian  worship,  and  the  golden  mosaics  of  the  vaultings 
were  concealed  by  whitewash.  They  had  been  brought  to  light  anew  for 
the  first  time  during  recent  restorations  under  the  direction  of  the  Chev. 
Fossati,  and  it  has  been  related  that  on  one  occasion  the  Sultan  being 
present  when  a  portion  of  these  gorgeous  decorations,  consisting  of  figures 
of  sacred  personages  and  Christian  emblems,  was  revealed  to  view,  he 
remarked  in  French  to  the  architect,  "  you  must  cover  over  all  this,  the 
time  is  not  yet  arrived." 

The  gold-ground  mosaic,  Mr.  Wyatt  observed,  was  an  old  Roman  art, 
of  which  numerous  examples  exist  at  Pompeii.  This  was  the  opusfigu~ 
linum,  as  distinguished  from  the  lithostratum,  or  mosaic  formed  of  stones 
and  opaque  materials.  Until  about  the  year  500,  almost  all  the  churches 
in  Italy  were  decorated  by  the  Roman  artists  in  mosaic,  and  after  that 
time  by  Greek  artists  :  the  principal  example  of  the  early  time  being 
procured  at  Sta.  Maria  Maggiore,  executed  in  432.  The  vaultings  at  Con- 
stantinople may  be  regarded  as  the  first  great  type  now  existing  of  Greek 
mosaic.  Mr.  Wyatt  offered  some  valuable  remarks  on  their  technical  exe- 
cution, and  the  characteristic  peculiarities  of  the  Greek  work  as  compared 
with  the  Latin.  He  has  subsequently  entered  into  greater  detail  on  this 
interesting  subject  in  a  memoir  addressed  to  the  Institute  of  British  Archi- 

1  Alt-ChristHcheBaudenkmalevon  Con  .Mr.  C.  Nelson,  lion.  Sec, on  Feb.  5,  1855, 

stantinopel  vom   v.  bis  xii.  Jahrhundert,  and  it  1ms  been  printed  in  their  transact 

&c.      By    W.  Salzenberg,   Berlin,   1854.  tions. 

Large  folio,  with  39  plates.     A  full  notice  2  Lithographed  by  Louis  Haghe,  London, 

of  this  important  work  was  communicated  1852,     Folio. 
to  the  Institute  of  British  Architects,  by 


PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 

and  we  would  refer  our  readers  to  the  report  which  has  been  pub- 
lished in   their  Transactions. 

Mr.  Wyatt  also  state.!  the  grounds  of  bis  belief  that  the  windows  of  Sta. 
Sophia,  which  are  formed  of  marble  slabs   pierced  in   small  apertures,  had 

1 d  filled  with  coloured  glass,  probably  with  plates  of  the  same  brilliantly 

coloured  material  employed,  when  broken  into  cubes,  in  the  execution  of 
the  mosaics.  The  assertion  of  the  Benedictines,  that  coloured  glass  was 
not  known  previously  to  the  time  of  Charlemagne,  had  been  generally  received 
as  correct  until  recent  times,  hut  allusion  to  its  existence  as  early  as 
IT  600  had  been  found,  and  the  details  now  made  known  regarding 
Sta.  Sophia  suggest  the  conclusion  that  it  had  been  in  use  in  the  earlier 
part  of  the  YIth  century.  Theophilus  and  other  writers  allude  to  the  rich 
effect  of  light  coloured  by  transmission  as  shown  in  the  Church  of  Sta.  Sophia. 

Mr.  WesTWOOD  communicated  an  account  which  he  had  received  from 
Dr.  Shurlook,  of  Chertsey,  describing  the  remains  of  a  richly  decorated 
pavement  lately  found  on  the  site  of  Chertsey  Abbey.  He  produced  a 
collection  of  drawings  of  the  tiles  which  display  subjects  from  the  Old 
Testament,  I 'avid  slaving  the  Lion,  David  in  the  presence  of  Saul,  a  spirited 
representation  of  the  conflict  between  a  knight  and  a  lion,  and  other  designs 
Bhowing  greater  freedom  and  skill  in  their  outlines  than  any  similar  works 
of  their  date,  which  appears  to  he  about  the  close  of  the  X III th  centurv. 
Mr.  Westwood  produced  some  portions  of  this  pavement,  and  a  fragment  of 
I  lit,  as  supposed,  of  well-baked  clay,  found  at  Chertsey  Abbey.  A 
perfect  specimen,  since  found,  weighs  precisely  I  'lb. 

nnttriuilirs  anU  »LUorh<J  af  3rt  eyljibttrtl. 

By  lie  Cambridge  Ahtiquariami  Society. — Several  fragments  of  bronze, 
comprising  pari  of  b  palstave,  a  tube  of  metal,  and  a  broken  object  of  rare 
occurrence,  probably  intended  to  he  affixed  to  the  end  of  some  long-bafted 
weapon.     In  form  it  resembles  the  mouth-piece  of  a  trumpet,  and  a  similar 

relique  found  with  Roman  remains  in  Scotland,  and  described  1>V  Cordon 
as    111  the  possession    of    Baron  Clark,  is  termed    a    Roman  trumpet.'      The 

dilated  extremity,  however,  is  nut  perforated  so  as  to  serve  the  purpose  of  a 

mouth-piece.     These  fragments,  apparently   part   of  a  h -d  of  broken 

metal  tor  purposes  of  casting,  were  found,  as  it  ib  believed,  in  Cambridge- 
shire, and  had  h>en  acquired  with  the  collections  of  the  late  Mi-.  Peek. 
I  Saxon  ornament-,  beads,  object-  of  bronze,  &c,  from  the  cemetery 
at  Wilbraham,  including  an  example  of  the  pendants  of  bronze,  hearing 
-ome  resemblance  in  their  form  to  latch-ke]  -,  and  of  which  several  remark* 
able  t  been  given  by  the  lion.  I;.   Neville,  From  tin' same  locality 

Obsequi*   .    plat*     13,  1  I  !•     A   richly  ornamented  brooch  of  gilt 

mi  jewels.     [(  ented  IV Irawings  by  Sir  II.  Dry  den, 

Bart.,  in  tie  Memoir  on  Roman  and  other  remains  found  in  Bedfordshire 
(Publications  of  the  Camb.  Antiq,  Soc,  tto.  L845).  It  was  found  with 
human  remains  at   Topler's  Hill,  near  Ed  worth,  Bedfordshire. 

I      Mr.  Pranks.     Several  In  h  antiquities  of  bronze,  from  the  collection 

of  tie-  late  Mr.  T.  Crofton  Croker,  including  two  curved   trumpets,  of  the 

type  peculiar,  a     n    i     believed,  to  Ireland  ;  they  are  specially  deserving 

eh  i  found  with  bronze    word    and  cell  .  indicating  thai 

1 1  inenrium    Sept  nl  rionali  ,p    117,  plfl ' 


THE   ARCHAEOLOGICAL   INSTITUTE.  97 

they  belong  to  the  same  period  as  those  earlier  antiquities  of  bronze. — A 
large  celt  with  engraved  ornament,  chiefly  in  chovrony  lines  over  nearly  the 
whole  surface  ;  an  implement  of  uncommon  form,  probably  a  kind  of  chisel, 
with  a  cross  bar  (compare  the  last  fig.  in  no  3,  Wakeman's  Handbook  of 
Irish  Antiquities,  p.  153)  -  and  a  singular  blunt  socketed  implement  of 
unknown  use  ;  it  was  presented  by  Lord  Londesborough  to  Mr.  Croker. 
These  antiquities  have  subsequently  been  added  to  the  collections  in  the 
British  Museum.  Mr.  Franks  brought  also  for  examination  the  silver  ingots 
and  broken  ornaments  found  with  a  large  hoard  of  Roman  silver  coins  near 
Coleraine,  as  related  by  Mr.  Yates  on  a  previous  occasion  (Archaeol. 
Journal,  vol.  xi.  pp.  283,  409).  The  entire  weight  of  the  bullion  with  the 
coins,  of  which  many  are  in  bad  condition,  is  more  than  200  ounces.  The 
metal  is  not  of  very  pure  quality.  This  discovery,  of  which  a  full  account  with 
a  description  of  the  coins  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Scott  Porter  in  the  Ulster 
Journal  of  Archaeology,  vol.  ii.,  p.  182,  presents  the  most  remarkable 
fact  on  record  of  the  occurrence  of  Roman  reliques  in  Ireland.3  Mr.  Franks 
pointed  out  three  fragments  amongst  the  hoard,  the  ornamentation  of 
which  presents  no  trace  of  Roman  work.  Their  character  is,  however,  not 
distinctly  marked  ;  some  persons  have  regarded  the  ornament  as  analogous 
to  that  of  the  Saxon  age,  but  these  portions  are  probably  of  Irish  work, 
and  one  fragment  appears  undoubtedly  Irish.  It  is  partly  inlaid  with  a 
kind  of  metallic  paste  like  niello. 

By  the  Rev.  P.  C.  Ellis. — A  square  enamelled  plate  of  copper,  of 
champleve  work,  representing  a  demi-figure  of  our  Lord,  with  the  right 
hand  upraised  in  the  gesture  of  benediction,  and  holding  a  clasped  book  in 
the  left.  Around  the  head  is  a  cross-nimb,  and  the  prevailing  colours  are 
blue,  red  and  white.  The  plate,  now  in  a  very  imperfect  and  decayed 
state  by  the  effects  of  oxidation,  measures  nearly  2\  inches  in  each 
direction  ;  it  had  been  affixed  by  four  rivets,  probably  to  a  processional 
cross,  the  binding  of  a  Textus,  the  side  of  a  shrine,  or  some  other  object  of 
sacred  use.  This  relique  of  the  art  of  enamel  in  the  Xlllth  century,  of 
which  scarcely  any  example  has  been  described  as  found  in  the  Principality, 
had  been  discovered  during  recent  restorations  of  the  church  of  Penmon 
Priory,  Anglesea,  near  the  old  stone  altar  of  rubble  work  plastered  over, 
which  was  concealed  under  the  floor  upon  which  the  communion-table  had 
been  placed.  A  detailed  account  of  the  church  and  of  this  discovery,  with 
a  representation  of  the  enamelled  plate,  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Longueville 
Jones,  in  his  Series  of  Memoirs,  entitled — '' Mona  Mediaiva,"  in  the 
Archteologia  Cambrensis,  Jan.  1855.     Third  Series.     No.  i.  p.  41. 

By  Mr.  A.  Nesbitt. — Electrotypes  of  heads  of  statuettes  on  the  base  of 
the  "  Albero  della  Madonna,"  in  Milan  Cathedral,  a  candelabrum  with 
seven  branches,  of  remarkable  workmanship,  considered  by  Mr.  Didron  to 
be  a  production  of  the  XII  Ith  century.  See  his  description  and  the  plates 
given  in  the  Annales  Archeologiques. — Casts  from  the  three  diptychs  of 
ivory  preserved  in  the  treasury  of  the  Cathedral  of  Monza,  in  Lombardy. 

By  Mr.  Edward  IIoare. — Representation   of  a  bronze  weight  in   the 

-  Compare  one  similar  in  some  respects,  3  See  notices  of  discoveries  of  Roman 

in    the    collection    of    the    Royal    Irish  Coins,  &c,  in  Ireland,  Proceedings  of  the 

Academy,  figured    in     this    Journal,  vol.  Royal  Irish    Academy,   vol.   ii.,    p.    184: 

viii.,  p.  91  ;  and  one  figured  in  Mr.  Bate-  Ulster  Journal   of  Archaeology,   vol.   ii., 

man's    Vestiges    of    the    Antiquities    of  p.  187. 
Derbyshire;  Introd.  p.  ii. 

Vol..  XII.  0 


9d  PROCEEDINGS  &.T  MEETINGS. 

form  of  a  bird  like  a  duck  on  an  hexagonal  pedestal,  grotesquely  fashioned'. 
It  was  described  as  having  been  dug  np,  in  August  last,  on  the  lands  of 
Granabraher,  a  mile  N.W.  of  the  city  of  Cork,  and  it  is  now  in  Mr.  fioare'a 
collection.      Weight,    2  oz.    12  dwt.      Bronze    weights    of  similar  fashion 

have  1 n  brought  to  this  country  from  the  Burmese  Empire. 

By  Mr.  C.  Desbobough  Bbdfobd. — A  certificate  of  legitimacy  granted 
Bruin  by  the  Consuls  and  Senate  of  Cologne,  dated  March 
1  v.  1661.  It  Btates  that  he  had  made  declaration  of  the  legitimacy  of  his 
birth,  and  had  called  in  evidence  thereof  two  citizens  of  Cologne.  The 
seal  ad  causcu  had  accordingly  been  appended  to  the  certificate.  The 
,  of  this  Beal,  which  is  of  circular  form,  appears  to  be  of  the  latter 
part  of  the  JLVth  century.  St.  Peter  bearing  the  keys  and  a  hook  of  the 
gospels,  i-  represented  under  a  canopy  of  tabernacle-work  ;  beneath  are 
embattled  walls  and  a  gate,  typifying  the  city  ;  at  each  side  is  introduced 
an  (  scutcheon  of  the  arms  of  Cologne,  on  a  chief  three  crowns. — S. 
i  l\  II Mis.      COLONIE   NSIS  .   AH  .  C  w  8AS. 

Impressions  of  Seals. — By  Mr.  T.  Willson. — Seal  of  the  Hundred  of 
Flaxwell,  Lincolnshire,  for  authenticating   passes  given  to  labourers  and 

servants,  in  accordance  with  Stat.  1'2  Rich.  II.,  A..D.  1388.  The  matrix 
has  been  lately  found  at  Fishtoft  near  Boston.  (Sec  Archaeol.  Journal, 
Vol.  \i..  p.  379.) 

By  Mr.  J.  GrREVILLE  CHE8TER. — Impressions  from  the  seal  of  the  city  of 
Well8.        On    the    obverse    appears    an    architectural    composition,    intended 

probably  to  represent  the  city,  with  a  demi-figure  of  the  Saviour  above, 
en  the  sun  and  the  oioon,  and  at  the  extreme  hase  are  three  arches, 
which  -  <  :n  tu  typify  the  wells  from  which  the  city  was  named.  The 
inscription  i-  as  follows, — bigillvm  :  commvne  :  bvrgi  :  wkli.ii:  :  termina- 
ting with  a  star  within  a  crescent.  The  reverse  displays  a  tree  with 
intertwining  limbs  and  large  foliage,  supposed,  as  Mr.  Chester  observes, 
tu  represent  an  ash.  Prom  beneath  its  roots  issues  a  copious  stream  in 
which  is  Been  a  pike  seized  by  an  heron  or  a  Stork,  and  other  lords  fly 
around  or  are  perched  on  the  tree.4  The  inscription  is —  i{i  \\i>ki:a  : 
famvli  rvoB,  with  the  crescent  and  star  as  before.    The 

eeal   is  circular,  diameter  nearly  2\   inches.      The  design  is  boldly  cut, 
and  the  date  appears  to  he  aboul  1250.     The  device  on  the  reverse  doubts 
the   remarkable  Bpring  Known  as  St.   Andrew's   Well,  or 
-  Well,  which  rises  near  the  I'alace,  emitting  a  Btream  sufficing 
to  surround  that  structure  with   it-  water-.     The  church  of  Wells  from 
earliest  time-  appear-  tu  have  been  dedicated  tu  St.  Andrew  ;  the  city 
divided  into  two  parts,  the  Liberty  of  St.  Andrew,  in  which  Btand 
the  Cathedral,  Bi  hop's  Palace,  Deanery,  Ac,  and  the  town  or  borough. — 

Se.d  of  Donald  0  .     on  of  I aid  Roe  Mac  Carthy,  prince  of  Desmond, 

•  .1  in  L389.     Ii  i    of  a  circular  form  ;  within  an  eight-foiled  compart* 
ment  Qted  a  mounted  figure,  bearings  jword  :  there  is  no  indica- 

ol  armour,  and  the  bead  appears  t'>  be  bare  *  b1  :  dovenaldi  : 
og  :  i  ii. i  :  n  :  khui  ua<  \i;ini'.  The  matrix  was  in  the  possession  of  Dr. 
Petrie,  a-  described  l»y  him,  Proceedinj  "i  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 
Vol.  i.,  p. 

1  'ill'-  arms  uf  the  Citj   "i   vVelle  are  rated    in  the   reign  of   Richard    I.:   the 

■I  vert,  a  tree  charter  wu firmed  by  John,  1200,  who 

■  from  ill'-  fa  e  lino,  in  be  i  nude   the   oity  :>    free    borough,      I  rom 

i    i  •    •    i    .    ined.     Thi  I  ,  w<  I  m<  mi"  i  -  to 

I    ■  n  i.i   i  [ncoi  | ■'•  I '.iili.nii'-iit. 


Notices  of  Srcfjacologt'cnl  publications. 

SUSSEX  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  COLLECTIONS,  relating  to  the  History  and  Anti- 
quities of  the  County.  Published  by  the  Sussex  Archaeological  Society.  Vol.  VII. 
London  :  John  Russell  Smith.     1854.     8vo. 

Among  the  recent  additions  to  archaeological  literature,  we  have  the 
gratification  of  noticing  another  volume  of  these  Collections,  in  which 
the  Society  continue  to  maintain  the  reputation  which  they  early  achieved. 
It  is  pleasant  to  observe  no  signs  of  any  diminution  of  zeal  or  interest 
in  regard  to  their  county  history  and  antiquities.  The  list  of  sub- 
scribers, as  well  as  the  number  and  variety  of  the  articles,  must  be  encou- 
raging to  those  by  whose  exertions  the  Society  was  formed. 

Mr.  W.  D.  Cooper  has  contributed  a  paper  on  the  retention  of  British 
and  Saxon  names  in  Sussex.  He  contends  that  the  Danes  never  esta- 
blished themselves  in  the  county,  and  points  out  how  very  numerous  are 
the  names  of  places  there,  which  are  of  Anglo-Saxon  origin,  and  that  a 
few  would  even  seem  to  have  been  derived  from  the  British.  He  also 
notices  the  large  number  of  Sussex  families  whose  names  are  referable  to 
the  Anglo-Saxon  language.  Such  surnames,  however,  are  no  evidence  of 
descent  from  Anglo-Saxon  ancestors,  since  there  were  very  few  surnames 
transmitted  from  father  to  son  till  many  years  after  the  conquest,  and 
when,  subsequently  to  that  event,  surnames  came  to  be  assumed  or  attri- 
buted from  places  of  abode  or  birth,  or  from  offices  or  occupations,  an 
Anglo-Saxon  or  Saxon-English  word  was  almost  as  likely  to  become  the 
patronymic  of  a  Norman  as  of  a  Saxon  family. 

Mr.  Blaauw,  the  Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Society,  with  his  accustomed 
industry,  has  furnished  four  papers.  One  is  on  the  effigy  of  Sir  David 
Owen,  in  Easebornc  Church,  near  Midhurst,  with  a  copy  of  his  will  and  a 
codicil.  In  this  we  have  a  more  correct  description  of  the  effigy  than  had 
before  been  published,  and  good  grounds  are  shown  for  accepting  it  as 
that  of  Sir  David  Owen,  the  illegitimate  son  of  Owen  Tudor,  who,  by 
his  marriage  with  Katherine,  the  widowed  queen  of  Henry  V.,  became  the 
stepfather  of  Henry  VI.,  and  was  the  grandfather  of  Henry  VII.  It  had 
seemed  so  improbable  that  a  son  of  this  Owen  Tudor  should  have  died 
in  1542,  that  Nicolas,  Baker,  and  some  other  genealogists,  had  supposed 
a  generation  had  been  overlooked,  and  that  Sir  David  was  Owen  Tudor 's 
grandson.  He  had  even  been  mistaken  for  a  son  of  Eenrj  VIII.  Mr. 
Blaauw  has  explained  this  most  satisfactorily,  by  means  of  the  deposition 
made  by  Sir  David  himself  as  a  witness  at  the  time  the  divorce  of 
Henry  VIII.  from  his  Queen  Katherine  of  Arragon  was  in  agitation  ; 
which  shows  that  he  was  born  in  1459,  about  two  years  before  the  execu- 
tion of  Owen  Tudor,  and  consequently  was  only  eighty-three  years  of  age 
at  his  own  death  in  1542.  The  will,  a  document  of  considerable  length, 
was  found  at  Cowdray,  and  was  exhibited  by  Mr.  Alexander  Brown  of 
the  Priory,  Easebornc,  on  the  request  of  Sir  D.  S.  Scott,  at  the  meeting 
of  the  Institute  at  Chichester.  Though  not  the  last  will  of  Sir  David,  it 
was  evidently  an  original   will,  which,  on    his  thinking   fit  to  alter  the 


LOO 


NOTICES    OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    rrnUC.\T1«>\<. 


disposition  of  his  property,  had  been  partially  erased  and  interlined  to  serve 
draft  of  another  will.  It  is  interesting  from  the  information  which  it 
gives  respecting  his  family,  and  as  illustrating  the  manners  of  the  age. 
Mr.  Blaauw  has  been  at  the  pains  to  compare  it  with  the  copy  of  the 
r's  last  will  in  the  Register  Book  at  Doctor's  Commons,  and  has 
noted  the  variations.  In  a  paper  on  the  Ornamental  Brickwork  of  a 
Tower  at  Laughton  Place,  built  in  1534,  with  some  woodcuts,  he  invites 
attention  to  Bome  remarkable  examples  of  moulded  brickB  and  terra-cotta 
ornaments  remaining  in  that  building.  Of  one  of  them,  the  Pelham 
buckle,  bearing  the  date  of  the  erection  of  the  tower,  the  Institute  is 
indebted  to  Mr.  Blaauw  for  a  cast,  which  is  noticed  in  the  eleventh  volume 
of  this  Journal,  and  by  his  permission  we  are  now  able  to  give  a  woodcul 
of  it. 


I  U  illi.iiu  Poll 


The  '1:1'.  payers  of  the  Borough  of  Arundel,  with  extracts  from  the 
Subsidy  Boll  of  1296  and  other  MSS.,  form  the  abject  of  another  paper 
by  him  ;  and  there  is  also  one  relating  to  tome  Su  tes  Monasteries  at  the 
time  of  their  di  solution.      This,  which  is  parti)   derived  from   original 

furnishe ie  curious  particular    respecting  the  condition  of  those 

that  time,  tin-  oonduct  of  the  inmates,  and  the  manner  in  which 
tie.  \  ted. 

p  we  have  a  contribution  on  the  Remain    of  an 
ancient  Mnnoi    '  I      whui  t,  illn  trated  bj    a    view   ol  the  c 


NOTICES    OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 


101 


ruins,  a  plan,  and  some  mouldings  ;  and  to  this  is  subjoined  some  account 
of  the  early  history  of  the  manor  hy  Mr.  W.  S.  Walford,  which,  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  style  of  the  architecture,  makes  it  appear  probable  that  the 
house  was  built  about  12.50,  by  Walter  de  Scotney,  the  owner  of  several 
manors  in  Sussex,  Kent,  and  Hants,  and  also  chief  steward  to  Richard  de 
Clare,  Earl  of  Gloucester  ;  but  having  been  induced  to  administer  poison  to 
the  earl  and  his  brother,  William  de  Clare,  of  which  the  latter  died,  he 
was  tried,  condemned  and  executed  for  the  crime  at  Winchester  in  1259. 
Even  the  ruins  of  domestic  buildings  of  this  early  date  are  so  rare,  that  we 
are  glad  to  avail  ourselves  of  the  permission  of  the  Committee  of  the 
Sussex  Society  in  regard  to  the  woodcuts  to  give  Mr.  Nesbitt's  description 
of  the  remains  of  this  house  with  his  illustrations.  Being  near  Hastings, 
these  ruins  may  be  known  to  some  of  our  readers.  "  They  consist — as 
will  be  seen  by  the  accompanying  ground-plan  (see  next  page) — of  portions 
of  a  parallelogram  measuring  internally 
40  feet  by  23,  and  of  a  porch  at  the  south- 
east angle  of  the  principal  building.  The 
parallelogram  had  a  low  vaulted  ground- 
floor,  lighted  by  small  lancet  windows : 
the  whole  of  the  vaulting  has  fallen,  but 
corbels  remain  in  the  angles,  and  traces 
of  the  arches  on  the  walls.  No  doorway 
is  left,  but  it  was  probably  in  the  south 
wall.  The  entrance  to  the  room  above 
this  vaulted  space  was  most  likely  also 
in  the  south  wall  ;  no  part,  however,  of  the 
walls  of  the  upper  room  remains,  except  the 
gable  represented  in  the  woodcut  (see  next 
page).  The  outer  door-case  of  the  porch 
has  been  destroyed,  but  the  inner  exists, 
and  has  good  early  English  mouldings 
(see  cut  a)  ;  it  had  shafts,  but  these  have 
been  removed.  The  groined  vault  remains, 
though  the  ribs  have  fallen.  Over  the 
porch  was  a  small  room,  the  only  access 
to  which  was  by  a  door  leading  from  the 
east  end  of  the  large  upper  room.  It  will  be 
seen  in  the  woodcut  (next  page)  that  a  wall 
is  corbelled  out  across  the  angle  between 
the  porch  and  the  main  building,  in  order 
to  allow  of  the  formation  of  this  door 
way.  This  small  room  may  very  possibly 
have  served  as  a  chapel  or  oratory  ;  rooms 

similarly    placed,  and    of  about    the    same    Mouldings  of  E.  window.  Manor  House, 

d.      *  i        i  j  i  i  at  Crowhurst. 

intensions,  were  clearly  used  as  chapels 

at  Little  Wenham   Hall,  Suffolk,  and   Old  Soar  in  the  parish  of  Plaxtole, 

Kent.1     The  large  upper  room  had  a  handsome  two-light  window   in   its 

east  end.      The  tracery  of  this  window  is  partly  destroyed,  but  it  evidently 

had  two  pointed  lights  with  a  circle  above,  all  unfoliated.    The  mouldings  of 

the  arch   (cut  b,  p.  3)  are  rich;  the  filleted  roll  on  the  outside  of  the  jamb  (cut 

<•,  p.  3)  is  rather    peculiar;  the  shafts   have  disappeared,  but  the  capitals 


Hudson  Turner's  Domestic  Architecture  in  England,  pp.  152,  174. 


rob. 


...r- 


■ 


L—-^- 


l_-l_UJL  ._'     I    <     >-t 
I  I    I    I 


NOTICES   OF   ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS.  103 

remain,  and  are  sculptured  with  foliage  of  the  usual  early  English  cha- 
racter of  much  elegance.  As  has  been  said  before,  no  traces  remain  of 
the  entrance  ;  it  probably  was  in  the  south  wall  near  the  west  end,  and 
reached  by  a  flight  of  external  stairs  leading  from  near  the  porch." 

There  is  a  short  paper  hy  the  Rev.  P.  Freemax,  suggesting  that  the 
"Temple  by  Chichester,"  the  subject  of  an  etching  t.  Car.  II.  copied  in 
vol.  v.  of  these  Collections  for  the  purpose  of  having  it  identified,  may  have 
been  the  former  church  of  Saint  Bartholomew  near  Chichester,  which  was 
taken  down  many  years  ago.  Another  by  Mr.  Hills,  on  the  stone  bearing 
a  Roman  inscription  found  at  Chichester  in  1723,  and  now  at  Goodwood, 
gives  what  is  considered  an  amended  reading  (in  type)  of  the  inscription  ; 
but  the  primary  object  of  this  notice  of  the  stone  is,  to  correct  the  preva- 
lent impression  that  it  is  Sussex  marble,  and  consequently  a  proof  of  the 
Romans  having  worked  those  beds.  Mr.  Hills  states  it  to  be  Purbeck,  and 
refers  to  the  difference  of  the  fossils  (Paludina  fluviorum  and  P.  elongata) 
in  the  two  stones  in  support  of  his  statement. 

Mr.  M.  A.  Lower,  to  whom  these  volumes  of  the  Sussex  Society  have 
been  much  indebted,  has  presented  us  with  "  Memorials  of  the  town,  parish, 
and  Cinque  port  of  Seaford,  historical  and  antiquarian,"  with  some  illus- 
trations. This  ancient  town  and  port  form  a  very  appropriate  subject  for 
a  contribution  to  Sussex  history.  The  spot  has  yielded  evidence  of  Roman 
occupation  ;  was  a  port  in  Anglo-Saxon  times  ;  and  after  the  conquest  it 
was  a  member  of  the  Cinque  ports,  and  the  town  became  part  of  the  posses- 
sions of  the  Earls  of  Warenne.  But  now  the  town  is  greatly  decayed,  and 
the  coast  so  altered,  chiefly  from  natural  causes,  that  it  is  no  easy  matter  to 
discover  where  the  port  could  have  been.  Some  curious  particulars  have 
been  brought  to  light,  and  the  communication  throughout  bears  the  impress 
of  Mr.  Lower's  zeal  and  industry.  It  will  no  doubt  be  perused  with 
interest,  though,  seeing  the  space  it  occupies,  perhaps  even  Sussex  readers 
may  think  that,  in  what  relates  to  the  later  portion  of  the  history,  more 
selection  and  even  some  further  retrenchment  might  have  been  advan- 
tageously employed. 

From  Mr.  Figg  we  have  a  paper  on  the  Lantern  in  the  Cluniac  Priory 
of  St.  Pancras,  Lewes,  with  plan  and  sections.  It  may  be  unknown  to 
many  of  our  readers,  that  on  the  site  of  this  priory  is  a  subterranean 
passage,  leading  to  a  small  circular  cell  hardly  five  feet  in  diameter,  also 
underground,  which  has  been  generally,  if  not  always,  known  by  the  name 
of  the  Lantern.  It  should  seem  to  have  been  under  the  area  of  the  cloisters, 
the  entrance  to  the  passage  having  been  in  an  undercroft  of  a  building 
adjoining  the  south  cloister.  "It  is  built,"  Mr.  Figg  says,  "of  small 
pieces  of  faced  chalk,  while  the  passage  leading  to  it  is  of  flints  laid  in  and 
grouted."  The  passage  is  not  straight,  and  at  the  first  angle  is  a  square 
communication  from  above,  probably,  we  would  suggest,  for  light  and  air. 
By  the  permission  of  the  Committee  we  are  enabled  to  give  the  plan  and  sec- 
tions (see  next  page),  which  will  render  the  subject  more  readily  intelligible. 
Mr.  Figg  shows  good  reason  for  believing  this  small  dark  circular  structure 
to  have  been  a  prison  or  penitential  cell,  and  adduces  instances  of  the  use 
of  the  word  Lanterna,  for  a  place  of  confinement,  from  the  Cluniac  statutes, 
and  of  the  word  Lantern  in  a  like  sense  from  the  examination  of  the  Lollard 
preacher,  Thorpe,  before  Archbishop  Arundel  in  1407.  This  may  furnish 
a  satisfactory  explanation  of  many  a  subterranean  passage  in  sites  of 
religious  houses  ;  to  account  for  which  various  surmises  have  passed  into 
traditions,  that  they  led  to  some  neighbouring  church  or  castle. 


L04 


NOTICES    OP    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 


The  Bishop  of  the  Dioi  bse  haa  communicated  a  letter  from  Bishop 
Carlton,  describing  the  reception  of  the  Duke  of  Monmouth  at  Chichester, 
in  1679,  derived  from  a  MS.  in  the  Bodleian  library.     It  shows  the  fearful 


B 


n 


L  .    THE     LANTERN. 


SCALE  10  FEET  TO  3,£ OF  AN  INCH 
-=H 


W  F1CC.C.S.A.    del. 


state  of  excitement  in  which  the  puhlic  mind  then  was,  on  the  subject  of 
elusion  of  the  Duke  of  York,  and  the  refusal  of  the  King  to  assemble 
parliament. 

Sib  David  Sibbalij  Scott,  Bart.,  has  contributed  a  copy  of  the  Book  of 

Orders  and    Rules  established  by   Anthony   Viscount   Montague  for  the 

direction  and  government  of  his  household  and  family,  \.i>.  L595, 

;i  MS.  hitherto  unpublished,  which  is  preserved  at   Baseborne  Priory,  and 

oticed  by  Sir  D.  S.  Scott  in  vol.  v.  of  these  Collections,  p.  187.     The 

original  MS.  was  exhibited   by  Mr.  Alexander  Brown  of  that  place  in  the 

Museum  of  the   [nstitute  at  the  Chichester  Meeting.     It  presents  a  most 

minute  and  graphic  view  of  the  Btate,  routine,  and  domestic   economy  of  a 

nobleman's  household  at  that   period,  with  the  prescribed  duties  of  the 

several  officers.     To  tie-'-  who  Bre  desirous  of  understanding  the  manners 

of  the  age  in  these  respects,  it  will  well  repay  an  attentive  perusal.     Pew, 

nk,  will  read  the  introductory  observations  of  Sir  D.  S.  Scott  without 

being  induced  to   peruse  the  Orders  and   Rules,  though  al  first  they  may 

appear  little   attractive   to  th neral  reader.     As  l ks  of  the  kind, 

relating  to  the  household  of  a  Bubject,  are  rare,  this  contribution  is  the 
more  acceptable. 

I'm. ni  Mr.  Corner  there  is  a  communication  entitled  "Grant  per 
cultellum  of  William  the  Second  Barl  of  vVarenne."  The  deed  referred 
to,  and  introduced  in  the  cour  e  of  his  observation  ni  bj  thai  Barl, 

with   the  assent   of  his  Counte      I  abel,   to  the  church  of  St.    Andrew, 

.   of  land  in  Southwark.     On  whicl en  ion,  as  the  grant  was 

di  tance  from  the  land,  there  was  a  lymbolio  delivery  of  the  pos 
ol  a  knife.    At  thai  time,  and  even  down  to  our  own  i 

bh  u  ed,  •>'  a     no!    net  •     arj  for  the  tran  jfer 

>.f  land  when   the  grantor  was   in  in       li  m  tiveyed  by 

wi.nl  of  mouth  and  delivery  of  the  po    e    ion  to  the  grantee.     The  deed 

tnportanl  only  a     evidence  of  the  trail  action.     Bxcepl  in  vcrj   early 


NOTICES   OF   ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS.  105 

times,  such  delivery  took  place  on  the  land,  a  turf  or  the  like  being 
delivered  by  the  grantor  to  the  grantee  as  a  symbol  of  the  land  itself  ;  but 
in  those  early  times,  which  would  comprise  a  great  part  of  the  Xllth  century, 
8  symbolic  delivery,  by  means  of  some  chattel,  at  a  distance  from  the 
land,  should  seem  to  have  sufficed,  if  the  grantee  afterwards  actually 
obtained  possession  in  the  life-time  of  the  grantor,  although  without  any 
further  authority  from  him  as  was  in  Bracton's  time  required  ;  or  at  least, 
whatever  may  have  been  the  legal  effect  of  it,  a  delivery  of  this  kind  at  a 
distance  from  the  land,  in  addition  to  the  deed,  was  not  uncommon.  Hence 
various  quaint  things  that  chanced  to  be  at  hand  came  to  be  employed  ; 
such  as  knives,  staves,  rings,  horns,  cups,  &c.  Some  of  these,  which 
have  been  preserved  as  curiosities,  are  noticed  by  Mr.  Corner.  The  practice 
to  some  extent  continues  in  regard  to  copyhold  land  :  which  is  still  trans- 
ferred by  the  symbol,  commonly,  of  a  rod,  though  in  a  few  manors  some- 
thing else,  as  a  glove  or  straw,  is  used.  Needless  obscurity  has  been  thrown 
over  such  grants  as  those  mentioned  by  Mr.  Corner  for  want  of  sufficiently 
investigating  the  early  usages  ;  but  our  limits  will  not  allow  us  to  enter 
further  into  the  subject. 

There  is  appended  to  this  volume  some  "  Xotes  and  Queries"  relating 
to  Sussex  matters,  and  the  Report  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Meeting  of 
the  Institute  at  Chichester. 


CAMBRIDGE  ANTIQUARIAN  SOCIETY  ;  Reports  and  Communications  made  to 
the  Society,  Nos.  I.,  II.,  III.  and  IV.  London  :  G.  Bell,  Fleet  Street ;  J.  Russell 
Smith,  Soho  Square.    8vo. 

Fourteen  years  have  elapsed  since  the  foundation  of  the  Cambridge 
Antiquarian  Society  ;  from  unavoidable  circumstances  it  is  not  a  numerous 
body,  but  we  have  gratifying  evidence  that  it  is  vigorously  fulfilling  the 
objects  for  which  it  was  established.  Many  of  our  readers  will  remember 
with  pleasure  the  opportunity  afforded  at  the  late  meeting  of  the  Institute, 
for  the  examination  of  many  local  antiquities  placed  by  this  Society,  with 
the  kindest  feeling,  at  the  disposal  of  the  Institute  to  further  our  object  in 
the  formation  of  the  temporary  Museum.  Whilst  no  general  collection  of 
antiquities  exists  in  the  University,  more  especially  as  a  depository  for  the 
numerous  vestiges  of  earlier  times  which  the  Fenland  country  has  constantly 
produced,  an  important  service  to  archaeology  has  been  rendered  by  the 
Cambridge  Society,  and  by  those  energetic  members  who  have  neglected 
no  occasion  of  securing  such  reliques,  and  of  thus  forming  an  assemblage  of 
most  instructive  indicia  illustrating  the  ancient  condition  of  that  remark- 
able district. 

The  Publications  of  the  Society,  consisting  of  Memoirs  separately  pro- 
duced from  time  to  time  in  quarto  and  octavo,  comprise  a  valuable  accession 
to  archaeological  literature,  although  not  so  generally  appreciated,  we 
apprehend,  as  they  deserve.  In  now  directing  attention  to  the  labours  of 
this  Society,  it  is  not  proposed  to  offer  any  remarks  on  the  contributions 
forming  their  earlier  and  more  important  publications,  but  rather  to  bring 
uiiihr  the  notice  of  our  readers  the  additions  recently  made  to  the  minor 
series  of  their  Transactions.  The  quarto  Publications  appear  at  intervals 
as  heretofore,  whilst  by  an  arrangement  attended  with  considerable 
advantage,  the  shorter  Memoirs  communicated  at  the  Meetings  are  now 
produced  in  conjunction  with  the  Annual  Report.     We  have  now  four  of 

VOL.    XII.  p 


106  NOTICES   OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 

yearly   "Reports  ami    Communications"    before   us,    and   propose 
briefly  to  invite  attention  to  some  of  their  varied  contents. 

A-  a  contribution  from  the  evidence  supplied  by  ancient  Records,  the 
Rev.  B.  Venables  presents  to  the  Society  the  results  of  Ins  examination  of 
the  "Nona  Rolls,"  so  far  as  they  relate  to  Cambridgeshire.  Mr.  C.  C. 
Babingtou  supplies  a  Catalogue  of  the  Tradesmen's  Tokens  issued  in 
Cambridgeshire  in  the  XVIIth  century,  describing  sixty-two,  which  belong  to 
the  town  of  Cambridge;  ami  he  has  received  some  additional  types  since  this 
catalogue  was  published.  There  are  Bixty-eight  other  tokens  also  described 
as  having  been  issued  in  other  parts  of  that  county.  Such  local  lists  of 
the  token-  of  the  latter  half  of  the  XVIIth  century  are  valuable,  and  we 
would    direct    the  attention   of  all    local  Societies  to  the  subject.      These 

-  are  becoming  rarer  every  day.  and  ought  to  be  collected  and 
preserved  as  useful  auxiliaries  to  the  history  of  the  places  at  which  they 
were  issued,  as  also  in  connection  with  genealogical  studies.  The  com- 
munications  are  of  very  varied  character,  chiefly,  however,  illustrative  of 
subjects  of  local  interest.  Amongst  them  the  following  claim  our  notice : 
Some  account  of  a  very  ran'  life  of  St.  Radegunde,  given  by  the  Kev.  C. 
Bardwick.  The  life  is  metrical,  and  was  written  by  Henry  Bradshaw,  a 
Benedictine  moni  of  Chester.  Remarks  on  Church  and  Parochial  Libraries, 
by  the  Kev.  .1.  J.  Smith.  On  some  Roman  Pottery  found  near  Poxton, 
Cambridgeshire.  Mr.  C.  C.  Babington  calls  attention  to  this  local  discovery, 
which  is  of  much  interest,  from  a  very  fine  Arretine  vessel  forming  part  of 
it.  During  the  Institute's  Meeting  at  Cambridge  we  had  the  pleasure  of 
Beeing  the  fragments  of  this  vessel,  which  have  been  carefully  united 
together,  bo  as  to  convey  a  good  idea  of  its  original  state.  We  were 
pleased  to  find  that  the  foot  had  been  recovered  since  the  plate  appended 
to  this  paper  was  issued.  We  may  next  mention  a  letter  addressed  by 
St.  John's  College  to  the  Countess  of  Shrewsbury  concerning  the  building 
of  a  library  adjoining  the  fine  court  of  that  college,  which  had  been  erected 
at  her  expense.  Mr.  ('.  ('.  Babington  gives  a  short  memoir  on  Borne 
antiquities  found  in  Corpus  Christi  College.  A  portion  of  a  curious  and 
perhaps  unique  tract,  entitled  "The  General  Pardon. '*  by  W.  Eayward, 
imprinted  at  London,  by  W.  How.  for  W.  Pickeringe,  was  found  at  that 
time.  It  ie  much  to  be  desired  thai  a  perfect  copy  of  this  tract,  printed 
about  1571,,  could  be  obtained.  We  may  also  mention  as  discovered  at  the 
same  time  and  place  Borne  curious  shoes  and  clogs  belonging  to  the  reign  of 
Elizabeth,  of  which  a  plate  ie  given.  The  e  curiouB  and  possibly  unique 
examples  of  the  ingenuity  of  the  "gentle  crafl  "  in  medieval  times  were 
placed  in  our  Museum  at  the  Cambridge  Meeting,  Mr.  C.  II.  Newmaroh 
rotes  on  some  Roman    buildings   at  Cirencester,   thai    the 

of  many  ol  them  had  been  raised  after  the  internal  decorations  were 
completed,  on  account  of  the  prevalent f  il 1-  al  that  place.     There  is 

ious  paper   on   the   Orientation  of   King's   College  Chapel,  bj    Mr. 

R  !    i  direction  of  the  chapel  was  obtained  IV some  observe** 

1(    fi.i  a    oientific  purpose  by  the  celebrated  mathematician  Mr. 

Lftei    di  cu    iug   the     ubject,    Mr.    Rigg   arrives   al    the 

conclu  ion  thai  this  edifice  is  a  complete  exception  to  the  rules  of  orients* 

id  down  hv  the  wi\  I   thai  theory.     Note    in  erted  in  a  copy 

ill  i   I  'ias.  r  Book,  i  iiini  ib    some    point  s    of  int<  n   t. 

One  "i  them  i   an  entry  to  the  effect  thai  originally  the  tithe    upon  b 

in  London  wore  paid  bj  "o   halfpenny  for  each  pound'  the  house 

which  the  red  to  the  pai  on   upon  even  Sundai   and   Holy 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INTELLIGENCE.  107 

day,  of  which  there  were  sometymes  so  many,  that  the  tythes  amounted  to 
3s.  3d.  upon  the  pound.  This  course  was  altered  by  ye  decree,  and  brought 
down  to  2s.  9d."  Mr.  C.  TI.  Cooper  communicates  some  curious  facts  and 
documents  concerning  the  Vow  of  Widowhood.  The  same  antiquary 
furnishes  a  copy  of  a  Letter  from  Oliver  Cromwell  to  his  sister,  and  has 
added  some  curious  notes.  The  next  contribution  is  one  of  interest, 
especially  to  the  student  of  Academic  history.  It  is  a  form  of  Petition 
addressed  to  Henry  V.,  about  the  year  1415,  in  vindication  of  some  ancient 
usages  of  the  University  of  Cambridge.  The  Rev.  C.  Ilardwick,  who 
supplies  this  document,  has  added  many  valuable  notes.  The  last  paper 
that  we  shall  notice  consists  of  a  collection  of  Letters  of  Roger  Ascham, 
communicated  by  and  copiously  illustrated  with  notes  Mr.  J.  E.  B.  Mayor. 
.  In  conclusion  we  may  express  regret  that  the  well  directed  efforts  of  this 
Society  should  not  have  received  the  more  ample  encouragement  and 
support  to  which  they  are  entitled.  We  heartily  desire  that  the  claims  of 
National  Antiquities  may  henceforth  be  appreciated  with  increasing  interest 
in  the  University,  which  presents  so  important  a  field  of  investigation. 


Evcftacoloaicnl  Jntclltaeiut. 


Mr.  Philip  Delamotte,  one  of  our  most  skilful  photographers,  announces 
for  immediate  publication  (by  subscription)  a  "  Photographic  Tour  among 
the  Abbeys  of  Yorkshire,"  with  notices  by  Mr.  Walbran.  The  volume, 
comprising  twenty-four  large  viewrs,  will  be  produced  by  Messrs  Bell  & 
Daldy,  1 80,  Fleet-street. 

Several  valuable  publications  have  recently  been  produced  by  the 
Surtees  Society  ;  amongst  these  may  be  mentioned  the  Pontifical  of 
Egbert,  Archbishop  of  York,  732 — 700,  from  a  MS.  in  the  Imperial 
Library,  Paris  ;  the  Lindisfarne  and  Rushworth  Gospels,  edited  by  the  Rev. 
Joseph  Stephenson,  from  MSS.  in  the  British  Museum  and  the  Bodleian  ; 
and  the  Wills  with  Inventories  preserved  in  the  Registry  at  Richmond, 
Yorkshire,  produced  under  the  care  of  the  Rev.  J.  Raine,  jun.  The  Society 
claims  the  liberality  of  antiquaries  towards  the  achievement  of  a  fresh 
undertaking  to  which  their  resources  are  unequal;  it  is  calculated  to  throw 
an  important  light  upon  the  history  of  the  Palatinate  of  Durham,  as  well  as 
upon  national  customs  and  manners.  It  is  the  publication  of  Bishop  Hat- 
field's Survey,  in  the  fourteenth  century,  which  will  form  a  valuable  sequel 
to  the  Boldon  Buke,  compiled  in  1183,  and  already  published  by  the  Surtees 
Society,  whose  labours  well  deserve  to  be  more  generally  appreciated. 
Those  who  take  interest  in  this  object  are  requested  to  communicate  with 
the  Rev.  James  Raine,  jun.,  Newcastle. 

Society  of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland. — At  the  meeting  on  Jan.  15, 
Mr.  Cosmo  Innes  produced  the  "Black  Book  of  Breadalbane,"  preserved 
at  Taymouth,  and  gave  an  account  of  the  curious  memorials,  relating  to 
the  family  and  their  possessions,  recorded  in  it :  it  contains  also  several 
portraits,  and  notices  of  the  paintings  executed  by  direction  of  Sir  Colin 
Campbell,  in  the  earlier  part  of  the  XVIIth  century,  by  a  German  painter 
and  the  celebrated  George  Jamesone,  some  of  whose  best  works  still  exist  at 
Taymouth.  Mr.  Chambers  read  notes  on  a  box  presented  by  Alexander 
Pope,  the  poet,  to  his  namesake  and  supposed  relation,  a  minister  in  Caith- 
nesshire.      Mr.    Robertson    read    some    original    notices    from    the    Rotuli 


108  ABCHAEOLOGICAL    INTELLIGENCE. 

Scaccarii  relating  to  Barbour,  author  of  "  the  Bruce  ;  "  and  Mr.  Scott  gavfl 
an  account  of  a  silver  reliquary  found  at  Dundee. — February  12.  The  Lev. 
T.  M'Lauchlan  read  a  memoir  on  a  collection  of  Gaelic  Poems  and  1 1  i-t<>- 
rical  fragments  preserved  in  a  Ms.  in  the  Advocate's  Library,  known  as 
"The  Dean  of  Lismore's  Book,"  the  oldest  known  specimen  of  written 
Scottish  Graelic.  Dr.  Scott  road  a  notice  of  the  ancient  die  of  a  Scottish 
coin,  latch  d  to  the  museum.     Mr.  Brodie  gave  some  remarks  on 

clay  Dagobas,  bearing  Sanscrit  Btamps  from  Ceylon  :  and  Mr.  Petrie  read 
a  Description  of  Antiquities  in  Orkney  recently  examined,  comprising  a 
large  burg  or  round  tower,  with  concealed  cells  and  passages,  various 
remains  found  in  the  tumuli  near  the  Standing  Stones  of  Stennis,  and  in 
another  barrow  at  Papa-Westray,  apparently  a  family  Bepulchre  :  also 
further  observations  on  the  Pict's  House  at  that  place,  excavated  by  Lieut. 
Thomas,  R.N.  Traces  of  incised  figures  have  been  perceived,  resembling 
those  mi  the  stones  forming  the  sepulchral  chamber  at  New  Grange,  in 
[reland. — March  12.  Mr.  Jarvise  communicated  an  account  of  sites  in 
Forfarshire  where  antiquities  had  been  found,  presented  by  him  to  the 
Society.  Dr.  Wise  gave  a  notice  on  the  Fort  of  Barry  Hill,  Forfarshire, 
now  destroyed.  Mr.  Rhind  sent  a  Memoir  on  Roman  Swords,  asserting 
his  opinion  that  the  bronze  leaf-shaped  swords  are  not  of  the  Roman  age. 
The  Rev.  Dr.  Chalmers  gave  an  account  of  a  stone  coffin  found  at  Dun- 
fermline Abbey,  containing  a  corpse  wrapped  in  leather  ;  and  Dr.  Scott 
contributed  notices  of  Impressions  from  Seals,  chiefly  of  the  Bglinton 
family. 

We  have  the  gratification  of  stating  that  the  Master  and  Fellows  of 
Pembroke  College  have  liberally  permitted  Mr.  Ready  to  make  copies  of 
the  seals  preservnl  amongst  their  muniments,  and  he  is  engaged  in  that 
rich  depository.  Amongst  Mr.  Ready's  most  recent  acquisitions  may  be 
mentioned  a  fine  impression  from  the  seal  of  Anne  of  Bohemia,  queen  of 
Richard  IL,  and  a  remarkably  perfect  seal  of  that  king  ;  a  portion  of  the 
curious  seal  of  Hubert  do  Burgh,  chief  justice  in  the  time  of  Henry  111.  ; 
and  the  beautiful  Beal  of  John  Lord  Bardolf,  19  Edward  111.  Mi-.  Ready 
ha-  al-o  received  a  huge  collection  of  German  seals,  including  nearly  a 
complete  series  of  those  of  the  emperors  from  a  very  earl}  period,  commencing 
with  Charlemagne.  Tie  \  may  be  obtained  on  application  to  Mr.  Ready, 
j.  St    Botolph's  Lane,  Cambridge. 

Tie-  Asm  \i.  Mi. mi  ig  of  the  [nstitute  will  be  held  at  Shrewsbury,  under 
the  patronage  of  the  Viscount  Hill,  Lord  Lieutenanl  of  Shropshire. 
Announcement  of  the  arrangements  will  Bhortlj  be  isBued. 


A'':''        tO      /'"</'         7-">. 

tin-  preceding  aheeta  were  printed,  a  further  and  more  direct  proof  of  Godfrey 

having  been  in  the  service  •>!    \\  illhun  de  Bohun  Earl  of  Northampton, 

who,  ire  have  seen,  waa  lord  ■•!  the  manor  "i  vVykea,  lia     been  i<.nn.l   in  Madox 

Pormulare  Anglicanum,  p.  349.     I'  ia  a  power  <>i  attorney  l\  the  Earl  authorising  Ins 

■  i   well  beloved   Godfrey   de  la   Rokele  to  deliver  seisin  of  certain   lai 

•  ii  by  the  I  ..'ii  I  in  exchange,  and  to  aco  pi  Beiain  ol  othi  r-, 
een  taken  in   lien  ol  them.     The  inatrument  i    in  French,  and  waa  under 

i  irl,  and  dated  a(  Ramaden  Belhouae, he  6th  ol  June,  in  thi 

I  .  which   waa  within  thirteen  yeara  after  the  probable  date  of  the 

M.    •!■   I  ■  Rokele,     Downham  and    Ramadcn    Bclhou 

•'»'lj i  i         .  and  the  buaineaa  to  i"-  tranaacted  under  tlie  power  ol 

:     i  \'  i.    nob  a    wa  •  liki  K  i"  i"  >■ mm.  .1  o.  t li-   Earl'i 


2Tf)e   archaeological   SJotunal* 


JUNE,  1855. 


NOTICES  OF  CERTAIN  SHAFTS,  CONTAINING  REMAINS  OF 
THE  ROMAN  PERIOD,  DISCOVERED  AT  THE  ROMAN 
STATION  AT  CHESTERFORD,  ESSEX. 

BY  THE  HON.   RICHARD  C.  NEVILLE,  F.S.A.,    VICE-PRESIDENT. 

Soon  after  the  commencement  of  my  excavations  at 
Chesterford,  in  1845, 1  became  acquainted  with  a  remarkable 
feature  in  the  vestiges  of  Roman  occupation,  to  which  my 
attention  was  especially  directed  by  the  discovery  of  its 
existence  in  another  part  of  the  country  about  the  same 
time.  I  allude  to  the  deep  pits  or  shafts  from  which 
Dr.  Diamond  obtained  pottery  of  various  kinds  and  other 
Roman  remains,  in  the  vicinity  of  Ewell,  in  Surrey.1  Though 
frequent  mention  has  been  made  by  antiquaries  of  large  holes 
filled  with  black  mould  and  debris,  on  various  ancient  sites, 
they  have  usually  been  indiscriminately  termed  rubbish  pits  ; 
but  I  am  not  aware  that,  with  the  exception  of  the  investiga- 
tion by  the  gentleman  above  named,  any  steps  have  been 
taken  to  elucidate  the  penetralia  of  these  mysterious  reposi- 
tories. From  their  close  contiguity  to  each  other,  their 
shape,  diameter,  depth,  and  the  nature  of  their  contents, 
they  are  certainly  not  to  be  included  in  any  such  general 
designation,  whatever  their  appropriation  may  have  been. 
With  the  hope  of  establishing  this,  though  scarcely  of 
assigning  to  them  their  proper  purpose,  I  shall  enumerate 
the  various  peculiarities  which  have  come  under  my  observa- 
tion, leaving  to  others  to  form  their  opinion  from  the  evidence 

1  See  Dr.  Diamond's   account  of  this  discovery,  which  occurred  about  November, 
1847.  Archseologia,  vol.  xxxii.  p.  451. 

VOL.  XII.  Q 


110       NOTICES    OF    SHAFTS    CONTAINING    ROMAN    REMAINS, 

1  may  lay  before  them.  In  the  course  of  my  labours,  I  have 
examined  more  than  forty  of  these  holes,  and  I  therefore 
approach  the  subject  with  Borne  degree  of  confidence. 

In  order  to  enable  my  readers  to  understand  more  clearly 
the  meaning  of  the  term  circular  shafts  or  holes,  in  my 
ptation  of  it.  1  shall,  before  entering  further  into  the 
Bubject,  briefly  define  their  character  according  to  my 
experience-  Their  existence  is  easily  ascertained  in  trenching 
the  ground,  by  the  particular  looseness  of  the  soil  in  them, 
which  too,  on  being  struck  at  the  surface  with  the  wooden 
handle  of  the  mattock,  emits  a  hollow  sound  in  proportion  as 
the  shaft  below  is  more  or  less  deep.  In  shape  they  are 
generally  round,  if  not  completely  cylindrical,  and  from  the 
moment  they  begin  to  descend  their  form  becomes  distinct, 
for  at  the  mouth  it  is  sometimes  irregular.  Their  course  is 
easily  followed  through  the  undisturbed  natural  soil  which, 
when  of  chalk  or  gravel  as  at  Chesterford,  serves  the  same 
purpose  as  the  Bteaning  of  a  well,  and  affords  security  to  the 
workman  in  clearing  them  out.  Their  diameter  varies  from 
4  to  7  feet,  the  major  part  average  4  feet,  continuing  the  Bame 
size  a>  they  descend,  but  some  contract  gradually  towards 
the  bottom  ;  they  have  terminated  almost  in  a  point  in  one 
or  two  instances;  and  in  as  many  their  diameter  all  the  way 
down  has  not  exceeded  a  yard.  Their  depth  is  more 
capricious  in  the  higher  parts  of  the  Borough,  as  it  is  termed  at 
Chesterford,  for  although  some  there,  as  well  as  in  the  lower 
ground,  do  not  run  down  lower  than  5,  7.  L0,  or  11  feet, 
many  reach  more  than  L2  feet,  and  they  have  been  dug  as 
deep  .'i-  16,  L8,  22,  and  28  feet.  In  the  lower  parts  II  feet 
is  the  maximum  they  have  attained,  in  fact  they  could  not 
,-,1  it  without  reaching  the  water,  and  they  range  from 
6  to  8  feet,  four  feel  is  the  minimum  in  any  Bite.  In  only 
instances,  once  in  the  higher,  and  once  in  the  lower 
ground,  have  they  terminated  in  water.  Their  bottoms  are 
n  iiiiiv  dry.  These  holes  are  confined  to  no  particular 
portion  of  the  Station,  having  occurred  as  often  without  as 
inside  the  walls,  and  very  frequently  within  a  few  feet  of  one 

another.  Groups  of  three  or  four  together  are  not  unc mon, 

and  in  the  rectory  ground  ,  in  December,  1853,  and  in  the 
Bpringofthe  presont  year,so  manj  as  fifteen  were  excavated 
in  less  than  half  an  acre  of  ground.  When  thej  are  more 
than  12  feet  a  rope  and  basket,  Bucb  as  well-diggera  use,  are 


DISCOVERED    AT    THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT    CHESTERFORD.        HI 

required  to  empty  them  ;  their  examination  is  therefore 
attended  with  considerable  labour,  and  is  often  a  tedious 
operation.  I  mention  this  in  order  to  account  for  the 
difficulty  experienced  in  getting  out  vessels  of  glass  or 
pottery  without  injury,  lying  as  they  do  in  such  a  confined 
space  and  immediately  beneath  the  feet  of  the  workman. 
At  Ewell,  if  I  recollect  rightly,  a  railway  cutting  afforded 
the  opportunity  of  obtaining  a  vertical  section  of  the  shafts, 
exposing  their  contents  to  view  in  situ,  and  their  course  was 
distinctly  marked  by  the  contrast  of  the  dark  soil  in  them 
with  the  chalk  of  the  locality.  At  Chesterford  a  similar 
advantage  was  offered  only  in  the  gravel  pit  belonging  to  the 
parish,  where  the  gravel,  which  is  very  near  the  surface,  runs 
deep,  and  presents  a  sort  of  cliff  as  it  recedes  before  the 
stone-diggers  ;  in  this  the  black  veins  stand  out  in  equally 
strong  relief  with  those  in  Surrey.  Two  or  three  of  them  in 
this  locality  I  shall  have  to  notice  especially,  when  I  review 
the  objects  discovered  in  these  holes.  These  relics  are  the 
next  and  most  important  part  of  the  subject  under  consider- 
ation, and  they  are  so  numerous  and  vary  so  much  as  to 
baffle  all  rules  in  describing.  Pottery  entire,  as  well  as 
broken,  bones  of  animals,  chiefly  of  bullocks,  and  oyster- 
shells,  are  the  most  general  features  of  their  contents,  while 
some  holes  have  been  found  destitute  of  any  such  remains. 
I  shall  therefore  commence  with  the  most  remarkable  shafts 
I  first  examined,  including  those  in  the  parish  work  which 
have  come  under  my  notice,  and  proceed  in  order  of  time, 
specifying  the  dimensions,  contents,  and  their  position  in  the 
ground  as  my  notes  serve  me,  while  of  those  last  excavated 
I  have  kept  a  regular  journal  during  the  progress  of  the 
labourers. 

By  this  arrangement  I  revert  to  the  autumn  of  1845, 
when  I  first  began  to  dig  at  Chesterford,  in  a  field  within  the 
station  walls,  and  next  to  the  parish  gravel-pit.  The  first  of 
the  circular  holes  I  opened  here  did  not  run  deep,  but  it 
contained  the  curious  terra-cotta  thuridtdum  engraved  in 
my  "  Antiqua  Explorata,"  and  in  the  fifth  volume  of  this 
Journal,  page  236.  When  found  it  was  in  pieces  which  all 
lay  together  ;  from  the  same  hole  a  second  brass  coin  of 
Vespasian,  an  iron  stylus,  and  a  bone  pin  were  taken.  The 
two  next  were  also  shallow,  the  deepest  being  ten  feet  >  in 
it   was    found  a  large  stone-coloured  <>Hu.  which,    together 


112         (TOTICES    OF    shafts    CONTAINING    ROMAN    REMAINS, 


with  a  large  fine  red  amphora  trom  the  third  hole,  is  figured 
in  both  the  works  referred  to.  These  vessels  were  both  in 
fragments,  and  had  to  be  restored  ;  the  bones  of  fowls  were 
found  in  the  <>Hn  for  the  first  time  in  these  pits,  and  those  of 
bullocks  occurred  in  all  three.  The  next  deep  hole  contained, 
near  tin'  bottom,  ;i  bone  knife-handle — a  carved  figure  of 
Hercules  with  his  club.  Of  this  a  representation  is  here 
given.  A  deeper  Bhafi  excavated  soon  after  reached  22  feet, 
proving  the  must  prolific  of  those  hitherto  examined.  Many 
bones  of  oxen  ami  four  fictile  vessels  were  found  in  it  ;  a 
targe  black  saucer,  a  red  basin  of  line  ware,  not  Samian,  with 
a  pair  of  tall  black  cylices  or  drinking  cups. 
with  indented  sides.  All  four  vessels  were 
entire  when  discovered,  but  the  basin  and  one 
of  the  cups  were  slightly  injured  by  the  pick  : 
the  >aueer  lav  highest  in  the  hole,  the  basin 
near  the  middle,  the  cups  at  the  bottom. 
About  this  time  a  small  basin  of  plain  red 
Samian  ware,  with  a  potter's  name,  victoki  m. 
was  brought  to  me  by  a  parish  workman  from 
one  of  these  shafts  in  the  gravel  pit.     Later 

in  the  same  year,  in  a  small  enclosure  behind 
some  cottages,  still  within  the  Borough  walls. 
I  examined  two  more  round  pits  :  of  these  I 
have    no    particular    record    beyond    the    fact. 

that  a  pair  of  bronze  t  weezers  with  an  ear-pick 

was    taken    from    one.   and    a    silver   denarius 

of  Saloninus  from  the  other,  but  T  remember 

many  fragments  of  pottery  and  animals' 
hones  iii  both.  After  an  interval  of  a  year 
and  a   half.  I  again  met  with  similar  shafts, 

ami    on    the   9th    of  .July.  1847,  a    very   deep 

one  \\;is  opened  in  a    field   rather  more  than  a 

mile    oiilside    the    w;ills;    d0WB    tO    s    feel,    two 

small  brass  coins  of  Claudius  Gothicus,  some  bullocks'  bones, 
limpet  and  oyster  shells,  were  all  thai  were  found  ;  at  that 
depth,  however,  appeared  a  line  bronze  comb  with  a  double 

of  teeth  (an  objecl  of  very  rar scurrence,  formed  oi 

metal)  ;  from  8  to  is  feet,  only  potterv  in  fragments,  parts 
of  ,-i  human  -full,  a  bronze  pin,  and  a  plated  denarius  of 
I  -11111110;  Inn  .-it  20  feei  lav  a  bronze  patera,  or  ladle, 
with  trace    "I  gilding  upon  ii  ;  of  the  comb  and  ladle  repre- 


i 


quarter  of  ,-i 


DISCOVERED    AT   THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT   CHE8TEBFOED.       118 

sentations  are  given  (sec  woodcuts,  next  page).2  Between 
20  and  28  feet,  at  the  bottom  of  the  hole,  broken  pottery  and 
bones  of  animals  were  plentiful,  and  at  last  water  appeared  ;  I 
must  observe  that  it  is  probable  the  anxiety  of  my  labourers 
to  fathom  the  real  depth,  caused  them  to  penetrate  beyond 
it  and  strike  a  spring.  Three  vessels,  a  miniature  tun,3 
(see  woodcut)  a  basin  of  black  glazed  ware,  resembling  that 
found  near  Upchurch,  in  Kent,  and  a  common  vase,  were 
restored  from  the  broken  pieces  in  this  shaft.  In  the 
September  following,  I  explored  several  more  pits  just  within 
the  wall  of  the  station  and  close  to  one  another.  The 
deepest  did  not  exceed  18  feet,  but  the}-  averaged  from  12 
to  15  feet.  Bones  of  bullocks  were  found  in  all,  one 
contained  the  heads  of  two  ravens  and  a  cock,  some  the 
bones  of  dogs,  some,  oyster-shells  ;  from  one,  a  roof  coping 
tile,  without  any  traces  of  mortar  on  it,  was  taken  ;  this 
again  occurred  subsequently  in  another  place.  In  one  were 
found  three  perfect  drinking  cups  with  indented  sides  ;  in 
another,  a  bottle  of  pottery  and  a  small  basin  of  plain 
Samian  ware ;  these,  with  a  second  bone  knife-handle 
curiously  carved,  are  the  principal  objects  of  interest  from 
the  holes  on  this  site.  Later  in  the  same  autumn  I  was 
summoned  to  inspect  a  deep  shaft  in  the  parish  gravel-pit, 
from  which  two  vessels  of  fictile  ware  had  been  obtained, 
and  along  with  them,  near  the  bottom,  the  debris  of  a 
beautiful  green  glass  vase.  I  took  away  the  fragments,  which 
have  been  skilfully  restored,  and  may  now  be  seen  in  my 
collection  in  the  shape  of  a  modern  claret  jug  (See  the 
accompanying  representation  from  a  drawing  by  Mr. 
Youngman).4  The  other  two  vessels  were,  I  think,  presented 
by  the  Rev.  C.  Sparkes,  then  curate  of  Chesterford,  to  the 
Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society.     In  the  spring  of  1848,  a 

-  See   "  Sepulchra   Exposita,"   by   the  as  connected   with   ancient  sepulchral  re- 

Hod.  H.  C.  Seville,  pp.  7.'5.  74.  mains,   is   given  in   the   Jahrbiicher  des 

3  A  diminutive  tun  of  fictile  ware  oc-  Vereius  von  AlterthumsfreundenimRhein- 
curred  amount  the  numerous  relicpies  of  lande.  No  XVIII.  p.  145.  Bonn,  1852. 
Roman  pottery  found  in  the  Ustrinum  at  *  Vessels  of  glass,  of  this  description, 
Litlington,  and  now  at  Clare  Hall,  Cam-  have  very  rarely  been  found  amongst 
bridge.  Archseologia,  vol  sxvi.  pi  45,  Roman  remains  in  this  country.  Compare 
Tlnre  is  another  in  the  British  Museum.  <«ne  discovered  in  one  of  the  Bartlow 
The  Abbe*Cochet has  discovered  numerous  Burrow*,  Archseologia,  vol.  xxv.  pi.  2, 
barilleta  of  ^lass  in  Roman  tombs  in  and  another  found  at  Sliefford,  Bedford- 
France.  See  his  Normandie  Souterraine,  Bhire ;  Journal  of  Brit.  Arch.  Assoc. 
pp.  82,  .''.'»,  &e.j  2nd  Edit  A  curious  vol.  i.  \>.  52. 
Memoir  by  Dr.  Brattll  <>u  the  cask  or  tun, 


ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES,    DISCOVERED    A  1'    CHESTERFORD,    ESSEX. 


Length  of  tin;  original,  I  in.,  diam.  2]  in. 


lllllfl 


Length  of  the  original,  £|  in,  breadth,  Sin, 


. 


.  ■  ,  II         l:    I  I  in  liis 

I. ill. 


ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES,    DISCOVEEED    AT    CHESTEEFOED,    ESSEX. 


Ampulla,  or  Bottle,  of  Green  Glass. 

Found  in  excavations  made  by  the  Hon.  R.  C.  Neville,  in  September,  1847,  now  preserved 
in  liis  Museum  at  Audley  End. 


Height  of  the  original,  13  inches. 


1M         NOTICES    OP    SHAFTS    CONTAINING    ROMAN    REMAINS, 

hole  was  excavated  at  the  north  end  of  tin'  interior  of  the 
wall;  this  was  only  LO  feel  deep,  and  is  remarkable  as 
having  contained  a  Sal  Samian  ware  dish,  in  fragments,  of 
which  the  first  pieces  were  found  jusl  beneath  the  surface, 
and  more  appeared  at  int<  rvals,  until  the  entire  dish  was  put 
together  at  the  edge  of  the  pit,  except  one  piece  which  lay 
quite  at  the  bottom.  The  greater  part  of  the  small  Samian 
basin  found  with  the  bottle  in  L847,  lay  near  the  top,  while 
a  moiety  was  taken  from  the  lower  end  of  the  shaft,  which 
was  a  deep  one  :  a  similar  instance  occurred  in  1  S.~>;3.  when 
there  was  again  an  interval  of  several  feet  between  one 
fragment  and  the  remainder  of  a  vessel.  These  appear  to  be 
significant  facts  as  regards  the  purpose  and  formation  of  the 
circular  pits,  to  which  may  be  added  the  remark  that  many 
of  their  contents,  bones,  and  especially  iron  and  coins,  when 
they  arc  found,  bear  marks  of  having  passed  through  the 
fire.  In  November,  L848,  ••lose  to  the  Roman  building  at 
Chesterford,  on  the  site  of  Stukeley's  "  Templi  Umbra."  as 
many  as  three  Samian  ware  vessels  were  taken  from  one 
hole  ;  while,  besides  pottery  from  others,  two  bronze  finger 
rings  were  discovered  in  the  same  pit.  Both  these  have 
been  sel  with  blue  paste,  and  are  figured  in  the  sixth  volume  of 
this  Journal,  page  18,  together  with  one  of  the  Samian 
dishes,  which  has  an  ivy-leaf  pattern,  page  L6  ;  it  bears  there- 
fore, as  usual  in  embossed  ware  of  this  kind,  no  potter's 
mark. 

A  period  of  five  years,  during  which  little  was  done  at 
Chesterford,  brings  me  down  to  November,  L 8 53,  when  my 
excavations  were  renewed,  by  the  kind  permission  of  ill'' 
Rev.  Lord  Charles  Hervey,in  tie'  rectory  grounds.  The  site 
examined  Lies  between  the  wesl  wall  of  the  churchyard  and 
the  southern  one  of  the  Etonian  station.  The  following 
catalogue  will  best  show  the  number  ol  boles  opened  here, 
and  the  interesting  nature  of  their  contents,  which,  in  more 
than  one  instance,  would  constitute  a  remarkable  find  in 
themseh  e& 

December  21,  L853.  Shafl  I.  Depth,  9  feel  6  inches. 
Contents:  Fragmentsof  all  kinds  of  fictilia  in  abundance, 
amongsl  them  the  bottom  of  a  Samian  ware  vessel,  with  a 
potter  mark,  dvocis.  A.boul  8  feel  deep,  a  perfect  c ylix  oi 
black  ware,  with  indented  sides;  this  was  broken  by  the 
pick,  bul  has  been  re  tored,  excepl  the  rim.     At  2  feel  from 


DISCOVERED    AT    THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT    CFTESTERFORD.       117 

the  surface,  a  silver  denarius  of  Septimius  Severus  was  found, 
with  the  reverse — Indulgentia  Augg  in  Cartii  ;  Cybele 
seated  on  a  lion.  This  type  is  the  subject  of  a  fine  intaglio 
on  cornelian  found  by  the  late  M.  Honncgcr,  Consul  at  Tunis, 
in  his  excavations,  and  now  in  my  Dactylotheca,  reset  in  a 
ring.  December  23.  Shaft  2.  Depth,  7  feet.  Contents : — 
Many  bones  of  bullocks  and  broken  vases.  Two  coping  roof 
tiles,  as  in  a  former  hole  ;  at  4  feet,  a  perfect  black  ejjl/,i\ 
with  indented  sides,  lying  horizontally  in  the  side  of  the  shaft; 
at  the  same  depth,  a  short  and  very  thick  bone  pin,  with 
round  head  ;  at  5  feet  the  soil  changed  from  a  black  mould 
to  a  light  grey,  apparently  ashes  of  wood  ;  at  the  bottom,  a 
second  bone  pin,  the  fac-simile  of  the  first,  with  a  quantity 
of  bones  of  fowls,  and  two  of  their  legs  apparently  mummied 
and  perfectly  preserved.  In  its  descent  through  the  natural 
soil,  the  sides  of  this  pit  had  been  clearly  defined  and  solid  ; 
at  its  termination,  the  workmen  broke  through  in  one  corner 
into  another  shaft  of  a  similar  nature,  which,  upon  examina- 
tion, was  found  to  have  been  sunk  within  a  yard  of  the 
mouth,  and  run  down  parallel  to,  but  deeper  than  its  neigh- 
bour. December^.  Shaft  3.  Depth,  10  feet.  Contents: — 
Bones  of  bullocks  and  oyster-shells  in  abundance  at  8  feet  ; 
about  the  same  depth,  a  bone  needle  ;  a  perfect  small  vessel 
of  light-coloured  ware,  resembling  those  found  with  the  bones 
of  infants,  and  figured  in  the  tenth  volume  of  this  Journal, 
page  21,  lay  at  the  bottom.  This  hole  was  so  close  to  the 
preceding  one,  that  when  emptied  of  their  contents,  they 
presented  the  singular  appearance  of  two  open  wells,  side  by 
side,  but  distinct  in  their  shafts  excepting  at  their  bottoms, 
which  were  both  dry.  December  29.  Shaft  4,  near  to  the 
two  last.  Depth,  10  feet.  Contents: — Animals'  bones  and 
shards  of  pottery,  amongst  them  half  the  bottom  and  several 
pieces  of  a  fine  embossed  Samian  ware  bowl. 

January  9,  1854.  Shaft  5.  Depth,  5  feet  H  inches. 
Contents  : — More  than  ninety  implements,  tires  of  wheels 
and  objects  of  iron  altogether.  These  are  so  numerous,  in 
such  good  preservation,  and  they  comprehend  so  many 
objects  novel  and  of  interest,  that  any  attempt  to  describe 
them  would  far  exceed  the  limits  of  a  paper  not  exclusively 
devoted  to  the  subject,  while  it  interrupted  the  one  before  us. 
I  hope,  therefore,  in  a  future  number  of  the  Journal,  to  do 
justice    to   this    remarkable    discovery,   when    the    beautiful 

VOL.   XII.  K 


L18         NOTICES    OF    SHAFTS    CONTAINING    ROMAN    REMAINS, 

drawings  made  by  Mr.  Youngmari,  of  Saffron  Walden,  will 
facilitate  the  illustration  of  tin1  most  curious  articles. 

January  1 -•  Shaft  <!.  Depth,  14  feet.  Contents: — 
Bones  dl'  bullocks  and  of  one  dog;  at  11  feet  a  perfect 
pottery  bottle,  similar  in  shape  to  that  from  another  of  these 
shafts  in  L847.  Soon  after,  all  the  pieces  of  a  Samian  dish, 
old  fractures,  since  restored.  It  lias  the  potter's  name. 
ALBVCI.  m.  Portions  of  embossed  Samian  howls,  oyster- 
shells  :  ;m  I-  tort,  a  perfect  black  urn,  of  good  ware  ;  at  13 
feet,  two  dishes  of  plain  Samian  ware,  one  entire,  the  other 
broken  by  the  pick,  since  restored;  both  have  makers' 
names  ;  at  14  feet,  two  black  basins,  one  of  them  not  quite 
whole  making  in  all  seven  vessels  of  fictile  ware  from  one 
-haft.  January 16.  Shaft  7.  Depth,  12  feet.  Contents: — 
Fragments  of  thick  black  ware,  embossed,  and  plain  Samian; 
at  <:  Int.  a  second  brass  coin  of  Trajan,  in  good  condition, 
injure 1  slightly  by  fire  ;  at  !»  feet  6  inches,  all  the  fragments 
of  a  black  basin,  since  restored;  and  at  12  feet,  nearly  all 
those  of  a  plain  Samian  ware  dish,  with  potter's  stamp. 
January  18.  Shaft  8  (this  was  within  s  feet  of  the  preced- 
ing one  .  Depth,  8  feet  G  inches.  Contents  : — At  3  feci,  a 
bronze  ligula,  similar  to  those  from  the  Roman  houses  at 
A.shdon  .nil  Bartlow  (sec  Volume  X.  of  this  Journal,  page  16). 
Nothing: more  was  found  in  this  hole.  January  20.  Shalt  ;i. 
Depth  12  feet.  Contents: — At  11  feet,  two  plain  Samian 
ware  saucers,  one  entire,  the  other  in  fragments,  old  fractures 
sine,,  restored  ;  the  firs!  has  a  potter's  stamp  silvani.  o., 
the  second  has  the  ivy-leaf  pattern  on  the  rim,  and,  as  is 
usually  the  case,  there  is  no  name  impressed  on  the  ware  ; 
;ii  L2  feet,  three  vessels  of  dark  ware,  two  of  them  black 
,-.  perfed  when  found,  the  third  in  pieces,  .-ill  of  which 
were  obtained  and  reunited,  making  in  all  five  vessels  of 
pottery  from  this  Bhaft.  January  24.  shall  10.  Depth. 
L6  feet.  Contents:  Fragments  of  pottery  ;  al  15  feet, 
a  perfed  urn  of  the  glossy  black  ware,  like  those  found 
al    [Jpchurch,    aa   in    a    former    instance  in  one  of  these 

pit  3. 

January  27.     Shafl    11.     Depth,  6  feel   M  inches.     Con« 

Broken   vessels  and   hones  of  animals,  among  them 

three   \,  i\    large  hone-  of  a   horse,  one   being  a  deformed 

tibia.     Ai   10  feet,  the  lower  half  of  a  dark  urn  of  thin  ware 

containing  fl    Quantity    of  bones  o|   -nine  small    hud.      The 


DISCOVERED    AT    THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT    CHESTERFOBD.       119 

upper  lialfof  this  vessel  head  been  broken  of  old,  but  none  of 
the  fragments  were  to  be  found  in  the  shaft. 

February  %  Shaft  12.  Depth,  8  feet  10  inches.  This  is  the 
first  pit  on  the  site  which  has  been  entirely  unproductive  ; 
not  even  a  bit  of  pottery  appeared  in  the  soil.  February 
I  ."3.  Shaft  13.  Depth,  7  feet.  Contents  : — Half  a  saucer  of 
light-coloured  ware  with  a  flat  bottom.  This  hole  was  in 
the  shrubbery  of  the  Rectory,  on  the  north  of  the  ground 
containing  the  others,  bordering  on  the  Cambridge  high 
road.  February  23.  Shaft  14.  Depth,  8  feet.  Close 
outside  the  churchyard  wall,  and  almost  under  a  large  elm  : 
the  roots  had  struck  down  in  the  loose  soil  of  the  shaft,  and 
so  impeded  the  pick  of  the  workmen  that  three  vessels, 
which  were  lying  perfect  at  a  depth  of  5  feet,  were  much 
broken.  They  are  all  of  Castor  ware,  and  on  being  restored 
prove  to  be  two  cyliccs  with  indented  sides  ;  one  red,  one  of 
slate  colour,  while  the  third  is  a  black  and  red  poculum. 
This  as  also  the  red  cylvv  has  a  pattern  on  it,  one  in  relief,  the 
other  in  white  paint.  Great  numbers  of  oyster-shells  and 
bullocks'  bones  were  found  at  6  feet,  as  well  as  a  miniature 
axe  head  of  iron,  3  inches  long,  with  a  portion  of  the  handle, 
which  is  slight  and  also  of  iron,  broken  in  the  socket.  In 
the  2  feet  below  nothing  more  occurred.  February  27. 
Shaft  15.  Depth,  IS  feet.  Very  near  the  preceding  one. 
The  excavation  of  this  occupied  three  days.  Contents  : — At  5 
feet  a  quantity  of  fragments  of  pottery  began  to  appear  ;  at 
6  feet  a  small  Samian  basin  of  plain  ware  lay  broken  of  old, 
but  since  restored  ;  it  has  a  potter's  stamp — sachr.  f.  ;  a 
piece  of  a  fine  embossed  bowl,  and  numerous  bits  of  vessels 
with  bronze  pins,  and  two  of  bone  with  a  round  hole  through 
each,  occurred  at  10  feet :  a  little  lower,  oyster-shells,  bullocks' 
bones,  and  red  mortar  formed  with  pounded  tile.  Between 
14  and  15  feet  no  pottery  was  found,  and  the  soil  changed 
from  a  dark  mould  to  fine  sifted  sand,  but  the  black  earth 
reappeared  soon  with  a  few  shards  of  fictilia,  and  continued 
to  18  feet,  when  the  water  rose  from  the  gravel  bottom. 
This  is  the  second  instance  in  which  these  pits  have  reached 
the  water.  There  were  also  taken  from  this  pit  a  black  urn, 
which  had  been  deposited  horizontally  in  the  side  of  the  shaft, 
entire,  but  was  fractured  by  the  pick,  and  another  broken 
Samian  vessel  which  was  restored  :  the  fractures  old. 

Man//  3.     Shaft  16.     Depth,  4  feet.     Contents: — A\rr\ 


L20  NOTICES   OF    shafts    CONTAINING  ROMAN    REMAINS, 

few  pieces  of  pottery.  Possibly  onlythe  eommcncenient  of  a 
pit.  March  4.  Shaft  17.  Depth,5feet.  Contents: — The 
same  as  its  neighbour.  This  was  the  last  of  the  shafts 
discovered  in  the  Rectory  grounds.  March  7.  Shaft  18. 
In  a  field,  the  property  of  R.  Fisher,  Esq.,  about  100 
yards  outside  the  northern  face  of  the  Borough  walls,  the 
foundations  of  which  are  still  to  be  traced  crossing  the 
enclosure  from  east  to  west  parallel  to  the  Borough  ditch. 
Depth,  5  feet  4  inches.  Contents: — Fragments  of  black, 
and  some  embossed  Samian  ware.  At  4  feet,  all  the 
is  of  a  plain  Samian  basin,  except  one,  which  lay  at  the 
bottom:  it  has  been  restored,  and  has  a  potter's  stamp — 
a.capa.  f.  At  the  same  depth  the  bones  of  a  dog.  March 
24.  Shaft  19.  In  the  same  field.  Depth,  11  feet.  Con- 
tents :  At  1-  fret,  a  perfect  black  urn  :  at  9  feet,  all  the  boms 
of  a  dog,  but  no  more  pottery. 

August  26.  Shalt  20.  Excavations  recommenced  on  the 
same  Bite.  Depth,  5  feet  4  inches.  Contents: — All  the 
fragments  of  a  black  dish,  of  old  fracture,  since  restored  ; 
and  a  piece  of  a  fine  embossed  Samian   bowl. 

October  3.  Shaft  21.  On  the  same  site.  Depth,  7fee1  9 
inches.  Contents  : — Broken  pottery  of  no  importance. 
October  5.     Shaft  22.     Depth,  8  feet.'    Contents: — At  I  feet 

6  inches,  an  elegant  black  pitcher  in  fragments,  since 
restored  :  many  bone-  of  bullocks  and  bits  of  vases  ;  and  at 

7  feet  a  bottle  of  dark  ware,  the  handle  lost  ;  this  was  in 
halves  when  found.  October  9.  Shalt  23.  Depth,  7  feet 
Contents:  Near  the  top,  a  silver  denarius  of  Elagabalus, 
much  burnt  ;  at  -l  feel  5  inches,  plated  coins  of  Allectus,  one 
of  Carausiue  and  one  of  Maximianus  with  an  incuse  reverse, 
all  in  good  preservation  ;  a  large  square  iron  nail  8|  inches 
long.  At  5  feet,  a  square  green  glass  bottle  with  a  reeded 
handle,  nearly  entire  when  found,  hut  broken  by  the  pick  : 
almost  all  is  restored.  At  the  bottom  a  bone  pin  and  a  large 
brass  coin  of  Trajan,  a  little  burnt.  Octobt  r  9.  Shaft  24. 
Depth,  8  feet.  Contents  :  At  I  f<  el  I  inches,  all  the  frag- 
menl  of  a  red  Ca  tor  ware  cylix  with  indented  sides  :  an 
oldfracture.  October  10  Shaft  25.  Depth,8feet.  Con- 
tent*      A   third   brass  coin  of  Constantius,  near  the  top; 

ii'iits  of  embos  ed  and  other  pottery,  and  a  silver 
denariuf  of  Pau  bina  Senior,  near  the  bottom.  October  II. 
Shaft  26      Depth,  8  feet.     Contents:     Apieceofir ham 


DISCOVERED    AT    THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT    CHESTERFORD.       1:21 

12J  inches  long,  with  2G  links  ;  an  iron  knife  <*it  6  feet  0 
inches,  and  a  fragment  of  the  upper  part  of  a  black 
basin,  apparently  of  Upchurch  ware,  inscribed  in  capitals 
scratched  below  the  rim — varriatvs.  October  13.  Shaft 
27.  Depth,  6  feet.  Contents  : — Bones  of  a  dog.  The 
greater  part  of  a  cup  of  red  Castor  ware,  and  some  other 
fragments,  at  4  feet.  This  pit  was  larger  than  ordinary,  being 
between  G  and  7  feet  in  diameter.     Shaft  28.     Depth,  5  feet 

7  inches.  Contents: — Some  bits  of  fictilia.  October  14. 
Shaft  2.9.  Depth,  G  feet  6  inches.  Contents  : — Bones  of 
bullocks  and  broken  vases.  October  1  7.  Shaft  30.  Depth, 
5  feet  6  inches.  Contents  : — A  bronze  stylus  only,  with 
circular  flat  top  for  erasing.  October  18.  Shaft  31.  Depth, 
4  feet.  Contents  : — Bones  of  bullocks.  October  20.  Shaft 
32.  Depth,  6  feet  6  inches.  Contents  : — At  1  foot  6  inches, 
a  long  metal  pin  strongly  plated  :  a  few  fragments  of 
pottery. 

November  18.  Shaft  33.  Depth,  5  feet.  Contents: — 
At  3  feet,  many  pieces  of  two  pocula  of  Castor  ware.  This 
hole  was  on  a  different  site,  being  under  the  lawn  in  front 
of  the  house  formerly  the  Crown  Inn  at  Chesterford,  on 
the  north  side  of  the  Cambridge  road,  but  still  within  the 
Borough  walls.  Its  diameter  being  only  3  feet  it  was 
with  difficulty  cleared.     November  28.     Shaft  34.     Depth, 

8  feet  8  inches.  Contents  : — An  iron  falar,  or  small  pruning 
knife,  with  socket  for  a  handle.  On  the  same  site,  as  are 
all  that  follow.  November  29.  Shaft  35.  Depth,  5  feet 
G  inches.  Contents  : — 2  bone  pins,  a  pair  of  bronze 
tweezers,  and  a  swallow-tailed  picker,  fitting  between 
them,  attached  to  a  bronze-hinged  loop  for  fitting  on  a 
ring. 

December  22.  Shaft  3G.  Depth,  5  feet  6  inches.  Con- 
tents : — Many  fragments  of  pottery ;  a  large  black 
basin  of  thick  smooth  ware,  entire  when  found,  but 
broken  by  the  pick:  since  restored.  Shaft  37.  Depth,  5 
feet  4  inches.  Contents  : — Broken  pottery,  and  from  near 
the  bottom  a  slight  bronze  stylus  with  circular  flat  top  for 
erasing.  December  23.  Shaft  38.  Depth,  10  feet.  Con- 
tents : — At  G  feet,  two  short  thick  bone  pins,  many  pieces  of  a 
Castor  ware  c///i.i\  a  tessera,  as  it  appears,  of  some  marble, 
If  inch  long  by  1  inch  across,  and  ^  of  an  inch  thick, 
without  any  traces  of  mortar.     At  the  bottom,  the  greatest 


L£2         NOTICES   OF   SHAFTS   CONTAINING    ROMAN    REMAINS, 

part  of  a  black  cylue,  with  indented  sides,  in  pieces. 
D  nber  30.  Shaft  38.  Depth,  L 7  feet  3  inches.  Con- 
tents : — Many  bones  of  dogs  and  some  of  bullocks  ;  parts  of 
the  same  animal  appeared  at  II.  and  a^ain.  at  14  feet  ; 
several  bits  of  a  plain  Samian  ware  basin  entirely  blackened 
by  fire,  a  few  pieces  of  thick  Mark  pottery,  and  two  of  a  dish 
with  ivy-leaf  pattern  at  between  11  and  14  feet;  at  L3  feet 
(I  indies,  four  fragments  of  a  fine  embossed  Samian  bowl, 
which,  united,  made  three  parts  of  the  vessel,  and  at  I  (!  feet 
•J  inches,  the  missing  portion  in  one  large  piece,  enabling  me 
to    restore    a    perfect    anil    beautiful    specimen    of  these  rare 

fictilia.  When  complete  it  measures  !'  inches  diameter  at  top, 
and  5  indies  in  height.  The  subject  upon  the  ware  is  aseries 
of  lions  large  and  small  in  two  rows  ;  they  are  at  full  speed, 
and  here  and  there  a  hare  is  represented  squatting  singly 
among  them  ;  the  smaller  lions  are  on  the  lower  row  dos-a- 
dos  in  pairs,  and  run  opposite  ways.  There  is  no  trace  of 
the  potter's  name  in  the  pattern  or  any  other  part  of  the 
basin.  Pull  2  feet  0"  inches  of  soil  intervened  between  the 
firsl  1  pieces  and  the  last ;  at  the  bottom  of  the  hole  were 
the  fragments  of  a  large  black  urn  :  two  bone  pins  occurred 
at  lo  feet,  some  oyster-shells,  and  eight  or  ten  large  pebble 
paving  BtoneS  were  found  singly  at  intervals.  The  excavation 
Of   ibis  hole  occupied  three    days. 

Januarys  1855.  Shalt  39.  Less  than  10  feet  from 
X".  38.  Depth,  13  feet.  Contents:  Nothing  entire  or 
complete;  lull   three  parts  of  a  plain  Samian  dish  near  the 

bottom;    hours    of  animals    very    numerous,    with    marks    of 

burning;  as  in  the  other  holes  there  were  many  of  dogs, 
which  were  3acred  to  Proserpine.  January  5.  Shalt  40. 
Pour  feel  from  39.  Depth,  20  feet  2  inches.  Contents: 
A  good  many  pieces  of  pottery,  chiefly  black  ware:  bones 
of  animals  in  profusion,  among  them  two  ?ery  largejaw 
bones  of  an  os  ;  all  the  bones  much  burnl  and  the  soil  lull 
of  ash  ;  at  L8  feel  6  Inches, a  perfeel  small  black  urn  without 
any  contents.  January  8.  Shaft  l  l.  Depth,  12  feel  s 
inches.  Contents:  A  bone  pin,  bones  of  bullocks,  broken 
pottery,  a  poller's  name  0BREALI8.M. ;  at  l<>  feci,  a  dark 
coloured  urn  fractured  bj  the  pick.  January  !».  Shafl  12. 
Depth,  o   feei    i    inches.      Contents:     Broken  pottery  and 

\  •     niiii.i pi  pi  t  umbrai 

\,i .. .  1 1.  , 


DISCOVERED    AT    THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT   CHESTERFORD.       123 

bullocks'  bones.  Another  hole  was  found  9  inches  from  the 
margin.  January  11.  .Shaft  43.  Depth,  21  feet  3  inches 
Contents  : — Pottery  in  fragments,  dark  and  plain  Samian 
ware,  bones  of  bullocks  and  dogs,  the  skull  of  one  of  the 
latter,  a  large  square  lump  of  tula  ;  at  15  feet,  a  small  white 
mortarium,  and  a  black  urn  ;  the  last  was  broken  by  the 
pick  ;  at  16  and  19  feet,  a  black  basin  in  pieces  ;  at  20  and 
21,  three  large  and  entire  urns  of  smooth  black  ware  ;  and 
quite  at  the  bottom,  a  small  plain  Samian  ware  basin  with 
potter's  name — maccivs.  f.  Some  mussel  shells  occurred, 
and  the  bones  of  oxen  were  scattered  in  fragments  all  through 
this  shaft  ;  scarcely  six  inches  of  soil  without  some  bits  of 
them.  January  13.  Shaft  44.  Depth,  16  feet.  Con- 
tents : — Bones  of  bullocks,  and  a  very  few  pieces  of  pottery. 
At  6  feet  6  inches  a  large  brass  coin,  so  much  burnt  as  to  be 
illegible,  apparently  a  Commodus  ;  among  the  bits  of  pottery 
two  makers'  names,  one, — careti.  m.,  the  other — minait. 
January  16.  Shaft  45.  Depth,  10  feet  9  inches.  Con- 
tents : — At  3  feet,  a  very  perfect  ironfall,  semicircular,  but 
without  handle  ;  at  8  feet  9  inches,  a  large  white  saucer  of 
thick  ware  ;  at  1 0  feet  7  inches,  a  perfect  black  urn. 

The  close  of  this  catalogue  affords  an  opportunity  of 
introducing  the  following  account,  which  seems  to  relate  to 
these  pits,  and  is  taken  from  Cole's  manuscripts  in  the 
British  Museum.  He  says  : — "  Mr.  Ashby,  fellow  of  St. 
John's,  calling  on  me  this  morning,  December  18,  1769,  gave 
me  the  following  account  of  some  antiquities  lately  discovered 
at  Chesterford,  digging  away  the  old  Roman  fortifications  in 
order  to  mend  the  highway  with  the  materials.  He  told  me 
he  received  the  information  from  Mr.  Shepherd,  an  intelligent 
farmer  of  the  same  town.  A  fine  red  dish  of  very  bright 
red  earth,  exceedingly  smooth  ;  and  within  a  circle  was  wrote 
arilis.  f.,  and  was  very  fine  ware.  This  was  found  with 
many  other  broken  pieces,  with  sheep's  bones,  at  the  bottom 
of  a  well  10  feet  deep.  A  skeleton  lay  across  the  top  of  the 
well." 

Since  the  subject  is  a  novel  one,  I  trust  the  above  details 
may  not  be  found  too  minute  or  tedious,  but  I  cannot  take 
leave  of  it  without  reviewing  the  principal  features  apparent 
in  them. 

These  pits  were  made  designedly,  with  care,  and  are  not 
the  results  of  a  gradual  accumulation  of  the  soil,  as  in  Roman 
London,  for  they  have  been  excavated  at  Chesterford  through 


124         NOTICES   OF   SHAFTS   CONTAINING    ROMAN   REMAINS, 

the  gravel,  and  at  Ewcll  through  the  chalk,  the  natural  strata 
of  the  localities,  and  their  shape  is  nearly  uniform.  The 
presence  of  so  many  vessels  of  pottery  in  the  shafts, 
deposited  entire  at  intervals,  is  a  strong  evidence  against 
their  having  been  used  merely  as  rubbish  holes  ;  a  still 
stronger  argumenl  is  furnished  by  many  of  them  having  been 
sunk  so  near  together,  but  clearly  distinct  from  one  another, 
as  also  by  their  regular  cylindrical  form  and  depth.  As 
receptacles  for  debris  an  equally  large  surface  of  ground  would 
have  been  more  easily  obtained,  and  the  necessity  of  going 
bo  deep  obviated  by  throwing  them  all  into  one.  As  in  only 
two  instances,  out  of  so  many,  the  water  has  been  reached  in 
these  shafts,  if  they  were  eyer  intended  for  wells  we  must 
suppose  the  Romans  to  have  been  perpetually  commencing, 
and  abandoning  fresh  wells  unfinished. ;  but  the  river  Cam, 
which  runs  within  a  hundred  yards  of  the  west  face  of  the 
Borough  walls,  and  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  nearly 
all  these  pits,  renders  the  supposition  at  least  most 
improbable.  The  discovery  of  the  numerous  iron  articles  in 
shaft  No.  5,  seems  to  favour  the  idea  in  Hewitt's  History  of 
the  Hundred  of  Compton  in  Berkshire,  where  speaking  of 
many  round  black  holes  in  that  neighbourhood,  he  suggests 
they  may  have  been  intended  lor  granaries  or  storehouses." 
hut  the  position  of  their  contents  in  the  earth  at  Chesterford, 
with  the  exception  of  one  above  indicated,  sufficiently 
demonstrates  this  purpose  not  to  have  been  their  general 
purpose.  There  is  another  use,  (that  of  Cloaca')  which  has 
been  considered  probable  for  seme  holes  in  another  locality, 
and  which, although  impossible  from  the  diameter  and  depth 
of  those  under  consideration,  I  notice,  in  order  to  state  that 
1  have  i level-  been  able  to  detect  anything,  or  any  appearance 
in  the  Boil  from  them,  which  could  justify  such  a  suspicion. 

All  the  above  explanations  seem  to  be  negatived  by  the 
internal  evidence  of  these  pits.  The  only  suggestion  as  yet 
offered  regarding  their  use,  with  any  degree  of  probability, 
i  that  they  wen-  in  some  manner  connected  with  funeral  or 
sacrificial  rites,  and  although  the  facts  which  have  been 
noticed  may  point  to  none  in  particular,  man 3  circumstances 
will  be  found  on  considering  them,  to  denote  that  they  were 
The  universal    prevalence  of   bones   of  annuals  with 

;  .  1  11       ..il :«.  II.  in    1811,      Manning  and    I 
und       Hi  1   nl  Surrej .  trol   iii    App   p   nh  iil, 
rtj ,  in  the  n«>ighl rh I 


DISCOVERED    AT   THE    ROMAN    STATION    AT    CHESTERFORD.       125 

marks  of  burning,  especially  bones  of  bullocks,  is  alone 
sufficient  to  give  rise  to  such  an  idea,  nor  is  the  fact  of  those 
of  dogs,  horses,  and  sheep  being  intermingled,  calculated  to 
refute  it,  since  all  these  creatures  were  sacrificed  commonly. 
The  bones  of  the  fowl  in  many  of  these  holes,  a  bird  especially 
sacred,  and  frequently  offered  to  iEsculapius,  together  with 
the  raven's  head  found  in  one  pit,  point  to  the  same  purpose. 
Coins  also,  whenever  they  have  been  found,  and  iron  frag- 
ments appear  to  have  passed  through  the  flames.  Fire  we 
know  to  have  been  an  integral  part  of  sacrifice,  and  sacrifice 
an  inseparable  accompaniment  of  Roman  funeral  obsequies, 
so  that  the  same  arguments  apply  equally  to  both.  Perhaps 
no  conclusive  evidence  can  be  derived  from  two  solitary 
instances  of  portions  of  the  human  frame  found  in  these 
holes,  one  mentioned  by  Mr.  Cole  in  1769,  the  other  in  my 
own  experience,  July,  1847.7  The  number  of  household 
vessels,  utensils,  and  articles  of  personal  use  in  them,  are  in 
accordance  with  the  customs  of  Latin  burials.  Certainly 
many  of  the  former  are  in  fragments,  but  may  it  not  be 
supposed  that  having  once  been  hallowed  by  such  a  use, 
they  were  considered  too  sacred  to  be  employed  again, 
and  even  if  they  had  only  been  formerly  for  service  in 
the  temples,  without  any  reference  to  funerals.  Whether 
these  mysterious  penetralia  were  devoted  to  celebrating  the 
obsequies  of  persons  dying  on  the  site,  or  as  it  has  been 
suggested,  of  those  who  dying  at  a  distance  could  not  be 
burnt  ;  or  whether  they  were  simply  depositories  of  con- 
secrated articles  which  had  become  unfit  for  use,  of  the 
same  nature  as  the  favissce,  cavities  constructed  under  a 
temple,  as  we  learn  from  Varro,  there  is  no  proof  positive.8 
In  order  as  much  as  possible  to  facilitate  coming  to  some 
conclusion  on  the  subject,  I  have  been  desirous  to  place 
on  record  the  results  of  my  experience,  and  I  trust  not 
Avithout  success.0 

R.  C.  NEVILLE. 


">  In    the   pits  at  Ewell  Dr.  Diamond  Companion   to    the    Latin    Dictionary,   r . 

noticed  portions  of  burnt  human  bones,  Favissce. 

the  animal  bones  all  being  unburnt     Ar-  9  Since  the  above  was  written,  twelve 

chseologia,  vol.  xxxii.  |>.  452.  more  holes  have  been  excavated  at  Ches- 

s  Three  of  these  pits  were  found  under  terford  ;  the  results  of  their  examination, 

a  temple  at,   Fiesole,   filled   with  broken  which   are  inserted  in  their  order  in   the 

musical  instruments,  implements,  utensils,  catalogue,  are    strongly   corroborative  of 

lamps,  damaged  fictilia,  &C.     See  Rich's  some  of  the  observations  I  have  made  above. 


126 


NOTE  ON  THE  SHAFTS    DISCOT  ERED  IN  VARIOUS  PARTS  OF  GREAT 
BRITAIN   Al'  SITES  OF  ROMAN  OCCUPATION. 

To  tlioso  readers  who  may  take  an  interest  in  prosecuting  investigation 
of  the  Bubject  brought  before  the  Institute  hy  Mr.  Neville  in  the  foregoing 
memoir,  the  following  references  to  ether  discoveries  of  a  similar  nature 
may  prove  acceptable.  It  is  remarkable  that,  so  far  as  we  are  at  present 
informed,  no  depositories  of  this  description  have  been  noticed  at  Roman 
station-  or  towns  on  the  continent,  with  the  exception  only  of  the  favissce, 
formed,  as  we  learn  from  Festus  and  Varro,  underneath  or  near  temples,  to 
rec<  ive  objects  connected  with  sacred  rites,  which  had  become  unfit  for  use. 
Such  places  existed,  as  it  is  supposed,  in  the  Capitol,  and  have  been  dis- 
covered in  recent  times  under  a  ruined  temple  al  Fiesole.  There  appears, 
however,  to  be  no  conclusive  evidence  to  connect  any  of  the  pits  found  near 
Roman  station-  in  England  with  a  place  of  heathen  worship.  Amongst 
discoveries  of  pits  of  the  same  description  as  those  made  known  to  us  through 
the  indefatigable  zeal  and  intelligence  of  Mr.  Neville,  the  following  may  be 
noticed.  Such  shafts  have  been  found  in  London,  and  were  described  bj 
the  late  Mr.  rlempe,  in  Gent.  Mag.,  Dec,  1838  ;  n  pit  of  large  size,  opened 
in  <  1  i lt -_i ' 1 1 1;-  the  foundations  for  the  new  Royal  Exchange,  is  described  bj 
Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith  as  containing,  amongst  refuse  of  all  kinds,  modelling 
tools  and  implements  of  steel  in  most  perfect  preservation.  Mr.  Roach 
Smith  Btates  that  similar  pits  have  occurred  at  Springhead,  near  ( rravesend, 
and  he  has  noticed  those  found  at  Richborough,  in  his  Antiquities  of  that 
pine,  j,  55  An  account  also  of  certain  shaft.-  found  in  the  Isle  of  Thanet, 
is  given  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  vol.  i.  p.  328. 
They  have  occurred  near  Winchester,  as  described,  Gent.  Mag.,  Oct.,  1838; 
at  Swell,  Surrey,  as  stated  in  Mr.  Neville'.-  Memoir  ;  and  at  Stone. 
Buckinghamshire,  described  in  this  Journal,  vol.  viii.  p,  95,  and  bj 
Mr.  Akerman,  in  the  Archseologia,  vol.  xxxiv.  p.  21.  A  considerable 
number  of  these  remarkable  cavities  have  been  excavated  by  Mr.  Trollope, 

in  the  -tone    quarries  near    the    North  Gate  al    Lincoln,  and  liuinerou- 
mentS  of  Roman  pottery,  (fee,  with  animal  remains  and  dehris  of  all  kinds, 
were    found.       In    Scotland    several   CUrioU8   shafls  of   the    like    nature    were 

noticed  near  Perth  bv  Pennaut,  who  describes  them  as  cylindrical  pits  sunk 

as  places  of  Sepulture.      Tour  in  Scotland,  vol.  iii.   p.    109.       More  recently. 

railway  operations  have  brought  to  light,  near   Newstead,  Roxburghshire, 
I  remark  .  two  of  which  were  built  round  with  stones.  They 

contained,  amidst    black    -oil    ami   animal    remains,  pottery,  shells,  hones  of 

deer  and  oxen,  a  human  skeleton  ereel  with  a  -pear  at  its  side,  accompanied 
i  .  Roman  fictilia,  and  other  reliques  of  the  Bame  age.  See  Dr.  Wilsons 
Prehistoric  Annals,  p.  382.  Mr.  Wright,  in  The  Celt,  the  Roman,  ami  the 
m,  p,  179,  adverts  to  the  discoveries  of  Buch  "Rubbish  Pits  "near 
Roman  town  and  con  i  ha  th<  m  to  be  cloaca  which  had  become  common 
for  n  fu  ■■  oi  ev(  i  j  description.  Dr.  Diamond  and  Mr.  Akerman 
concur  in  the  opinion  adopted  by  Pennanl  ami  other  writers,  that  thej  are 
to  be  pulchral.     Mr.  Akerman,  in  his  Memoir  on  the  dis- 

iggests,  with  much  probability,  that 
•ucb  i  ■        ded       the  puticuiit  depo  itoriee  lor  the  ashes  ol  the 

humbl  in  Roman  timi   .  thu   described  by  a  writer  of  the  f 'th 

centui  I     iicu       "Sunt   in     uburbanii  loca   publica,   inopura 

qua  loca  culinai  appellant . " 


THE  PARLIAMENTS   OF  CAMBRIDGE. 

In  pursuance  of  the  plan  I  have  hitherto  adopted  of 
inquiring  into  the  history  of  those  national  Councils  which 
have  been  held  at  the  places  where  the  Archaeological  Insti- 
tute has  annually  met,  as  well  as  to  continue  a  series  of 
remarks  upon  the  history  of  our  representative  system,  it  is 
my  intention  at  present  to  illustrate  the  Parliaments  held  at 
Cambridge.  When  tracing  the  changes  that  have  taken 
place  in  the  English  constitution,  it  cannot  fail  to  be  observed 
how  gradually  all  these  have  been  effected.  The  alterations, 
when  viewed  from  first  to  last,  have  undoubtedly  been  very 
extensive,  but  we  never  seem  to  have  made  reforms  with 
violence,  or  without  mature  deliberation  ;  at  any  time  to 
have  lost  respect  for  ancient  usages,  or  to  have  forgotten  the 
spirit  that  pervaded  our  institutions.  Thus  the  prerogative 
of  the  Crown  and  its  hereditary  descent  have  always  been 
considered  inviolate,  limited  by  certain  fixed  principles,  but 
still  fully  recognised  and  legally  transmitted  in  every  enact- 
ment. And  in  the  same  way  the  old  feudal  power  of  the 
barons  is  seen  to  perpetuate  its  recognition  in  the  dignity  of 
the  peerage  and  in  the  part  it  acts  in  the  councils  of  the 
realm,  whilst  the  people  with  their  improving  condition  have 
obtained  a  direct  voice  in  all  the  acts  of  legislation.  By 
these  means  the  range  of  deliberation  grew  much  wider,  and 
all  subjects  connected  with  the  constitution  assumed  a  more 
consistent  form. 

As  a  passing  exemplification  of  these  remarks,  and  to 
refer  to  some  previously  made,  it  must  be  observed  thai  the 
first  national  council,  called  a  Parliament,  held  at  Oxford, 
42  Henry  III.  (1258),  adopted  a  representation  by  twelve 
barons;  whilst,  in  the  instances  of  York  and  Lincoln,  which 
have  previously  been  noticed,  we  observe  the  earliest  sum- 
monses to  the  burgesses  to  send  members  to  Parliament.  It 
is  needless  to  follow  the  intermediate  steps  of  improvement, 
as  they  have  already  been  sufficiently  discussed  in  the 
memoirs  alluded  to.  Yet  as  one  of  the  transactions  in  the 
Parliament  held  at  York  in  the  fifteenth  year  of  Edward  11. 
is  the  great  authority  lor  the  legislative   power  rested  in  the 


128  T11F.    PARLIAMENTS   OF   CAMBRIDGE. 

King  and  Parliament  united,  it  may  not  be  irrelevant  to  the 
present  inquiry  to  stair,  that  in  this  Parliament  of  York,  the 
constitutional  law  of  the  land  was  placed  ona  more  extended 
foundation  than  the  Greal  Charter  granted  by  King  John 
had  contemplated.  In  reality,  it  was  a  clear  acknowledg- 
ment that  the  Commons  had  a  right  to  share  in  the  legisla- 
tion of  the  kingdom,  and  to  unite  their  opinions  with  the 
crown  and  the  upper  house  in  all  important  affairs  of  the 
Btate.  For  whilst  the  provisions  of  Oxford  introduced  the 
nobility  into  the  councils  of  the  monarch,  as  being  repre- 
Bentatives  ;ii  that  time  for  the  people,  whilst  the  people 
themselves  were  gaining  fresh  privileges  during  the  whole 
of  th"  reign  of  Edward  I.,  and  creating  that  regenerative 
influence  which  counteracts  the  tendency  el'  all  governments 
to  grow  internally  weak,  and  of  Liberty  itself  to  decay  ;  -whilst 
Parliament  was  formed  of  peers,  spiritual  and  temporal,  of 
knights,  citizens,  and  burgesses,  acting  under  the  king;  in  the 
assembly  held  at  Fork,  it  was  laid  down  that  all  legislative 
power  belonged  to  the  king,  with  the  assenl  of  the  prelates, 
earls,  and  barons,  and  the  commonalty  of  the  realm.  So 
that  in  this  memorable  convention  we  have  the  declaration 
that  every  act  not  done  by  that  authority  should  be  void  and 
of  none  effect. 

After  this  explicit  definition  of  legislative  authority,  it 
need  nol  excite  our  surprise  that  few  changes  took  place  in 
oin-  constitutional  system  during  the  reign  of  Edward  [II.,  or 
indeed  for  a  long  period  afterwards.  This  monarch  confirmed 
on  several  occasions  the  charters  of  his  predecessors,  to  which 
he  was  obliged  by  the  necessities  of  his  foreign  wars;  ami  it 
was  mainly  owing  to  his  exigencies  thai  vre  find  him  so  fre- 
quently imposing  taxes  without  the  consent  of  Parliament. 
This  disregard,  however,  for  tin'  opinion  of  his  people, 
tended  to  establish  the  imposition  of  aids  in  the  twenty-fifth 
year  of  his  reign,  on  a  more  equitable  basis.  The  principles 
of  taxation  were  not,  il  is  true,  ai  this  time  clearly  defined, 
which  U  the  only  excuse  thai  can  be  offered  for  the  monarch's 
arbitrary  conduct.  Ye\  the  commonalty  always  viewed  these 
taxations  with  bo  much  jealousy,  that  every  fresh  imposition 
led  to  the  acknowledgment  of  those  fiscal  principles  which 
are  no*  jo  fully  established. 

when  diehard  II.  a  cended  the  throne  he  was  only  ten 
year    and  a  half  old,     Everything  concurred   t<>  place  the 


THE    PARLIAMENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE.  129 

youthful  monarch  in  the  most  favourable  position,  but  all  the 
advantages  he  derived  from  his  father's  popularity  and  from 
his  own  natural  innocence  and  gracefulness  of  person,  were 
defeated  by  his  falling  into  the  hands  of  John  of  Gaunt,  Duke 
of  Lancaster.  The  youthful  ruler  found  the  kingdom  in- 
volved in  war,  yet  neither  the  internal  insurrection  of  his 
own  subjects,  or  the  expensive  hostilities  that  were  carried 
on  with  Scotland  and  France  can  reasonably  be  attributed 
to  his  own  want  of  prudence.  The  seeds  of  discontentment 
Avere  already  sown,  and  it  is  unreasonable  to  charge  all  the 
early  acts  of  this  reign  upon  a  prince  who  was  little  more 
than  a  boy,  and  who  for  some  time  to  come  could  not  reach 
years  of  maturity  or  discretion.  It  is  enough  to  consider 
him  responsible  when  he  was  a  free  agent,  and  the  author  of 
his  own  measures,  which  he  certainly  was  not,  even  at  the 
time  he  attained  his  majority.  It,  however,  forms  no  part 
of  our  present  object  to  inquire  into  the  history,  the  pride, 
the  weakness,  or  the  misconduct  of  this  unfortunate  monarch. 
Whatever  may  have  been  his  faults,  whether  of  indolence  or 
love  of  parade,  he  had  much  sagacity  and  penetration.  And, 
if  he  has  been  described  by  some  as  vindictive  and  weak,  it 
must  be  recollected  that  he  was  also  generous  and  munificent. 
"When  the  political  events  of  the  entire  reign  are  reviewed,  it 
will  be  found  that  after  the  confusion  and  impoverishment 
that  preceded  it,  after  the  discontentment  and  insurrections 
he  already  found  distracting  the  kingdom,  he  did  not  indi- 
vidually attempt  to  govern  it  by  unconstitutional  means.  The 
usurpers  of  power  during  this  reign  were  the  barons,  rather 
than  the  crown,  and  he  suffered  from  a  reasonable  resistance 
to  this  interference  with  the  regulation  of  his  private  affairs, 
as  well  as  from  the  efforts  of  his  council  to  become  inde- 
pendent of  Parliament.  Moreover,  when  we  consider  the 
great  wars  Richard  was  engaged  in  with  France  and  Scot- 
land, he  was  the  first  of  our  English  kings  who  did  not  draw- 
support  for  conducting  them  by  the  enforcement  of  arbitrary 
aids  or  oppressive  subsidies.  Considering  Richard  II.  reigned 
for  nearly  twenty-two  years,  there  is  no  period  in  our  annals 
of  the  like  duration  so  barren  of  historical  interest.  The 
agrarian  outbreak  under  Wat  Tyler,  when  he  vindicated  his 
character  from  the  imputation  of  cowardice,  and  the  rise  of 
Lollardy  unopposed  by  royal  persecution,  are  in  fact  the  only 
two  leading  points  to  which  attention  is  commonly  directed. 


13U  THE    PARLIAMENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE. 


Yet  we  must  not  forget  to  whatsoever  cause  it  may  be  owing, 
whether  to  the  supine  and  luxurious  habits  of  Richard,  to 
the  ambitious  views  of  his  uncle,  John  of  Gaunt,  with  whom 
it  was  an  object  to  diminish  the  authority  and  influence  of 
the  king,  or  whether  to  the  rising  Bpirit  of  liberty  amongst 
the  people,  and  to  a  greater  division  of  the  Legislative  power, 
the  constituent  parts  of  this  became  very  clearly  defined  and 
established  during  the  reign. 

In  elucidation,  it  is  necessary  briefly  to  advert  to  the 
actual  state  of  the  three  branches  of  the  constitution  at  this 
particular  time.  The  right  of  hereditary  succession  to  the 
crown  has  been  fully  admitted  as  a  fundamental  principle, 
though  from  various  circumstances  four  monarchs,  Rufus, 
Henry  I..  Stephen,  and  John  had  attained  it.  who  were  them- 

3  out  of  the  direct  line  of  succession.  Though  the 
genera]  voice  of  the  kingdom  assented  to  a  deviation  in  these 
particular  instances,  it  was  held  then  as  it  has  been  main- 
tained ever  since,  that  the  principle  was  inviolable.  The 
Language,  in  short,  of  all  the  official  documents  proclaimed 
Richard  II.  as  king  by  hereditary  right,  whilst  the  settle- 
ment of  th'-  crown  upon  Henry  1 Y.,  his  successor,  was 
Limited,  and  by  this  expression  the  act  was  made  the  more 
remarkable,  Limited  t<>  this  kin/  -t  son.     Just  as  the 

Parliament  of  the  first  of  Richard  III.,  and  again  the  first  of 
Henry  VII.,  entailed  the  succession  to  their  respective  issue 
and  to  their  heirs. 

And  I-,  extend  tin'  proof  still  farther,  the  deposition  of 
Henry    VI.,  of  Richard  himself,  and  of  .lames   II.,  show 

distinctly,  more  especially  in  the  two  former  cases,  how 
opposed  the  English  nation  was  to  convert  its  emergencies 
under  these  two  monarchs  into  a  standing  law.  Whenever 
it  was  deemed  accessary,  these  deviations  from  the  direct 
Line  oi  iion  were  permitted,  but   the  ancient    founda- 

svere  never  destroyed.     Ii  is,  however,  needless  ti 
more  on  a  vital  principle  of  the  English  constitution  thai  has 

o  abh  discussed  by  Mr.  Fox  in  his  speeches  on  the 
I;  acy  Hill,  as  well  as  by  Burke  in  his  Reflections  on  the 
French  Revolution.  And.  indeed,  a  v^ery casual  examination 
of  our  history  will  prove  that  it  acknowledges  no  a  tiom  mere 
fully,  that  it  holds  no  attribute  of  the  sovereign  to  be  more 
important,  nor  that  any  should  he  mere  jealously  defended 
from  penl. 


THE    PARLIAMENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE.  131 

We  next  observe  the  crown  during  this  reign  freely  exer- 
cising its  right  of  creating  peers  by  patent,  of  confirming  the 
representation  to  counties,  cities,  and  boroughs,  and  ratifying 
to  the  people  the  law  of  usage.  It  will  be  at  once  perceived 
that  all  these  things  show  a  very  advanced  state  of  the 
English  constitution. 

The  official  functions  of  the  barons  underwent  no  change. 
They  continued,  as  in  the  previous  reign,  to  form  an  integral 
portion  of  the  legislature.  But  their  liberties  became  now 
considerably  extended,  from  the  concession  made  by  Parlia- 
ment in  the  eleventh  year  of  Richard  II.,  that  all  matters 
moved  in  that  assembly  concerning  them  should  be  discussed 
in  Parliament,  and  not  settled  by  the  common  or  civil  law  of 
the  land.  In  this  enactment  we  see  the  origin  of  that  privi- 
lege which  has  been  since  assumed  by  both  branches  of  the 
legislature,  much  abused  on  several  occasions  by  the  lower 
house,  and  presenting  there,  what  is  a  dangerous  anomaly,  if 
it  has  not  grown  into  an  infringement,  or  a  violation  of  the 
law  that  ought  to  regulate  the  equal  administration  of  justice. 
Numerous  instances  could  be  readily  adduced  to  show  that 
when  the  privileges  of  Parliament  itself  are  concerned,  those 
who  are  guardians  for  the  people  to  preserve  their  just 
rights,  have  not  always,  especially  where  individuals  and 
parties  are  interested,  manifested  such  impartial  conduct  as 
their  constituencies  might  properly  expect.  Witness  the 
events  of  Richard  IP's  reign  when  it  is  apparent  that  the 
faction  that  was  uppermost  invariably  directed  the  proceed- 
ings. Nor  are  instances  wanting,  if  this  were  a  fit  occasion 
to  produce  them,  which  would  show  how  in  very  recent 
days  the  peers  exercising  their  judicial  functions  without 
reproach  or  inconsistency,  the  commons  have  usurped  power, 
which  some  of  our  ablest  constitutional  writers,  men  who 
have  filled  the  very  highest  judicial  offices  in  the  state, 
have  declared  to  be  untenable  and  illegal,  as  precluding  the 
royal  prerogative  of  mercy,  and  according  to  a  decision  in 
the  House  of  Lords  in  1701,  being  subversive  of  the  rights 
of  Englishmen. 

The  changes  experienced  in  the  representation  of  the 
people  during  Richard  IP's  reign  were  so  trifling  that  they 
require  no  observation.  It  is,  however,  worthy  of  a  passing 
note,  that  in  his  first  Parliament  the  commons  prayed 
him  to  grant   them   an  annual  meeting  of  Parliament,  in  a 


13:2  THE    PABLIAMBNTS   OF   CAMBRIDGE. 

convenient  place,  a  very  different  object  to  tlie  one  modern 
agitators  have  sought  for  under  annual  elections.  But  to 
this  request  the  advisers  of  the  king  replied,  let  the  statutes 
be  kept  as  to  the  meeting  of  Parliament,  and  as  to  the  place 
the  long  will  do  his  will.  Whatever  differences  may  have 
existed  betwixt  the  king  and  his  council,  the  power  of  deter- 
mining the  place  of  meeting  seems  invariably  to  have  rested 
with  the  monarch. 

Having  qow  stated,  as  succinctly  as  the  subject  admitted, 
what  were  the  changes  and  what  was  the  actual  state  of  our 
constitution  during  the  government  of  Richard  II.,  we  come 
prepared  to  review  the  acts  of  that  particular  Parliament 
which  the  king,  through  virtue  of  the  right  just  alluded  to, 
summoned  in  the  twelfth  year  of  his  reign  to  meet  him  at 
Cambridge. 

When  what  was  termed  the  Merciless  Parliament  met  in 
the  previous  year,  the  nation  was  in  a  great  excitement,  and 
it  may  he  presumed  that  the  chief  reason  for  Richard  fixing 
upon  Cambridge  as  the  seat  of  his  councils,  was  that  he  was 
here  in  greater  security  than  in  London,  for  no  business 
relating  to  the  university  was  transacted  on  the  occasion. 

The  king  was  in  his  twenty-second  year  when  he  ordered 
the  writs  issued  for  this  Parliament.  Like  the  other  trans- 
actions <■(' the  reign,  there  is  little  light  to  be  thrown  upon 
its  proceedings.  There  is  hut  one  Liberate  RoH'of  the  period, 
and  that  one  docs  not  contain  anything  relating  to  this  con- 
vention. The  Clause  Roll  has  preserved  the  writs  of  sum- 
monses, and  from  this  we  learn  that  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  the  keeper  of  the  spiritualities  of  York,  eighteen 
bishops,  twenty-three  abbots,  including  those  of  Ramsey, 
Croyland,  Thorney,  and  Bury,  which  shows  thai  they  were 
then  important  foundations,  fifty  three  barons,  other  judicial 
functionaries,  besides  knights  from  the  different  counties, 
and  burgi  »m  Bristol  and   London,  were  summoned  to 

attend  according  to  the  usual  form.  The  Parliament  sat 
from  the  9th  of  September  to  the  17th  of  October,  during 
which  time  the  king  watched  the  proceedings  on  the  spot. 
A  earch  among  I  the  public  records  has  failed  to  produce 
any  now  evidence  of  historical  importance  touching  the 
Bubject  before  us,  so  that  we  must  be  satisfied  with  simply 
knowing  that  this  great  council  of  the  realm  enacted  a 
Btatute  thai    till  remains  unrepealed,  the  original  ot  which  is 


THE    PARLIAMENTS   OF   CAMBRIDGE.  133 

preserved  amongst  the  rolls  of  Parliament  in  the  Tosver  ; 
and  the  copy  printed  amongst  the  statutes  of  the  realm  will 
supply  us  with  the  means  of  inquiry  into  its  provisions. 

The  Statute  of  Cambridge  contains  sixteen  clauses.  It 
will  be  necessary  to  notice  three  of  them. 

The  second  provides  for  the  impartial  and  incorrupt  ap- 
pointment of  the  various  officers  or  ministers  of  the  king, 
and  that  none  of  them  should  receive  their  situation  through 
gift,  favour,  or  affection,  but  that  all  such  should  be  made 
of  the  best  and  most  lawful  men.  The  third  relates  to 
enactments  previously  made  concerning  labourers  and  arti- 
ficers, confirming  those  regulations  that  were  unrepealed, 
and  ordaining  that  no  servant  or  labourer  should  depart  out 
of  the  district  where  he  dwelt  without  bearing  a  letter 
patent,  stating  the  reason,  and  if  detected  he  should  be  put 

in  the  stocks.     The  fourth  clause  regulates  the  wages  of 

©  © 

servants  in  husbandry.  This  seems  to  have  been  an  ampli- 
fication of  the  statute  passed  with  this  express  object, 
called  the  Statute  of  Labourers,  in  the  23rd  year  of  the 
preceding  reign  (1349).  The  same  subject  was  considered 
in  several  succeeding  Acts  of  Parliament  down  to  the  1 1  th 
of  Henry  VII.  (1496),  when,  as  it  is  stated,  for  many  reason- 
able considerations  and  causes,  and  for  the  common  wealth 
of  the  poorer  artificers  as  free  masons,  carpenters,  and  other 
persons  necessary  and  convenient  for  the  reparations  and 
buildings,  and  other  labourers  and  servants  of  husbandry, 
those  regulations  should  be  void  and  of  none  effect.  This  arti- 
ficial system  of  fixing  by  any  legislative  enactment  the  value 
of  labour,  even  in  days  when  our  industrial  sources  of  wealth 
were  most  imperfectly  developed,  was  found  to  be  utterly 
impracticable.  It  was  just  as  inapplicable  to  the  true 
interests  of  employers,  as  the  converse  has  proved  to  be  to 
the  artisans  and  labourers  who  in  their  turn,  by  the  destruc- 
tion of  machinery,  by  agrarian  insurrections  such  as  those 
under  Wat  Tyler,  and  by  lawless  multitudes  assembling 
under  a  fanatic  like  Sir  Thomas  Courtnay,  or  by  strikes,  by 
trades  unions,  or  by  menacing  combinations,  of  which  there 
are  unhappily  several  recent  and  calamitous  instances,  have 
inflicted  a  far  greater  amount  of  misery  on  themselves, 
than  of  inconvenience  and  loss  upon  their  employers.  But 
the  various  evils  arising  from  monopoly  and  dictation  are 
better  suited  for  the  speculations  of  the  political  economist,  or 
vol.  xii.  r 


134  THE    PARLIAMENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE. 

of  the  active  b(  nevolence  of  philanthropy,  or  of  education,  than 
for  a  dry  enquiry  like  the  one  now  engaging  the  attention. 
We  must,  however,  all  feel  impressed  by  reflecting  upon  the 
social  mischiefs  that  have  so  often  disturbed  the  relation 
subsisting  betwixt  two  classes  in  the  community,  and  lament 
that  with  the  advancement  of  civilisation  and  moral  know- 
Ledge,  the  fallacious  doctrines  of  communism  are  not  in  our 
d.-i\  -  quite  exploded. 

There  I-  but  another  clause  in  this  Statute  of  Cambridge 
that  seems  to  call  for  remark.  The  thirteenth  may  truly  he 
considered  as  the  earliest  notice  taken  by  the  legislature  of 
the  health  of  towns.  It  is  a  sewage,  nuisance,  or  sanitary 
clause,  prohibiting,  under  a  penalty  of  20/.,  any  person 
from  casting  annoyances  into  the  ditches,  rivers,  or  waters, 
or  laying  them  nigh  divers  cities,  boroughs,  and  towns  of 
the  realm,  by  which  the  air  is  greatly  corrupt  and  infect, 
and  maladies  and  other  intolerable  diseases  do  daily  happen. 
This  at  tots,  contrary  to  what  has  often  been  asserted,  that 
England  was  behind  other  countries  in  Europe  in  the  pro- 
visions made  for  the  public  health. 

Before  the  Parliament  was  dissolved,  it  granted  a  fifteenth 
and    a    tenth,    which    was    perhaps    the   chief  reason    for   its 

being  called   together.     It  is  singular  that  not  any  petitions 

should    have    heeti    ] dvseiitei I  to  it — at  least  none  have  been 

preserved.  And  there  is  but  one  illustration  that  has,  after 
a  diligent  search,  presented  itself  for  notice,  namely,  thai 
the  Issue  Roll  of  the  Exchequer  gives  the  expenses  (1/.  As. 
id.)  of  two  individuals  for  conveying  charters,  rolls,  and 
other  memorials  to  the  Parliament:  another  also  received 
l'»v.  \ii.  which  the  king  ordered  to  be  paid  him  for  red  wax 
lor  the  office  of  his  Privy  Seal,  bought  from   divers  persons 

at     London,  Oxford,  and  Northampton,  when  the  Parliament 

was  held  at  Cambrid 

1   Bxitaa  ill-  tormina  S.  Michaelia  Anno  aaornin    pro  riagio  prcedicto.     Per  con- 

I      .   ■      Dii    Luna  xix°#  die  Octobria,  bmi  um     Phi    mrarii    ei     camerariorum, 

Thorn  i    I •'     twold      Thnmoe  Reatwold  uni  \> 
num.  i:ii'. i  um  de  Eteccuta  Scaccarii  mi     i  Thomaa  Monk.     Thomco  Monk  nuncio 

CiimIi  lif   :     nun    >  i  •!  nn      0      per     iluini mini       I'm  s'liiraiimn     de 

aliiamemorandia  de  Scaocario,  et  ad  eadem  Cantebngia    aaque     London    rum    literia 

i  !        ■      .  i    in    Parliamento  dicti  dotnini    Tin   nurariidirectiaJohanni 

!  m    lento,  demonatranda,  pro  Innocent   clerico  pro  certia  necociisoffl 

itioni    in   eiadem  rotulia   e(  ciiim  dicti   'l ini.     Tlieaaurani  conoer 

menuira  In  deuariia  sibi  nentibu  .    't    redeunti    rorau      I  miabr, 

prtediciani  i"  con        i  ,        icii  Thomaj 

,  ac  pro  location*    uuuorum  Reetwold      In  denariia     ibi 


THE    PARLIAMENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE.  135 

A  second  Parliament  was  summoned  to  meet  in  Cambridge 
in  the  15th  of  Henry  VI.  (1437),  but  the  place  of  meeting 
was  afterwards  changed  to  Westminster. 

And  a  third  Parliament  was  summoned  here  in  the  25th 
of  the  same  reign  (1447),  but  by  a  re-issue  of  the  writs  it 
was  removed  to  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  and  held  in  the  Refectory 
of  the  Monastery.  The  town  first  sent  representatives  2Gth 
of  Edward  I.  (1298).  The  university  not  until  the  reign  of 
James  I. 

After  the  great  constitutional  enquiry  we  have  been  con- 
sidering, it  is  readily  admitted  that  the  two  preceding 
entries  on  the  Issue  Roll  are  in  themselves  very  trifling  illus- 
trations of  the  subject.  But  they  possess  a  certain  degree  of 
value,  as  serving  to  convey  a  definite  idea  of  the  exact  mode 
of  conducting  the  common  routine  of  official  business — whilst 
such  minute  entries  as  these  bring  out  the  early  passages  of 
national  history  with  a  distinctness  that  is  very  encouraging 
to  those  who  are  actuated  by  a  zeal  for  research,  as  well  as 
being  in  themselves  highly  characteristic  of  the  accuracy 
with  which  all  the  public  acts  of  the  Crown  were  recorded. 
It  has  often  been  thrown  out,  as  an  undeserved  aspersion 
upon  diligent  and  laborious  writers  of  the  history  of  ancient 
times,  that  they  unduly  estimate  these  little  evidences,  but 
they  form  in  reality  some  of  those  strong  links  that  serve  to 
strengthen  and  hold  together  the  entire  chain  of  historical 
fact — and  whoever  presumes  to  pursue  his  researches,  whether 
they  lie  in  the  wide  field  of  history,  or  the  more  uncertain 
labyrinth  of  archaeology,  without  paying  a  conscientious 
respect  to  the  various  little  details  that  bear  upon  them, 
will  obtain  but  a  very  confused  and  superficial  notion  of  the 
object  of  his  enquiry.  Those  who  have  trained  themselves 
in  this  precise  method  of  investigation,  who  draw  their 
information  from  pure,  original  and  authentic  sources,  who 
consult  unpublished  records,  and  decipher  the  nearly  illegible 
characters  in  which  they  are  written,  and  who,  therefore, 
produce  some  fresh  reality,  quickly  find  that  such  a  system 
brings  with  it  its  own  recompense.     The   vivid  colours  in 

manna  proprias  pro  vadiis  et  cxpensis  suis,  rubra  empta  de  diversis  personis  videlicet 

xii-  iii'1,  tain    apud    London,  OxOD.    Nniht.,    quam 

Robertus  Chaundler. — Eidein  Roberto  spud  Cantebr., tempore ultimi  Parliaiuenii 

in  denariis  silii  liberatis  per  manua  pro-  Regis  ibidem  tenti,  pro  officio  privati  Si- 

prias  in  peraolutiouem,  ws-  iii1 ,  quos  do-  gillS  Regis  proedicti,  xv8-  iiid' 
minus  rex  sibi  liberari  inaudavit  pro  cera 


136  THE    PARLIAlfENTS    OF    CAMBRIDGE. 

which  they  behold  displayed  what  was  hitherto  uncertain 
and  dim  is  beyond  doubt  a  pleasing  vision,  but  it  is  not  si 
false  or  unsubstantial  creation,  since  it  foreshadows  the  con- 
viction, thai  they  arc  breaking  up  new  ground,  and  sowing 
those  Beeds  of  truth  which  will  effectually  dispel  the  doubts; 
as  well  as  lighten  the  toil,  of  future  labourers. 

CHARLES  HENRY  HARTSHORNE. 


THE  "HALES"  AT  THE  NEW  TEMPLE  ON  THE  OCCASION 
OF  THE  KNIGHTING  OF  PEINCE  EDWARD. 

A  document  relating  to  this  subject,  which  has  been 
recently  discovered  among  the  records  preserved  in  the 
Tower,1  has  been  brought  under  the  notice  of  the  Institute, 
through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  William  Twopeny.  It  had  been 
communicated  to  him  by  Mr.  William  Basevi  Sanders  of  the 
Record  Office  there,  whose  researches  have  at  various  times 
been  productive  of  information  connected  with  the  details  of 
medieval  architecture.  There  is  no  date,  but  from  the 
hand-writing  the  record  has  been  supposed  to  belong  to  the 
early  part  of  the  reign  of  Edward  II.  It  is  a  petition  to 
the  king  and  council  in  the  following  terms  : — 

"  Pleise  a  nostre  seigneur  le  Roi,  pur  lamour  de  Dieu,  et  pur 
oevre  de  charite,  comandier  a  son  Tresorer  paier  a  Wautier  le 
Marberer  de  Londres  et  a  Johanna  sa  femme  viij  livres,  pur 
merin  pur  les  Hales,  faites  au  Noef  Temple  ou  le  dit  nostre 
seigneur  le  Roi  fust  fait  chivaler." 

Indorsed  is  the  following  answer  to  the  application  : — 

"  Aconte  la  ou  devera,  et  en  soit  le  Roi  certifie." 

Brief  as  it  is,  this  document  involves  some  particulars  of 
historical  interest.  It  may  be  thus  rendered  into  English: — 
May  it  please  our  lord  the  king,  for  the  love  of  God,  and  as 
an  act  of  charity,  to  command  his  treasurer  to  pay  to  Walter 
the  Marbler  of  London  and  Joan  his  wife  8/.  for  timber  for 
the  booths  made  at  the  New  Temple  where  (or  possibly 
when)  our  said  lord  the  king  was  made  a  knight.  The 
answer  indorsed  is, — Account  for  (i.  e.,  pay)  it  where  due, 
and  certify  the  king  thereof. 

Though  undated,  the  contents  show  that  the  inference 
from  the  hand-writing  is  in  all  probability  correct. 

The  New  Temple,  it  is,  perhaps,  needless  to  mention,  was 
on  the  site  of  the  present  Temple  ;  the  Old  Temple  having 
been    near  the  site  of  Southampton    Buildings,   Chancery 

1   Petitions  to  the  King  in  Council.     M.,  264. 


138  Tin:  "hales"  at  the  new  temple 

Lane.     The  Templars  took  possession  of  their  new  house  as 
early  as  the  latter  part  of  the  twelfth  century. 

The  first  inquiry  suggested  by  the  petition  is,  on  what 
occasion  was  it  that  timber  had  been  furnished  for  erecting 
booths  in  the  New  Temple  %     From  Rymer2  and  M.  West- 
minster3 we  may,  I  think,  collect  a  satisfactory  answer.     It 
appears  that  in  April,  1306,  King  Edward  1..  preparatory  to 
his  last  expedition  into  Scotland,  was  minded  to  knight  his 
eldest   son   and   heir-apparent,  Prince   Edward,   who    had 
attained  the   age  of  twenty-two   years  without  having  had 
that  distinction  conferred  upon  him.     The  king,  therefore, 
summoned  all  those  young  noblemen  and  gentlemen,  who 
were  hound  by  their  Ires  to  take  such  service,  and  had  not 
been  knighted,  to  attend  at  Westminster  on  the  feast  of 
Pentecost   next,  and   there   receive   knighthood,    promising 
them    rich   military    garments   out   of  his    own    wardrobe. 
At  the    time  appointed,   there  assembled   300  young  men, 
-uih  of  earls,  barons,  and   knights,   and  because  the  king's 
Palace  at  Westminster  was  not   largo  enough  to  lodge  them 
and  their  attendants,  recourse  wras  had  to  tin'  New  Temple. 
where  tin'  apple-trees  in  the  gardens  having  been  cut  down, 
and  some  walls  removed,   booths  and  tents  (papiliones  et 
tentoria)  were  erected  I'm-  their  accommodation.     The  prince 
and  the  \  oung  men  of  noblest  birth  kept  their  \  igils  at  West- 
minster, wheiv.  as  the    ehroiiieler   tells  us,  there  was  such   a 
Qoise  of  trumpets  and  pipes,  ami  such  a  clamour  of  voices, 
that  the  monks  could  not   hear  themselves  from  one  side  o{' 
the  choir  to  the  other.     The  other  candidates,  most  likely 
the  more  numerous  party,  kept   their  vigils  in  the  Temple. 
The  next  day  the  king  knighted  the  prince  in  the  Palace  at 
Westminster,  having  given  him   the  duchy  of  A.quitaine  to 
support  his  new  dignity.    The  prince  then  went  to  the  A.bbey 
Church,  thai   ho  might  confer  the  like  honour  on  his  com- 
panions, and  so  great  was  the  c<  acourse  of  people  before  the 
principal  altar,  that  two  knights  were  killed,  and  many  fainted, 
though  each  candidate  was  attended  by  three  knights  to  con- 
duct hi  in  through  the  ceremony  and  take  care  of  him.  It  should 
i  i  he  pressure  was  Buch  that  in  the  church  the  way  had  to 
I"  kepi  by  war  chargers,  (dea  trarios  bellicosos),  and  the  prince 
could  nol  gird  his  companions  with  the  military  bell  except. 

•  H\  >  ,  i..  .^  .  dil  ii.p]  Bub  anno  1806, 


ON    THE    KNIGHTING    OF    PRINCE    EDWARD.  139 

upon  the  great  altar  {super  magnum  altar  e) .  Another  chronicler, 
quoted  by  Selden,4  says,  that  the  prince  knighted  sixty  of  the 
candidates,  and  kept  a  feast  at  the  New  Temple.  The  rest  pro- 
bably received  the  honour  from  other  distinguished  knights. 
The  last-mentioned  chronicle  states  that  400  were  knighted 
on  the  occasion  ;  but  this  may  be  the  error  of  a  transcriber, 
as  such  a  mistake,  the  addition  of  a  c,  might  be  easily 
made.5 

The  next  inquiry  is,  why  the  petitioners  should  have  asked 
for  the  money  as  an  act  of  charity.  It  does  not  appear 
difficult  to  conjecture  the  cause,  when  we  call  to  mind  the 
events  of  the  time.  The  next  year,  while  the  timber  was 
evidently  unpaid  for,  the  Templars,  on  whose  responsibility  it 
should  seem  to  have  been  furnished,  fell  into  disgrace  ;  and 
in  France  all  who  could  be  found  were  arrested  in  October, 
1307.  Edward  II.,  who  had  in  the  meantime  succeeded  his 
father,  was  unwilling  to  credit  the  charges  made  against 
them,  or  to  join  in  the  persecution  of  the  order,  until  he 
received  a  letter  from  the  Pope  urging  him  to  do  so.  He 
then  issued  writs  for  the  general  arrest  of  those  in  England, 
which  was  effected  on  the  11th  of  January,  1308.  He  seized 
their  property,  and  gave  portions  of  it  to  his  friends  ;  but 
the  Pope,  having  required  it  to  be  transferred  to  the  Hospi- 
tallers, after  some  disputes,  parts  of  it  having  been  claimed 
by  private  individuals  on  various  grounds,  the  king  gave  it 
up  to  the  Hospitallers  in  November,  1313,  and  it  was  after- 
wards confirmed  to  them  by  an  act  of  Parliament  in  1324. 
That  order  took  it  subject  to  the  Templars'  debts0;  and, 
therefore,  under  these  circumstances,  we  may  reasonably 
conclude  the  petition  was  presented  between  1307  and  1313, 
while  the  property  was  in  the  king's  hands,  and  Walter  and 
his  wife  were  without  remedy  for  the  debt. 

If  it  be  thought  remarkable  that  a  marbler  should  have 
furnished  timber  (for  there  is  no  doubt  of  this  being  the 
meaning  of  the  word  merin,  which,  in  the  form  of  merrain, 

4  Titles  of  Honour,  Tart   II.  ch.  V.   s.  knighted,  it  appears  that  in  November  in 

xxxiv.  [i.  77.V  the  same  year  others,  who  probably  were 

■'  W.  Hemingford,  with  apparent  pre-  not  able  to  attend  on  that  occasion,  were 
cision,  states  the  number  knighted  to  hove  summoned  to  the  king  at  Carlisle  to  re- 
been  297  ;  but  Ashmole  (pp.37 — 8>,  tul-  ceive  knighthood  on  the  Feast  of  the  Puri- 
verting  to  the  discrepancy  in  the  text, si  ys,  fication  (Feb.  2)  1307.  Rymer's  Feeder* 
it  was  only  '267,  ami  lie  gives  their  (new  edit.),  i.  p.  1004. 
names  from  the  Wardrobe  accounts.  °  Rot.  Purl.  11.,  p.  25  b. 
Notwithstanding  the  great  Dumber  then 


UO  THE    "HALES       AT    THE    NEW    TEMPLE. 

marrian,  merrein,  and  man-in  is  found  in  Lacombe,  and  as 
merrein,  and  merrien  in  Glossairc  de  l'ancien  droit  Francais, 
by  Dupin  and  Laboulaye),  I  would  suggest  that  the  timber 
was  not  furnished  by  him.  This  is  to  be  inferred  from  the 
wife  being  joined  in  the  petition,  which  would  hardly  have 
been  the  case  had  the  money  been  owing  to  the  husband. 
It  is  far  more  likely  that  the  debt  was  due  to  the  wife„as  the 
widow  or  daughter  and  representative  of  the  person  who 
furnished  the  timber,  and  that  she  had  in  the  meanwhile 
married  Walter  the  marbler  ;  for  then  the  junction  of  them 
both  in  the  petition  would  have  been  quite  regular. 

The  word  "halles"  in  modern  French,  for  buildings  in 
which  markets  are  held,  is  well  known.  It  was  formerly 
spelt  "hales ;"  such  places  were  probably  so  called  from  the 
kind  of  structures  in  which  the  business  was  transacted.  It 
was  not  very  uncommon  in  this  country  as  meaning  booths 
or  the  like.  In  the  Promptorium  Parvulorum  we  have  "  Hale  or 
tente, — papilio,  scena,"  and  several  examples,  diversely  spelt, 
of  the  word  in  that  sense  are  given  there  in  a  note  by  Mr. 
Way. 

The  class  of  documents  among  which  the  petition  was 
found  has  not  yet  been  completely  indexed.  Mr.  W.  B. 
Sanders  was  engaged  in  making  a  calendar  of  them  when  he 
discovered  it.  Many  of  them,  he  says,  are  printed  with  the 
Parliament  Rolls.  He  has  since  been  so  obliging  as  to 
inform  us,  that  there  is  a  second  petition  from  Walter  and 
Joan  nearly  word  for  wordlike  the  first,  from  which  we  may 
infer  that  they  experienced  some  difficulty  in  getting  their 
money.  The  answer  to  the  second  application  was,  "  Soit 
baillee  an  Tresorer  et  en  face  ce  qil  verra  qe  seit  a  faire." 
Edward's  prodigality  and  the  surveillance  of  the  bishops  and 
barons,  who  had  been  appointed  to  see  to  the  better  ordering 
of  bis  realm  and  household,  may  have  been  alike  unfavour- 
able to  ih''  petitioners,  notwithstanding  the  encouraging  reply 

to  their  first  application. 

w.  s.  w. 


NORTON  CHUECH,  IN  THE  COUNTY  OF  DUEHAM. 

"  Here  giveth  Northman  Earl  unto  Saint  Cutlibert  Edis- 
cum,  and  all  that  thereunto  serveth  (hyreth),  and  one- 
fourth  of  an  acre  at  Foregenne. 

"  And  I  Ulfcytel,  Osulf's  son,  give  North  tun  by  metes, 
and  with  men,  unto  Saint  Cutlibert,  and  all  that  thereunto 
serveth,  with  sac  and  with  soken,  and  any  one  who  this  per- 
verts, may  he  be  ashired  from  God's  deed  and  from  all 
sanctuary."1 

An  Osulf  was  Earl  of  Northumberland  about  952. 
Escombe  is  in  Durham,  and  in  all  probability  the  Norton 
here  mentioned  is  Norton,  near  Stockton,  rather  than  Norton, 
near  Wath,  in  Yorkshire,  which,  with  the  neighbouring  vills 
of  Hutton,  Holme,  and  Holgrave,  were  granted  by  Bishop 
Flambard  to  the  family  of  Conyers. 

At  all  events,  Nortonshire  2  (as  the  records  of  Bishop  Bek 
call  the  parish)  was  a  very  early  possession  of  the  church  of 
Durham,  cutting  through  the  wapentake  of  Sadberge  to  the 
Tees,  and  severing  that  district  into  two  great  portions. 
From  the  eastern  or  coast  portion,  termed  Hartness,  Norton 
was  ashired  by  a  strong  natural  boundary,  a  large  morass, 
through  which  the  numerous  branches  of  Blakiston  Beck  per- 
colated. The  adjoining  parish  was  that  of  Billingham,  which 
had  been  granted  to  the  church  before  the  annexation  of 
Norton,  but  which  was  soon  sundered  by  the  violence  of  the 
times,  and  formed  the  southernmost  limit  of  a  Pagan  usurpa- 
tion of  the  territory  of  Hartness.  That  the  morass  was  of 
considerable  importance  cannot  be  doubted,  and  we  can  well 
understand  how  it  came  to  pass  that  the  fields  of  Norton, 
which  slope  towards  it,  are  full  of  human  remains.  We  can 
also  readily  believe  that  the  peculiar  circumstances  of  the 
place  required  the  erection  of  a  church  at  a  very  early 
period. 

1  Liber  Vitte  Dun.,  43  b.  assemblage  of  places  ashired  or  cut  off,  or 

-  A     shire,    in    the     north,    was    any       boundeivd  out  from  the  adjacent  country. 
VOL.  XII.  U 


I  I'-'  KOKTOJN    CHURCH,    COUNTY   DURHAM. 

Billinghamshire  was  not  restored  to  the  church  till  the 
reign  of  the  Conqueror,  and  then  it  was  given  to  the 
convent,  and  no<  to  the  see.  Consequently,  it  continued  to 
1"'  under  a  jurisdiction  different  to  that  of  Norton.  The 
latter  place  emerges  from  obscurity  in  1082,  when  Blaiehe- 
Btun  (Blakiston),  one  of  its  chief  estates,  was  granted  to  the 
newly-placed  monks  of  Durham,  and  Bishop  de  Karilepho, 
who  made  the  grant,  disposed  of  the  ejected  secular  priests 
of  the  cathedra]  by  distributing;  them  to  the  churches  of 
Auckland.  Darlington,  and  Norton,  at  all  which  places, 
therefore,  ecclesiastical  edifices  must  have  been  existing. 

It  dues  not  appear  whether  the  expelled  seculars  were 
followed  by  a  regular  succession  of  prebendaries  or  not ;  but 
in  l-_7  we  find  that  Norton  Church  was  collegiate,  and  so 
it  continued,  consisting  of  eight  portionists  or  prebendaries, 
of  one  of  whom.  Robert  Brerely,  there  is  an  effigy  of  brass  in 
the  church  of  Billingham,  where  he  was  vicar.  The  preben- 
daries had  the  great  tithes,  and  had  to  uphold  the  choir  of 
the  church,  a  duty  which  they  scandalously  neglected.  In 
1410,  on  Vicar  Bromley's  complaint.  Cardinal  Langley 
ordered  them  to  repair  the  chancel.  In  L496,  Bishop  Fox 
sequestered  their  incomes  for  the  purpose  of  rebuilding  it. 
assigning  as  a  reason  that  "the  canons,  prebendaries  of  the 
same  church,  had  permitted  the  chancel  of  the  said  collegiate 
church,  which  had  been  decently  and  richly  constructed  for 
the  praise  and  worship  of  God,  to  fall  into  ruin  and  desola- 
t ion,  as  well  in  the  roof,  main  walls,  and  windows,  as  in  divers 
other  respects."     In  L579  the  chancel  was  again  "  in  decay." 

Bishop  Skirlaw,  in  L406,  gave  to  the  Church  of  Norton  a 
set  of  vestments  of  white  satin,  embroidered  with  little  golden 
leopards,  edged  with  green  stuff  termed  <-:nd  (cardd)  ;  con- 
taining a  chasuble  with  narrow  golden  orfreys,  two  tunics, 
ami  a  cope  with  orfreys  of  red  velvet,  embroidered  with 
squared  quarterings  (cum  garteriis  quadratis),  three  albs  and 
three  amices,  two  stoles,  and  three  maniples. 

Tic-  College  of  Norton  shared  the  fate  of  its  peers.  In 
1553,  pensions  of  5/.  each  were  paid  to  Lancelot  Thwaites, 
minister,  and  Bix  other  persons.  Probably  one  oi  the 
eighl  portionists  had  died.  Thwaites  does  nol  occur  in  the 
lisl  of  vicars,  Gilpin,  the  A  postle  <»!'  the  North,  having  suc- 
■  I.  in  1554,  mi  i he  deprivation  of  John  Rudd,  who  had 
been   vicar  from    L539.     The  vicar  has  a  small   copyhold 


NORTON    CHURCH,    COUNTY    DURHAM.  14-3 

manor.  The  remainder  of  the  township  of  Norton  is  prin- 
cipally copyhold  or  leasehold  under  the  bishop.  The  manor 
of  Blakiston  forms  the  chief  exception.  The  remainder  of 
the  old  parish  of  Norton  has,  since  Queen  Anne's  days,  com- 
posed the  parliamentary  parish  of  Stockton-upon-Tees.  At 
this  place  a  chapel  had  been  founded  in  1237.  It  was 
dedicated  to  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr.  The  parishioners  of 
Stockton,  Preston,  and  Hartburne,  were  advantaged  b}'  it, 
but  had  to  visit  their  mother-church  on  the  Feast  of  the 
Assumption,  and  pay  the  vicar  50s.  They  offered  one 
penny  with  the  consecrated  bread  every  Lord's  day,  except 
when  they  attended  Norton  Church.  "The  chapell  of 
Stoketon  standeth  a  myle  [nearly  two  modern  miles]  from  the 
parishe  churche,  not  only  for  the  easement  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  towne  of  Stoketon,  but  also  for  the  easement  of  divers 
parishioners  of  sundrie  other  parishes  in  the  winter  tyme, 
when  for  rayny  fludes  they  can  come  none  wher  els  to  here 
devyne  service."  The  rainy  floods  were  caused  by  a  stream 
and  morass  between  Norton  and  Stockton,  very  similar  to 
that  between  Norton  and  Billingham,  and  they  have  not 
ceased.  Yet,  however  necessary  the  chapel  was,  it  did  not 
escape  the  harpies  of  Edward  VI. 's  time,  and  before  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  new  parish,  the  inhabitants  of  Stockton 
paid  3/.  per  annum,  commonly  called  the  Priest's  own,  to  the 
vicar  of  Norton,  who  maintained  a  curate  at  his  own  cost  to 
save  the  chapelry,  the  possessions  of  which  were  in  lay  hands. 
The  old  chapel  stood  a  little  south  of  the  present  large  brick 
church,  which  was  opened  in  1712. 

The  village  of  Norton  occupies  an  elevated  promontory, 
surrounded  on  three  sides  by  the  marshes  already  noticed. 
It  has  been  likened  to  a  frying-pan.  The  pan  terminating 
the  long  town  street  (its  handle),  is  composed  of  two  squares 
of  green  common,  divided  by  a  slight  eminence,  on  which, 
according  to  a  not  uncommon  arrangement,  stand  the  village 
forge  and  bakehouse.3  The  western  square  has  been  thrown 
out  of  shape  by  an  enclosure  before  the  church,  which  stands 
at  its  north-west  corner ;  and  here,  according  to  tradition, 
(which  names  a  pond  in  the  square  "  Cross  Dyke,")  was  held 
the  market  of  Norton,  which  was  granted  to  Bishop  Flam- 
bard  by  Henry  I.,  to  be  held  on  Sunday,  a  day  not  dis- 
agreeable to  the  people  in  early  times.     A  Friday  market  at 

3  The  bakehouse  belongs  to  the  grammar-school. 


1  1  t  NOBTOM    CHUBCH,    COUNTT.     DURHAM. 

Sedgefield  was,  in  the  XlVth  century,  quite  neglected,  and 
the  chapmen  exposed  their  merchandise  and  transacted  their 
business  in  the  church  porch  on  Sundays. 

The  collegiate  church  consists  of  a  central  town-,  and  the 
usual  four  Limbs  of  across,  of  which  the  nave  only  is  furnished 
with  aisles,  and  these  in  modern  times  have  Itch  widened  so 
as  to  be  flush  with  the  transepts.  The  names  of  the  tran- 
septs or  porches  (porch  being  a  common  expression  in  the 
north  for  private  chapels  or  chantries  in  churches,  of  various 
descriptions)  arc  gathered  from  an  allotment  of  seats  in  1635. 
The  parishioners  were  to  be  placed  in  decent  manner  accord- 
in-  to  their  ranks,  degrees,  and  qualities.  "Mr.  Davison,  of 
Blaixton,  shall  sitt  in  the  Beate  next  unto  the  chancel]  one 
the  north  side,  where  he  usith  to  sitt.  and  for  his  servants 
and  tenants  to  sitt  in  the  north  porch,  which  is  called  by  the 
name  of  Blaixton  Porch.'  As  for  men  servants  which  can- 
not read,  we  appoynt  them  for  to  sitt  in  the  south  porch, 
called  by  the  name  of  '  Pettie  Porch;'  and  as  for  women 
servants,  for  to  be  placed  to  kneele  down  in  the  midle  ally. 
ncrc  the  font."  The  south  porch  is  usually  called  "  Pity 
Porch,"  ami  Mr.  Hutchinson  (in  his  History  of  Durham)  and 
the  parishioners  consider  that  an  altar  of  image  of  our  Lady 
of  Pity  stood  there.  The  base  of  a  wooden  screen  separates 
Blakiston  Porch  from  the  remainder  of  the  church,  and  that 
porch  is  full  of  memorials  of  the  later  lords  of  Blakiston. 

The  consequences  of  Bishop  Fox's  sequestration  are  very 
visible  in  the  chancel  ;  the  east  window,  two  south  windows. 
(the  westernmosl  one  being,  as  usual,  lower  than  the  other.) 
and  the  priest's  door,  being  all  of  bis  period.  The  masonry 
near  tin'  latter  object  is  much  disturbed,  and  some  suppose 
that  :i  fine  early  English  recess  in  the  interior,  a  little  to  the 
of  it,  was  the  original  doorway.  It  seems  to  me  to  be 
far  too  rich  lor  the  interior  ofa  doorway,  and  much  loo  per 
bo  be  the  exterior  of  it  turned  round,  and  it  has  all  the 
appearance  of  being  a  single  sedile.  The  old  font  having 
been  removed  to  the  dear's  gardens,  a  porcelain  basin  was 
inserted  in  this  arch,  and  was  used  lor  baptisms  until  it  \\.-i^ 
lately  supplanted  by  a  handsome  stone  fonl  in  the  appro- 
priate place  in  the  nave.  Brewster  calls  the  recess  ";i  niche 
<.i  ancient  piscina,"  and  a  piscina  might  have  been  Inserted 
in  it  during  Pox's  alterations,  bu<  the  wall  sounds  hollow 
and  l-i'  u  ter  lived  before  these  matters  were 
i  rcatcd  w it h  much  preci  ion . 


NORTON  CHURCH,  IN  Till;  COUNTS  OF  DURHAM. 


i    Window  in  the  Tower,  interior  view. 


i arch,looL 


L46         NOETON  CHURCH,  COUNTY  DURHAM. 

The  cast  end  (save  its  window)  and  north  side  of  the  choir 
are  essentially  Early  English.  The  nave  is  Transitional 
Norman,  having  pointed  arches  on  plain  cylindrical  piers  of 
Bishop  Pudsey's  time,  and  I  strongly  suspect  that  this  prelate 
placed  the  college  on  the  foundation  we  find  it,  in  the  same 
manner  as  he  founded  the  College  of  Darlington.  A  doorway 
from  the  south  aisle  into  Pity  Porch,  and  the  east  window  of 
the  latter  are  also  transitional. 

Attention  must  now  be  called  to  the  tower  and  transepts, 
which  have  considerable  interest.  It  will  be  observed,  from 
the  appearance  of  the  tower  arches,  that  the  vestigia  of  an 
earlier  chancel  are  visible.  (See  woodcut.)  This  chancel  was  of 
the  same  width  as  the  transepts  and  nave,  and  if  Transitional 
Norman,  could  not  need  replacing  by  an  Early  English  suc- 
cessor. It  will  further  be  seen  that  while  the  transepts  open 
by  two  very  rude,  narrow  arches,  without  mouldings,  unless 
their  projecting  edge  can  be  so  called,  the  nave  and  choir  open 
by  two  arches  of  their  utmost  width,  with  transitional 
mouldings.4  The  obvious  conclusion  is  that,  on  the  building 
of  the  nave,  the  constructors  wishing  to  obtain  a  complete 
transitional  vista  to  the  east,  remodelled  two  arches  of  the 
tower,  and  this  conclusion  seems  to  be  rendered  certain  by  the 
appearance  of  the  next  story  of  the  steeple,  where  the  rude 
angular-headed  windows,  one  of  which  is  here  represented,  are 
found  above  both  classes  of  arch.  The  width  of  the  base  of  the 
triangle  is  not  so  great  .-is  thai  <>f  the  lower  portion  of  these 
windows,  and  hence  they  have  a  shouldered  appearance. 
The  nex1  story  is  lighted  by  mere  slits,  rather  singularly 
disposed  by  two  on  each  side,  some  of  them  being  very  near 
to  the  angles  of  the  In  hiding.  1 1  ere  the  ancient  tower  ended. 
The  superstructure  is  Perpendicular,  and  of  much  thinner 
masonry  than  the  walls  beneath,  the  surplus  thickness  of  the 
latter  serving  as  a  suppoii  for  the  great  beams  of  the  bell- 
frames.8  The  change  of  masonry  is  also  detected  on  the 
rior  by  a  Blight  hitch  in  i  be  outline. 

The  north  transept  or  Blakiston  Porch  is  composed  of  very 

small    square    Stones,  with    angles   of   long   and    short    work. 

A  Th  archM   are  out       "  \ ».  Domini.  1613.  J  C."     3  "Veni'e. 

ii    pewi    i  wing   the   capital*  bi       Exvltemva   Domino.    S.  S.   1664     R.   D. 

.)    i '."     I  lei  wi  •  d   i  &ch   word  »  shield  id 
•    i  arms,  a    chevron    between    three    belli 

n   ii Id  l"  lis  li"in  my       impaling  thn  t     ... 

robbings      I    u  \    l>    1607    R.   v."      ! 


NORTON    CHURCH,    COUNTY    DURHAM. 


147 


which  also  appeared  in  the  south  transept  before  it  was 
refaced.     The  tower  is  roughcast. 

A  Norman  church  would  scarcely  want  rebuilding  in  Pud- 
sey's  time,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that  in  the  tower  and  tran- 
septs of  Norton  we  see 

the  remains  of  the  Saxon  G      lzrrrr 

church  which  received  the 
expelled  seculars  of  Dur- 
ham in  1085.  The  choir, 
it  may  be  noticed,  is  more 
than  two-thirds  the  length 
of  the  nave,  wdiich  only 
comprises  three  arches. 
Perhaps  all  the  arms  of 
the  Saxon  church  wrere 
rather  short  and  equal. 
In  consequence  of  the 
arches  on  the  north  and 
south     being     narrower 


than  the  transepts  them- 
selves, the  cllUrcll,  WTlien  in        Original  outline  of  the  interior  of  Norton  Church. 

.     .        ,        .  ,  .A.    Tower.      B.    Original    Nave.      C.    Original    Choir. 

ltS   Original    Simple    CrilCl-  D.  Blakiston  Porch.     E.  Pettie  Porch. 

form  shape,  would  assume 

the  common  form,  which  appears  in  St.  Cuthbert's  Cross,  the 

Hartlepool   tomb- 
stones    inscribed 
with    Runes,    on 
a  fragment  from 
Jarrow,    on     the 
edge  of  a  Roman 
slab,   now  in  the 
Castle    of    New- 
castle,  and  other 
instances.     A  base  of  a  cross  noticed  in  Brand's  account  of 
Jarrow  probably  belonged  to  the  design  engraved,  wdiich,  as 
the  slab  has  been  laid  flat  in  a  wall,  must  have  run  up  the  wall. 
After  very  careful  examination,  suggested  by  the  position 
of  the  triangular-headed  windows,  I  cannot  detect  any  change 
of  masonry  in  the  gable  of  Blakiston   Porch,  and  I  am  led 
from  this  fact,  and  reference  to  Saxon  MSS.,  to  believe  that, 
like  the  Romans,  the  Saxons  used  roofs  of  very  moderate 
pitch.  I  am  not  unmindful  that,  in  the  later  towers  of  Jarrow 


Cross  on  the  edge  of  a  Roman  slab  from  Jarrow. 


1 1- 


NORTOS    CHUECH,    ('"CNTV    DURHAM. 


and  Darlington,  there  are  a  second  set  of  tower  arches 
opening  to  the  roofs,  and  forming  a  sort  of  rood-loft,  and  I 
am  not  suit  that  the  room  above  the  -round  story  of  Monk 
Wearmouth  Town-  did  not  always  open  to  the  nave.  But 
the  windows  at  Norton  are  not  adapted  to  this  purpose. 

There  is  no  newel  stair  to  this  tower.  It  is  reached  by  a 
stair  in  Pity  Porch,  from  which  a  doorway  opens  under  the 
triangular-headed  Lights. 

in  the  Bouth-east  corner  of  Blakiston  Porch  there  lay  for- 
merly a  fine  monumental  effigy,  now  removed  to  the  south  of 
the  altar.  This  effigy  is  engraved  in  Surtees'  Durham.  The 
costume  is  almost  precisely  that  of  the  effigy  of  Brian 
Pitz  Alan  (who  died  1301)  in  Bedale  Church,  and  the  very 
design  and  workmanship  of  the  two  effigies  are  so  similar 
that  one  would  incline  to  ascribe  them  to  one  hand. 
The  feet  of  the  Blakiston  effigy  rest  on  a  spirited  group,  con- 
sisting of  two  animals  (One  of  them  certainly  a  lion,  perhaps 

the  other  so  also)  tearing  one  an- 
other. A  single  figure  sits  with  a 
book  at  the  knight's  side.  There 
are  two  very  remarkable  circum- 
stances about  this  effigy.  First,  the 
shield  borne  on  the  arm  is  clearly  a 
"palimpsest,"  for  its  hearings  could 
only  1)0  borne  by  the  descendants 
of  John  Blakiston,  who  died  in  1586. 
There  are.  however,  behind  the 
Canopy  Over  the  knight's  head,  two 

shields: — 1.  An  inescutcheon  within  a  bordure,  over  all  a 
bend.  2.  A  cross  moline.  These  heraldic  bearings  are 
fashioned  in  a  manner  contemporaneous  with  the  eiliev. 

Of  these  coats,  the  cross  moline  Beems  certainly  to  belong 
to  Fulthorpe,  a  family  seated  at  Fulthorpe,  in  the  ueighbour- 
Lng  parish  of  Grindon.  The  other  suggests  the  feudal  influence 
of  Baliol,  and  it  is  perhaps  worth  noticing  that  the  diction- 
of  arm-  give  another  coal  to  Fulthorpe,  Argent,  an 
inescutcheon  sable.  It  is  remarkable  thai  these  tinctures  are 
nlv  those  of  the  more  usual  coat  of  the  cross,6  but  also 


f.f  iIm-  create  of  the   Tanstal]       in    tin-   text    in    oonaequen >f   having 

di  played    argent,  repeatedly  remarked  a  tendency  in  families 

I  "ii  lip-  ii  '.r- 1  with  H  crosa  moline      i arry  « iili  others  <>r  similar  bi  annua 

i  .,ii  t'<  the  coinci  Ii    o  or  tim 


NORTON  CHURCH,  COUNTY  DURHAM. 


140 


of  all  the  six  quarterings  given  in  the  visitation,  for  Ful- 
thorpe  of  Fulthorpe  and  Tnnstall,  (Bland,  Burgh  of  Burgh, 
near  Catterick,  and  Booth,  are  amongst  them,)  and  even 
of  another  class  of  coats  ascribed  to  the  name  of  Fulthorpe, 
in  which  a  lion  and  annulets  seme  or  in  orle  are  variously 
disposed.7  And  here,  rather  in  coincidence 
than  in  connection,  comes  in  the  second  ob- 
servable feature  of  the  Norton  effigy,  which 
was  hidden  from  Mr.  Surtees'  draughtsman. 
It  is  a  mark  on  the  bevel  of  the  monument 
near  the  base  of  the  shield,  an  I  and  three  links  or  annulets 
interlaced.  Is  this  an  early  example  of  a 
badge,  or  of  a  sculptor's  mark  ?  I  am  at 
present  disposed  to  think  that  it  is  the 
artist's  device,  because,  on  the  base  of  a 
small  image8  found  at  St.  Helen's  Chapel, 
Hartlepool,  we  have  the  remains,  as  it  would 
seem,  of  the  same  mark,  the  links  not  quite 
of  the  annulet  form.  One  might  suppose 
the  sculptor  to  have  been  called  John 
Cheyne,  or  by  some  synonymous  appena-Fl^rpeln\wie1t"elei 
tion;9  perhaps  Locke,  since  the  same  device, 
with  three  oak  trees,  formed  the  punning  coat  of  the  Lock- 
woods  of  Newcastle,  quartered  by  Anderson  of  Haswell 
Grange.  Can  it  be  the  local  name,  found  (in  the  genitive  1) 
in  Lucasland  mentioned  in  Hatfield's  Survey  %  (see  the  note 
infra.)  All  the  modern  families  of  Lucas  bear  six  annulets, 
and  that  name  may  be  merely  Luke,  Latinised,  or  in  the 
genitive  case,  as  Jones,  for  John  or  Johannes. 

Did  the  Norton  effigy  really  represent  a  member  of  the 
family  called  Blakiston  1     I  apprehend  that  it  did  not. 

The  manor  of  Blakiston  was  granted  by  Bishop  Karilepho 
to  the  monks.     Bishop  Flambard  reft  it  away  and  granted  it 


"  "Norton.  Rogerus  Fulthorp  miles 
tenet  duo  messuagia  et  una  carueata 
terrse  vocata  Lucasland."  Hatfield? s  Sur- 
vey. ''Lucas  (Durham);  or,  a  tes-i  be- 
tween 6  annidtts  sable."     Gen.  Armory. 

8  The  upper  tunic  of  the  larger  figure, 
and  the  dress  of  the  smaller  one,  are 
painted  with  vermilion  ;  the  larger  figure 
mav  have  represented  a  patron  saint  ;  the 
workmanship  is  similar  to  that  of  the 
Norton  and  Bedale  effigies. 

9  Tremayle  has  also  been  suggested,  a 
name  occurring  in  the   western    counties. 

VOL.   XII. 


Any  indication  of  the  name  or  device  of 
the  artist  is  rarely  found  in  sepulchral 
memorials.  Mr.  Waller  has  noticed  a 
remarkable  example  at  Westley  Water- 
less, Cambridgeshire,  in  his  "  Sepulchral 
Bi  asses."  In  Hefner's  '•  Costume  du 
moyen  age  Chretien,"  a  representation  is 
given  of  the  effigy  of  George  von  Secken- 
dorf,  who  died  in  1444.  On  one  of  the 
lappets  of  the  skirt  which  falls  under  his 
taces,  the  s-eulptor  has  introduced  an 
escutcheon  and  monogram,  doubtless  his 
personal  device  or  mark. 


150  NORTON    CHURCH,    COUNTY    DURHAM. 

to  his  nephew  ;  but  in  his  dying  hour  the  sting  of  conscience 
Bmote  him,  and,  borne  to  the  altar  of  his  cathedral,  he  offered 
his  golden  ring  upon  it  in  testimony  of  restitution.  The 
nephew's  rights  passed  away  with  his  uncle's  repentance,  and 
the  strong  powers  the  king  gave"tha1  he  might  no  more 
be  afflicted  with  the  clamour  of  the  monks/3  His  descendants 
had  Blakiston  a  little  longer  by  acknowledging  the  supe- 
riority of  the  convent  ;  but,  in  the  Xlllth  century  we  find 
in  the  manor  a  line  of  knightly  owners,  who  sprung  from  Old 
Park,  on  the  Wear,  and  bore  the  name  of  their  birth-place. 
Geoffrey  de  Park,  of  Blakiston,  was  at  the  battleof  Lewes 
in  1264,  and  Richard  Park  was  lord  in  1323.  A  new  family 
was,  however,  nursing  in  the  manor,  whose  members  con- 
trive.1  to  tear  field  after  field,  and  finally  the  manor  itself, 
from  their  lords.  In  1320,  John  de  Blaykeston  was  chaplain 
of  the  chantry,  which  the  Parks  founded  in  their  chapel  at 
Blakiston.  Before  1341,  Roger,  the  cook  of  Blakiston,  had 
obtained  a  lease  of  property,  which  in  that  year  Richard- 
Fitz-Richard  Park  sold  him  in  fee.  Hugh  de  Blakeston 
occurs  at  the  same  time,  and  in  1349  his  son  acquired  the 
manor. 

We  have  already  seen  thai  the  effigy  corresponds  with 
that  of  Brian   Fitz  Alan,  who  died  in   1301.     Suppose,  for 

the  sake  of  argument,  that  it  was  erected  in  readiness  some 
years  before  the  death  of  the  person  represented,  or  thai 
when  he  died  an  old  man  he  still  wore  old-fashioned  armour, 
we  may  stretch  twenty  years  forward,  and  still  be  a  quarter 
of  a  century  from  the  earliesl  Blakistons  of  any  repute  or. 
ownership.  In  all  probability  a  Park  intervened  between 
Geoffrey  of  1264  and  Richard  of  1323,  and  might  well  own 
the  monument,  [f  this  was  do!  the  case,  it  may  be  assigned 
to  Richard;  but,  as  the  features  are  do!  aged,  it  must,  in 
thai  event,  have  been  prepared  in  bis  lifetime.  The  two 
shields  behind  the  head  are  both,  perhaps,  arms  of  alliance, 
and  if  there  was  originally  a  coal  on  the  large  shield  (and 
Burely  there  must  have  been),  the  substitution  of  the  arms  <»l 
I  llaki  iton  was  an  acl  of  g  real  meanne 

The  Blakistons  were  uol  ungrateful  to  the  memory  oi 
I  rue  Coctu.  They  wore  red  cock- in  their  shields,  and 
mounted  a  cock  for  their  crest.  The  heralds  call  these 
birds  dunghill-cocks.  One  would  have  though!  thai  black- 
cocks wmiM  have  been  ;i  better  allusion      Roberl  Blakiston, 


NORTON    CI1UKC1I,    COUNTY    DURHAM. 


151 


a  priest,  of  Stainton   in   Cleveland,  in   1522,   had  a  brother 
Robert.     The   latter  made   heraldry  and   ancestral  remem- 
brances tell  for  convenience,  and  called  himself  Robert  Cok. 
I  do  not  know  the  boundaries  of  Blakiston  Manor,  but  I 
have  sometimes  thought  that  an  early 
stone  cross  (with  the  usual  imitations 
of  gems  (?)  in  the  form  of  small  round 
protuberances),   discovered,   and   still 
standing  near  a  farm-house1    in  the 
neighbourhood,  had  some  reference  to 
them.     What  remains  of  the  church- 
yard cross  of  Norton,  a  plain  square 
shaft,  chamfered  at  the  angles,  lies  on 
the  wall  next  to  a  stile  at  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  churchyard. 

The  vicarage  house  is  modern.    Its 
predecessor,  said  to  have  been  built  by 

VlCar    SisSOll     (1746-1773),   is    figured  Cross  at  Colpitt's  Farm,  near  Norton. 

in   Hutchinson's  Durham.     In    1415, 

Vicar  Robert  Bromley  leaves  the  residue  of  his  estate  to  his 
executors  to  spend,  according  to  the  bishop's  directions,  in 
payment  of  his  debts,  at  the  amount  of  which  he  greatly 
grieves,  and  the  repair  of  his  mansion  at  Norton,  "  ad  quam 
teneo  ultra  quam  sufficere  potero."  The  executors  renounced 
probate,  but  the  bishop  imposed  administration  on  one  of 
them,  a  brother  of  the  testator. 

There  was  at  Norton  a  "  free  chapel  of  Norton  Hermi- 
tage," part  of  the  possessions  of  which  seem  to  have  been 
appropriated  to  Stockton  Chapel.  These  fell  into  lay  hands  ; 
the  remainder,2  with  probably  a  portion  of  other  chantry 
lands,  appear  to  have  endowed  the  Grammar  School  of  Nor- 
ton, which  stands  in  "  the  Hermitage  Garth,"  and  by  leases 
of  the  bishop  (going  back  to  1600)  owns  two  common  ovens 
or  bakehouses,  (one  of  them  now  waste,  and  situate  at  the 
foot  of  the  village,  the  other  between  the  two  greens  as 
before  mentioned,)  a  toft  or  kilnstead  where  the  Lady  Kiln 
formerly  stood,  the  close  called  Kiln  Close,  or  Lady  Close, 
and  an  acre  with  the  same  kiln  formerly  occupied.     Besides 


1  Thorney  Close,  if  I  view  th»»  maps 
aright,  1  know  the  place  better  as  the  Out 
Farm,  or   Colpitt's  or  Swalwell's  Farm, 

from    the  names  of  its  recent  occupiers. 
'-'  The   subject  is   obscure,  and  perhaps 


the  evidences  in  Brewster's  Stockton  are 
not  very  accurately  given.  It  may  how- 
ever  !"•  gathered  that  the  est  iblishment 
had  been  broken  np  before  the  general 
il  ssolution  of  such  foundations. 


152  NORTOM    CHURCH,    COUNTY    DURHAM. 

these  old  leaseholds,  the  school  holds  20  poles  of  allotted 
land  behind  the  building  (set  out  in  1(>'73),  and  sonic 
escheats  granted  by  the  bishop  in  1720.  The  school  is  due 
east  of  the  church,  and  probably  occupies  the  site  of  the 
chapel  or  hermitage,  but  its  only  ancient  feature  is  part  of 
the  west  gable,  containing  a  square  mullioned  window,  and 
even  this,  perhaps,  is  cotemporaneous  with  a  piece  of 
Jacobean  carved  woodwork  discovered  in  the  house  not 
lone  ago, 

lii  L501,  there  was  in  Norton  parish  a  vicar,  non-resident. 
a  " capellanus  parochial"  (the  chaplain  of  Stockton  ?)  and 
Sir  Thomas  Aplbie,  chantry  priest.  The  Ecclesiastical 
Survey  of  2  Edward  VI.  returns  "the  parishe  church  of 
Norton  havinge  howseling  people,  700."  Besides  Stockton 
chapel  it  names  the  existence  of  a  priest  in  the  church 
for  term  of  years.  lie  had  "  stocke  of  money  for  iij.  yeres 
to  come,  at  iij./.  by  the  yere,  geven  by  William  Blaxston, 
xij./.."  and  was  evidently  to  officiate  in  Blakiston  Porch  for  a 
fewyears  for  the  bouI  of  the  last  departed  lord,  William  (who 
died  before  I  533).  The  nature  of  the  college  seems  to  have 
been  remarkable.  Under  "  the  porcion  of  tythe  within  the 
geyd  parishe  of  Norton,"  we  find  eight  incumbents,  "  having 
the  seyd  tythes  (yearly  value,  48/.)  porcioned  emonge  them 
to  study.'  at  the  uiiiversitic;"  Lancelot  Thwayte,  and  the  six 
who  received  pensions  (as  before  stated)  being  among  them. 

This  statemenl  agrees  with  a  demise  to  Will.  Crofton  the 
ime  year  of  the  tithe  grain  of  Norton  parish  into  eight 

portions,  divided  by  ancient  custom  for  the  exhibition  of  lay 
iholare   and  otherwise,  at  the  pleasure  of  the  Bishop   of 

Durham.  So  Bishop  Barne's  "  Clavia  Ecclesiastica  "  mentions 

the    •"eiglite   lave    porcionarii  sen  pivheiida\  e\  I irione  «SA  and 

wereol  the  Busshopeof  Durham's  giefte  but  are  now  dissolved 
and  in  i be  Quene a  bandes. 

In  L580,  the  Bible  in  Norton  Church  was  "  not  sufficient, 
beinge  old  and  torne,  lackinge  fower  or  five  leaves  together 
in  sundrye  places  of  St.  Paule's  epistl 

w.  HYLTON   Dl  BR  LONGSTAFFE,  is. A. 


KING'S  COLLEGE  CHAPEL  WINDOWS,  CAMBRIDGE. 

"  Lucem  tuara  da  nobis,  o  Deus." 
Uutlo  of  lite  Company  of  Glaziers  and  Painters  on  Olast,  Incorporated  1637.' 

In  hot  climates  the  window  proper — that  is,  the  window 
for  admitting  light — is,  and  ever  was,  a  mere  germ. 

So  manifestly  is  this  the  case,  that  it  has  led  some  of 
our  writers  to  reflect  too  hastily  upon  the  ancients.  Thus, 
Mr.  Hope  blames  them  for  "  not  admitting  the  light ;  "  and 
Hallam  wonders  that  "  with  all  their  wTisdom  they  over- 
looked the  window/' 

But  the  truth  is,  the  inhabitants  of  those  countries 
wrhere  architecture  was  born,  did  not  want  windows  in  the 
sunny  climate  of  the  south,  and  therefore  instinctively  kept 
them  small  and  subordinate.  The  windowr  wras  never  a 
feature  of  ancient  architecture  :  Vitruvius  does  not  name  it, 
thouarh   he  describes    both    the    door    and    the    ventilator." 

O 

Much  the  same  may  be  said  of  the  countries  in  question  at 
this  day  ;  their  window,  if  enlarged  at  all,  is  enlarged  for 
the  purpose  of  admitting  air  rather  than  light,  heavily  tre- 
lissed,  and  seldom  occupied  by  glass. 

Here,  on  the  other  hand,  owing  to  the  necessities  of  a 
northern  latitude,  the  window  is  at  once  large,  serial,  and 
ornamental ;  perhaps  the  most  striking  feature  of  our  archi- 
tecture. 

It  would  be  an  instructive  study  to  trace  the  history  of 
the  window  step  by  step,  from  the  classical  through  the 
Byzantine,  to  the  Gothic  styles,  observing  how  it  has  con- 
tinually increased  in  size  and  importance  as  a  medium  of 
light,  according  to  the  isothermal  line,  or  in  other  words, 
according  to  the  necessities  of  climate  ;  but  our  present 
business  lies  rather  with  another  element  entering  into  the 

1  Mai tland's  London.  Fol.  ]>.  1"24<>.  as  "  that  part  of  the  door  which  was  hv- 

-  "  Lumen    bypsetri  "    which    Wilkins  psethral,  or  exposed  to  the  air."     Vitruv. 

renders, "the   space  intended  to  !>••  left  Wilkins,  p.  81. 

open  to  the  air  ; "  and  explains  ill  a  note 


L54  king's  college  chapel  windows. 

calculation  here.  Our  Gothic  windows  would  never  have 
grown  to  Buch  dimensions  but  for  the  discovery,  or  at  least 
the  increased  use  of  glass. 

While  a  northern  latitude  demanded  light,  it  demanded 
also  a  protection  from  the  storm. 

Our  ancestors,  therefore,  so  long  as  glass  was  unattain- 
able, very  wisely  contented  themselves  with  lofty  and  widely 
splayed,  but  narrow  windows. 

It  was  only  with  the  freer  use  of  glass,  first  as  a  pro- 
tection,  and  then  as  an  ornament — a  surface  for  the  dis- 
play of  taste — that  the  window  expanded,  embracing  mullion 
after  mullion,  until,  at  length,  in  the  Perpendicular  period, 
we  have  almost  a  wall  of  glass,  as  in  the  noble  specimen 
under  consideration.3 

But,  besides  this  general  ground  of  interest,  as  a  piece  of 
fenestra]  work,  the  windows  of  King's  have  some  intrinsic 
and  peculiar  claims  to  attention. 

The  pictures  they  contain  are  the  original  glazing  of  the 
chapel;  they  are  well  preserved  and  intelligible;  they  are 
extensive,  varied,  and  complete,  a  thing  very  rare  in  this  or 
any  other  land.  They  belong  to  the  last  style  of  glass  : 
and  since  ;ill  tin'  preceding    styles   were   executed    upon   the 

same  essential  principles,  these  windows  serve  as  a  speci- 
men of  all. 

They  were  painted  ;it  a  period  when  the  "  Ars  Vitraria  "' 
had  attained  its  perfection,  thai  is  to  say,  when  it  exhibited 
grand  and  instructive  designs  without  tampering  with  the 
nature  of  anj   of  itfi  materials. 

And  lastly,  as  this  is  the  latest  example  of  a  style  of 
glass,  ere  the  degeneracy  or  rather  eclipse  commenced,  we 
may  take  it  to  be  the  best  in  the  eyes  of  the  latesl  professed 
masters,  who,  in  forming  it.  deliberately  laid  aside  the  older 
and  more  conventional  styles,  for  this  free  and  pictorial  one. 
Such  are  some  of  the  interesting  points  of  the  windows 
before  u 

Li  t  tie  enter  a  little  more  into  detail  on  a  lew  of  them. 

Wnli  regard  to  the  history  of  these  windows,  we  poe 

1  Tlii     I  iv.  ..f  |  i  'ill  in  force.  ever  the  tendencj  to  an  increase  of  win* 

\  i.  ed  b\    the  dow  light,      Whenever  an  old   caaemenl 

i. in  i in-,   was  i.niv   tempo  hi  our  altered,  il  la  onh  to  be 

i   developments  of  ar-  enlarged,  and  to  exchange  >^  doll 

y  of  civil  and  domestic  and  leads  and  saddli  bam,  for  tin   I 

j    than  and  cl<  art   '  »heel  possible 


KINGS   COLLEGE    CHAPEL    WINDOWS.  155 

some  valuable  documentary  evidence,  and  something  more 
may  be  added  from  inspection. 

HISTORY  FROM  DOCUMENTS. 

Their  immediate  prototypes  were  the  windows  of  Henry 
VII. 's  chapel,  at  the  east  end  of  Westminster  Abbey.  We 
gather  this  from  a  contract,  dated  1526,  for  completing  the 
general  work  of  King's  College  Chapel,  which,  among  other 
things,  provides  that  "  the  windows  are  to  be  set  up  with 
good,  clean,  sure  and  perfect  glass,  and  orient  colours,  and 
imagery  of  the  story  of  the  old  and  new7  law,  after  the 
form,  manner,  curiosity,  and  cleanness  in  every  point  of  the 
King's  newr  chapel  in  Westminster."  Here  is  doubtless  a 
reference  to  the  then  existing  windows  of  Henry  VII. 's 
chapel,  Westminster  Abbey. 

These  have  long  since  perished,  but  there  are  sufficient 
traces  left  to  show  that  the  clerestory  lights  (the  lower  win- 
dows being  too  irregular  in  plane  to  admit  of  pictorial  glass) 
were  once  filled  as  here  intimated.  I  allude,  of  course,  to 
the  remains  in  the  tracery  ;  but  more  particularly  to  a 
figure  still  to  be  seen  in  the  east  window-  of  Henry  VII. 's 
chapel,  vulgarly  called  Henry  himself ;  but  which,  by  the 
aid  of  a  glass,  resolves  itself  into  the  prophet  Jeremiah, 
under  a  canopy,  holding  a  scroll,  and  altogether  a  match  for 
the  "  Messengers  "  in  the  chapel  at  Cambridge. 

I  mention  this,  not  only  because  it  is  in  direct  genealo- 
gical connection  with  our  subject,  but  because  it  is  a  curious 
instance  of  reflex  light  being  thrown  upon  a  collection  of 
glass,  once  important  as  a  standard  in  the  kingdom,  but  now 
so  far  lost,  that  its  very  existence  might  otherwise  be  ques- 
tioned. 

But,  to  proceed  :  the  foundation  stone  of  this  chapel  was 
laid  under  the  Clare  Hall  tower,  on  St.  James's  day,  144G  ; 
but  owing  to  the  wars  of  the  roses  and  other  interruptions, 
the  shell  was  not  completed  until  the  29th  of  July,  1515, 
or  the  seventh  year  of  Henry  VIII. 

The  following  year  witnessed  the  commencement  of  the 
glass. 

This  is  noted  in  an  indenture  dated  Feb.  15,  1516,  made 
between  the  executors  of  Henry  VII.  and  the  provost  of 
the  college  : — 


15G  king's  college  chapel  windows. 

The  order  is  simply  "to glaze  all  the  windows  of  the  said 
chapel,  with  Buch  images,  stories,  arms,  badges,  and  other 
devices,  as  it  shall  be  devised  by  the  said  executors." 

These  words  are  sufficiently  identical  with  those  of  the 
will  of  Henry  VII.  relating  to  his  chapel  at  Westminster.;4 
and  since  only  seven  or  eight  years  had  elapsed,  and  the 
executors  were  nearly  the  same,  it  is  probable  that  they 
hastened  to  employ  the  same  hands  on  the  glass  of  the 
building  just  committed  to  their  charm1. 

This  matter  might  be  cleared  up  had  we  the  first  contract 
for  the  college  chapel  glass,  but  this  has  unfortunately  been 
lost. 

From  the  second  contract,  however,  already  named,  (dating 
April  L526,)  we  learn  that  Barnard  Flower  was  the  original 
contractor  for  the  Cambridge  windows  ;  and  since  he  alone 
is  at  first  employed  on  so  large  an  undertaking,  it  seems 
altogether  likely  that  he  was  the  popular  man  of  his  day. 
and  possibly  had  been  the  painter  of  the  Westminster  win- 
dows. 

But  be  that  as  it  may,  we  know  that  he  was  selected  and 
engaged  to  do  sundry  work  here,  in  terms  carefully  rc- 
counted  in  the  second  contract;  that  he  had  been  for  several 
years  at  this  work;  and  had  just  died,  leaving  a  certain 
amount  of  glass  finished  and  ready  to  be  put  up.  We  shall 
presently  consider  what  this  legacy  was. 

The  cext  contractors  were  Galyon  Hone,  Richard  Bounde, 
Thomas  love,  and  dames  Nicholson. 

These  men  hind  themselves  to  three  things  :  first,  to  put 
up  what  Barnard  Mower.  " lately  deceased,"  had  left  ready 
i"  !"•  put  up  ;  secondly,  to  execute  eighteen  windows  more 
themselves,  Including  the  easl  and  west  windows  ;  and 
thirdly,  to  furnish  cartoons  or  vidimuses,  .'is  they  were  called, 
for  the  four  remaining  windows  of  the  chapel. 

With  the  exception  of  the  west  window,  never  executed,1 
and  therefore  reducing  the  number  to  seventeen,  we  may 

1  "And  the  window!  of  our  widen*  •  There  is  nothing  to  lead  us  to  suppose 

i    «iili  stoi  ,  tint    this   window   baa  ev«   been   liilc-.l 

,  and  cogni  byus  with  stained   visas.      The   tracery   of  :i 

I,  Mid  in  picture  (pattern)  de  troyed  window  generally  retains  soma 

delivered  to  the  Prior  oi  St,    Bartholo-  patches  of  colour,  bul  there  is  not  a  par 

le  Smithfield,  matter  ol  the  tide  to  be  observed  here.     Moreover,  the 

r  said  chapeL"     This  «iii  in  College  records  I  understand,  while  noting 

Richmond,  March  81,  loOfl     llenrj  thi   injury  dom   to  the    We  window 

*"   died  on  (In    !]   t  ol  tin   nexl   month  m intion  ol   the  west  window  at  all. 


king's  college  chapel  WINDOWS.  157 

suppose  this  engagement  to  have  been  faithfully  carried 
out. 

The  last  contracting  parties  were  Fraunces  Williamson 
and  Symond  Symonds,  who  in  the  succeeding  month  of  the 
same  year,  covenant  to  execute  the  four  remaining  windows 
just  named,  according  to  the  patterns  supplied  to  them  by 
the  superior  artists. 

The  proper  sequence  of  these  latter  contracts  should  be 
observed  ;  for  Walpole,  by  placing  the  last  first,  has  fallen 
into  the  mistake  of  giving  a  share  of  the  credit  of  designing, 
to  those  who  manifestly  were  not  to  be  entrusted  with  that 
important  branch  of  the  business. 

The  honour  of  designing  these  windows  undoubtedly 
belongs  in  the  first  place  to  Barnard  Flower,  and  in  the 
second  place  to  Hone,  Bounde,  Reve  and  Nicholson. 
And  here  we  observe  as  an  interesting  fact,  that  all  those 
names  are  English  ; 8  and  further,  that  these  establishments 
— there  are  six  distinct  establishments — are  all  specified  as 
being  in  London. 

We  may,  therefore,  I  think,  fairly  claim  these  windows, 
both  in  respect  of  design  and  workmanship,  as  genuine 
productions  of  British  art. 

This  is  a  valuable  addition  to  similar  testimony,  gleaned 
from  the  accounts  of  St.  Stephen's  chapel,"  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  III.  ;  and  of  the  York  and  Warwick  windows  ;  to 
name  no  more,  altogether  dissipating  the  common  doubt  as 
to  whether  painted  glass  was  ever  a  regular  manufacture  of 
this  country. 

Other  important  particulars  to  be  gathered  from  these 
contracts  are  : — first,  that  the  glass  must  date  from  1516  to 
1530-2  ;  omitting,  of  course,  the  relics  in  the  north  chapel- 
ries,  which  cannot  be  less  than  half-a-century  older  ;  but  of 
which  no  account  is  preserved. 

Again,  we  find  that  we  are  indebted  to  Henry  VII.  and 
his  executors,  and  not  to  Henry  VI.,  as  Dyer  states,  nor 
yet  to  Henry  VIIL,  as  is  more  commonly  supposed,  for  the 
gift  and  completion  of  these  magnificent  windows. 

6  Hone's  name,  it  has   been  objected,  first   intention  was   to    have    had    good 

should   stand  "  Hoon  "   which   is  Dutch.  "  Normandy  "  glass  ;    but  that  in  every 

This  is  true  as  far  as  the  body  of  the  con-  instance   the  wi.nl    Normandy   has   been 

tract   goes,     but  the   man     always    si:,'"*  erased.    We  may  infer  from  this,  that  not 

himself  "  Hone."     I  observed  also,  when  only  the  men,  but  their  materials,  were 

kindly  permitted   to   inspect   the   original  British. 

documents,  a  short  time  since,  that  the  "  Smith's  Antiquities  of  Westminster. 

VOL.    XII.  Y 


L58  KINGS    i'm|.i.];.,i:    CHAPEL    WINDOWS. 

Henry  VIII.  supplied  the  rood-screen  and  interior  fittings 
of  the  chapel,  but  his  wealthy  and  superstitious  lather  hail 
already  provided  for  the  glass. 

This  circumstance,  by  the  way,  accounts  for  the  profusion 
of  memorials  relating  to  Benry  VII.  which  these  windows 
contain,  though  executed,  as  we  Bee,  some  time  alter  that 
prince's  death. 

We  further  learn  that  the  royal  executors  left  the  devising 
and  ordering  of  the  glass,  that  is,  I  suppose,  the  choice  of 
subjects  and  the  supervision  of  the  vidimuses,  to  a  select 
committee,  consisting  of  the  Trovost  Ilacomblcn  assisted  by 
William  Holgylle,  clerk  and  master  of  the  Savoy,  London, 
and  Thomas  Larke,  Archdeacon  of  Norwich.  Of  these  three, 
since  to  the  last  two  was  referred  the  judgment  of  compensa- 
tion in  cases  requiring  a  knowledge  of  art,  of  whom  Larke 
was  the  general  superintendent  of  the  building  in  Cam- 
bridge ;  it  remains  that  Holgylle,  residing  in  London,  where 
all  the  glass-work  was  executed,  was  the  special  manager  of 
this  department. 

Finally,  as  to  the  distribution  of  the  work  ;  it  is  plain. 
thai  as  there  are  twenty-five  painted  windows  in  the  chapel, 
twenty-one  of  which  may  be  sufficiently  accounted  for,  it 
would  appear  that  Barnard  Flower  had  completed  Four 
windows  ere  he  died,  together  (probably)  with  the  glass  in 
the  heads  or  tracery  of  all  the  windows:  but  of  this  more 
hereafter. 

Before  dismissing  the  documentary  part  of  our  subject, 
it  may  be  wel]  to  state,  thai  these  windows  were  condemned 
by  tin'  Long  Parliament. 

There  is  an  entry  of  tin-  commissioners  in  the  Journals 
of  the  House  bo  this  effect:  "Dec  26th,  L643  ;  steps 
(altar-steps?)  to  be  taken  down  ;  and  a  L,000  superstitious 
pictures,  the  ladder  of  Christ,  ami  thieves  >Vc." 

This  was  during  the  Provostship  of  Dr.  Collins,  ejected 
L645.  How  it  happened  thai  our  windows  escaped  during 
the  intervening  year,  4  1,  wo  are  not  informed. 

Possibly  they  were  taken  down,  (ii  is  certain  they  have 
.-ill  been  down  and  reloaded  ;it  some  time  or  other ;)  bul  it  is 
more  likely  that  they  remained  iii  their  places  .'it  tin'  period 
peak  of.  and  thai  the  superstitious  pictures  a1  the  weal 
end  then  mstained  the  Berious  damage  they  exhibit  to 
this  day,  while  the    general    Bcriptural    character  of  the 


king's  college  chapel  windows.  159 

rest,8  together  with  the  opportune  election  of  Dr.  Which- 
cote  (a  moderate  man),  preserved  them  to  us  much  as  they 
are  at  present. 

THEIR  HISTORY  FROM  INSPECTION. 

And  now  for  a  word  or  two  as  to  what  further  historical 
information  may  be  obtained  from  inspection.  Omitting — 
as  I  said  before — the  glass  in  the  north-east  chapelries,  and 
confining  ourselves  to  the  chapel  itself,  the  oldest  glass 
appears  to  be  that  over  the  north-west  door.  This  window 
is  unique  as  to  age  and  style,  partaking  more  of  the  Per- 
pendicular aspect  than  anything  in  the  chapel.  If,  there- 
fore, it  is  one  of  Flower's  four,  he  afterwards  altered  his 
style.  Is  it  not  more  probable,  that  it  was  a  purchase  or 
present  to  the  chapel,  and  executed  by  other  hands  1 9 
Next,  we  may  safely  conclude,  that  Flower  fitted  all  the 
tracery  lights  of  the  windows  ;  for  first,  it  is  highly  proba- 
ble that  they  would  be  inserted  ere  the  scaffolding  of  the 
roof  was  removed.  Again,  they  all  appear  to  be  the  work 
of  one  hand,  strongly  contrasting,  in  this  respect,  with  the 
variety  of  manipulation  in  the  pictures  below ;  and  once 
more,  among  all  the  cognisances  and  initials  with  which  they 
are  crowded,  there  is  no  reference  to  Anne  Boleyn,  but  only 
to  Henry  VII.,  and  Elizabeth  of  York,  or  to  Henry  VIII. 
and  Catherine.  This,  I  imagine,  would  not  have  been 
the  case  had  they  been  executed  after  1526  (the  date  of 
the  second  contract)  when  the  subject  of  the  divorce  was 
pending. 

It  is  more  difficult  to  decide  upon  the  other  contribu- 
tions of  Barnard  Flower.  But  not  to  trouble  ourselves  with 
speculations,  I  will  merely  mention  a  key  which  I  think  can 
be  used  here  with  advantage  ;  it  is  the  east  window.  Tliis 
window,  we  know,  is  not  Flower's  work,  because  it  is  spe- 
cially contracted  for  after  his  death  by  Hone  and  his  partners. 
Now  in  this  window,  the  figures  are  on  a  large  scale,  and 
executed  with  much  freedom  and  vigour. 

Taking  this,  therefore,  as  a  guide,  we  ought  to  be  able  to 
detect,  not  only  its  sixteen  companions,  but  also  the  last  four 
for  which  designs  were  furnished  by  one  and  the  same  party. 

s  1  have  met  with  many  cases  of  this       ready-made  windows  in  the  rei<;n  of  Ed- 
kind  of  discrimination.  ward  III.  ;  and  this  looks  rather  like  an 
9  We  find  instances  of  the  purchase  of       adapted  window. 


160  RINGS    COLLEGE    CHAPEL    WINDOWS. 

With  regard  to  these  last-named  four,  it  is  also  worthy  of 
notice,  that  they  were  to  be  placed  "  two  on  oon  side,  and  two 
.m  the  other  Bide  of  the  chapel."  If  this  means  vis-a-vis, 
here  is  a  further  key. 

In  tlii-  way.  Blower's  work  might  possibly  be  eliminated  ; 
when  it  would,  I  conceive,  be  found  to  lie  among  the  north- 
eastern windows,  where  the  figures  are  on  a  smaller  scale, 
and  also  in  a  somewhat  earlier  manner. 

GENERAL  ARRANGEMENT. 

Having  finished  the  history,  we  now  pass  on  to  consider 
the  general  arrangement  of  these  windows.  This  is  very 
Bimple  when  the  clue  is  once  perceived. 

Generally  speaking,  each  window  contains  four  pictures, 
two  above  and  two  below  the  transom. 

The  lower  tier  is  the  one  in  scries,  being  a  regular  chain 
of  Gospel  history,  passing  all  round  the  chapel.  It  com- 
mences  at  the  north-west  corner,  with  the  birth  of  the  Virgin 
Mary,  continues  eastward  through  the  various  scenes  of  our 
Lord's  active  life,  then  takes  up  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles 
and  concludes  with  the  legends  of  St.  Mary's  death  in  the 
south-west  corner.  It  has  often  occurred  to  me,  whether 
these  cycles  (for  they  occur  elsewhere)  might  not  be  in 
illustration  of  the  ecclesiastical  year,  according  to  some 
••use"  of  the  time;  but  1  could  uever  identify  them. 

The  upper  tier  consists  of  stories  also,  but  not  in  any 
chronological  order,  being  chosen  out  of  the  Old  Testament, 
or  the  Apocrypha,  simply  on  account  of  their  correspondence 
respectively  with  those  beneath,  on  the  well-known  principle 
of  type  and  am itype. 

There  arc  a  few  exceptions  to  this  a rrangeinent,   as  in  the 

first,  or  oorth  westernmost  window,  in  the  east  window,  and 
in  those  illustrating  the  A-m^  ;  hut  the  rule  is  as  above- 
Btated. 

Th.iv  Beems  nothing   wrong  in  this  plan  of  parallelism, 
],i  where  it  is  superstitiously  applied  ;  but,  al  any  rate, 

il   wa      a     \ery    favourite    scheme    of  the    mediaeval    artists: 

we  in. .  t  with  it  in  the  catacombs  of  Rome;  in  the  Biblia 
Pauperum  ;  and  there  are  lew  remains  of  glass  without  some 

I  lac,         ()f     ||. 

It   her   be  recognised  in  Canterbury,  in   Bourges,  in  the 


king's  college  chapel  windows.  161 

accounts  of  St.  Stephen's  chapel,  and  of  Horschau  monastery  ; 
at  Fairford,  at  Liege,  at  Gouda.  Moreover,  in  this  way  are 
to  be  explained  such  references  to  lost  collections,  as  the 
following  :  "  the  windows  contained  the  whole  story,  from 
the  Creation  to  the  Judgment."  9  For  it  so  happens  that 
the  Temptation  of  Eve,  easily  mistaken  for  the  Creation 
(especially  if,  as  in  King's  Chapel,  the  animals  are 
scrambling  out  of  the  ground  at  the  feet  of  our  first  mother) 
was  the  received  type  or  correspondence  of  the  Annuncia- 
tion, one  of  the  first  subjects  in  the  Gospel  history. 

But  to  return  to  our  subject  : — Care  was  always  taken  in 
this  arrangement  that  the  Crucifixion  should  fall  into  place 
at  the  east  end  of  the  church,  and  the  Last  Judgment  at 
the  west. 

This  was  clearly  the  idea  here,  and  had  the  west  window 
been  painted,  it  would  probably  have  presented  us  with 
some  such  a  combination  of  gorgeous  colouring  and  gross 
superstitions  as  may  be  seen  at  Fairford  to  this  day. 

Perhaps  it  will  be  well  to  give  a  complete  list  of  the 
subjects  as  they  stand  in  the  chapel. 

Commencing  then  at  the  north-west  corner  and  counting 
eastward,  we  have — 

No.  I. 

Joachim's  Offering  refused  by  the  High-  Joachim  with  the  Shepherds, 

priest.  Text. — "  ....  peperit  Anna  .  .  .  ." 

Text. — "Angelusin  .  .  .  ."  (Spurious  Gospel,  c.  ii.) 

(See  Spurious   Gospel  of  St.  Matthew, 
or  Birth  of  Mary,  c.  i.) 

Joachim  and  Anna  at  the  Golden  Gate.  Birth  of  the  Virgin  Mary. 

Text. — "  Angelus  in  ....  ens  tie  .  .  .  Text. — ".  .  .  .  peperit  Anna  Mariam 

ut  .  .  .  .  decern."  benedictam." 

(Spurious  Gospel,  c.  iii.)  (Spurious  Gospel,  c.  iv.) 

No.  II. 

Type.  Type. 

Tobifs  Offering  to  the  Temple.1  Tobias'  Marriage. 

Text. — "  Mensa  aurea    oblata    est    in  Text. — "  Hie  Sara  desponsat  Tobie." 

templo."  (No  reference.) 

(No  reference.) 

Antitype.  Antitype. 

Mary  presented  at  the  Temple.  Marriage  of  Joseph  and  Mary. 

Text. — "  Maria  Domino  oblata  est  in  Text. — "  Hie   virgo    Maria    desponsat 

templo."  Josep." 

(See  Spurious  Gospel.)  (Spurious   Gospel  :    Joseph   holds  the 

Budding  Rod.)  ■ 

9  So  the  windows  of  Lambeth  chapel,  has  a  fishing-net  on  his  shoulder.     This 

in  Laud's  time  are  described,  and  a  win-  identifies  the  subject,  but   the  connection 

dow  of  twenty-one   lights,  at  Hengrave,  between  the  golden  table  and  the   Virgin 

Suffolk.  Mary  is  beyond  my  comprehension. 

1  Besides  Tobit's   dog,    the  young  man 


[62 


KINGS   COLLEGE   CHAPEL   WINDOWS, 


No.  III. 


Type. 
Temptation  of  Eve, 
Text — "pneeepil  nobia  Dens  ne  ootn- 

mederemusetne  tan^-remus  illuJ  ne  forte 
moriamur." — Gen.  iii.  (3). 

Am  ni'K. 
.1  nnwnciaiion. 
I    Kl      •'  Mil  :     Betbleem,   terra    Juda, 
ii"ii  erifl  minima  in(ter)  princip(es)   .   .   ." 

ferenoe  gone;   probably  to   Matt. 
ii.  6.) 

No. 
Type. 
/    •  'tution  of  Oir 

Text. — ** Vocavitque  Abraham  nomen 
tilii  sui  '|ii<-in  genuit  ei  Sara,  Isaac,  et  cir- 
ctuncidet  earn  octavo  die." — Gen.  xxi. 
(3,4). 

Antitype. 
- 
Text-  -"  Et  pustquam  consummati  sunt 
dies  octo,  ut  circumcideretor  paer,  voca- 
tum    est    nomeu    ejus    Jesus." — Luke    ii. 
(21). 

No. 

Typb. 

/''•-'  I!  tin  Law. 

-"  Sanciitica  mihi  omne  progeni- 
turn  quod  aperit  vulvam  in  tiliis  Isra  l.M 
I  i    xiii.  (2). 

!  I  PB. 

/■  Virgin  Maty. 

T<  Kt "  Adduxerunt  ilium  Hierosoly- 

ma  ut  aiaterenl  emu  domino  :  sicut  acrip- 
t  in  ii  e-t  in  1'  _'•  Domini."—  Luke  ii.  ('JJ, 
23). 


Type. 
The  Burning  Buth. 
T.xt.  —  "  Apparuicque  ei   Dominua  in 

tlamma  ignis  de  medio  rubi  :  et  videbat 
qd.  rubua  arderet  et  iioti  eombureretur." 
Ex.  iii.  (2). 

Antitype. 
Birth  of  Jesus  Christ. 
Text. — "  Cum  aatem  natus  esset  Jesus 
in  Betbleem  trivitate  Jndesa." — Matt.  ii. 

IV. 

Type. 
Queen  of  Sheba. 

Text. — "  Dedit  ergoregi  centum  viginta 
talenta  auri.  et  aromata  multa  nimis,  et 
gemmas  pretiosas." — (2  (liron.  ix.  9.) 

Antitype. 
Tin   Wise  Men's  Offerings. 

Text  -  ■"  Apcrtis    thesauri*    suis    olitu- 

lerunt  illi  monera  annuo,  thus,  et  myrr. 
h.-iin."  -  Matt.  ii.  (,U). 


Type. 
Jacob  flying  from  Esau. 
Text. — "  Kcee  Esau  Crater  tuns  minatur 
ut  occidat  te." — Gen.  xxvii  (42). 

Ami  n  i'K. 
Flight  into  Egypt. 
Text. — "  Surge,  el  accipite  puerom  et 

matrem  illius,  et  rage  in  /Egyptum,  el  eato 
illic  donee  dixero  tibi." — Matt.  ii.  (1.1). 


tfo.    \  I. 


Typb. 

i/  Law. 

Text  "  [rataeque  valde  projecil  de 
mana   tabula*  el  eoofi  Ex. 

xxxiL  ( 1 B). 

i  vim:. 

Tin  i    ■         i  rypt  fatting 

.' 
Text     "  (Onua  jEgypti  ecce   Dominna 

I  •  f      null    hi  i     lei  'in    'I    in    i  ■ 

.le  tin- 1 .1  .:■>  I'liitn  el  amovebontur  ai- 

mulacra  - 1  - _' v  | •  t i  a  facie  ejoa)."     Is.  nix. 


Type. 

./  Atkaliah, 

'I'.  \i   illegible.     (This  correspondence 
ocean  in  the  Biblia  Pauperum.) 

Am  i  n  PK. 

//.  od'i  Ma    v  ■  oj  fin  /nun,; ntt. 

Text.     "  El  missis  Batellitibua  interfeetl 
omnea  pueroa  <|ui  eranl   in  Betbleem.*1 
.Mm.  ii.  (16). 


N...    \  II 


Trpi 


\'  Jordan, 

n  i.  |  i  o  H     i  |'ii'  ■  la i  il 

.le-  ,    .    ,    et    liilllldalu       ■     I 

i  I). 


Ttpb. 

'-  mptcd  t"  Bell  kit  BirthriglU. 
Text    "  Aii   Jacob,  Jura  i  rgo    mlhi. 

.1  in  n  ii  .i  l .  in,  al  vin'li'lit  primogi  uita. ' 
•  ;■  n.  i  w.  ( 88). 


KINGS    COLLEGE    CHAPEL    WINDOWS. 


163 


Antitype. 

T/ie  Baptism  of  Christ. 

'JLYxt. — "  Baptizatus  autem  Jesus,  con- 
fcstim  ascendit  do  aqua,  et  ecce  aperti  sunt 
ei  coeli,  et  vidit  spiritual  Dei." — Matt.  iii. 
(16). 

No. 

Type. 

The  Triumph  of  David. 

Text. — "(Assumens  autem)  David  ca- 
put Philistinum  attulit  illud  in  Jerusalem." 
—  1  Sam.  xvii.  (54). 

Antitype. 
Christ's  Entry  into  Jerusalem. 
Text. — "  Ecce   Rex   tuus  venit  sedens 
super  pulluni  asinse." — John  xii.  (15). 


Antitype. 

The  Temptation  of  Christ. 

Text. — "  Et  accedens  tentator  dixit  ei, 
Si  filius  Dei  es  die  ut  lapidus  isti  panes 
riant."— Matt.  iv.  (13). 

VIII. 

Type. 

Elisha  Raising  the  Shun'amite's  Son. 

Text. — "  Tolle  filium  tuum.  Venit  ilia 
et  corruit  ad  pedes,  et  adoravit  super  ter- 
rain."— 4  Kings  iv.  (36). 

Antitype. 

Lazarus  Raised  from  the  Dead. 

Text. — "  Lazare,  veui  foras  !  Et  pro- 
didit  qui  fuerat  mortuus."  —  John  xi. 
(43). 


No.  IX. 


Typk. 
The  Manna. 

Text. — "  Panem  de  coclo  prsestitis  eis." 
Wisdom  xvi.  (20). 

Antitype. 

The  Last  St/j>/>t  r. 

Text. — "  Desiderio  desideravi  hoc  pas- 
cha  comedere  vobiscum  antequam  patiar." 
— Luke  xxii.  (15). 


Type. 
Cain  killing  Abel. 

Text.  —  "  Consurrexit    Cain    adversus 
fratrem  suum  Abel." — Gen.  iv.  (8). 

Antitype. 
Judas  Betraying  Christ. 

Text "  Dixit  ave    Rabbi,   et   occula- 

tus  est  eum." — Matt.  xxvi.  (49). 


Type. 

Jeremiah  Imprisoned. 

Text. — "  I  rati  principes  contra  Jere- 
miam  (csesum)  eummiseruntincarcerem." 
— Jerem.  xxxvii.  (15). 

Antitype. 

Christ  before  Cuiaphas. 

Text. — "  Si  malo  locutus  sum  (testimo- 
nium) perhibe  de  malo." — John  xviii. 
(23). 


Type. 

The  Fall  of  the  Rebel  Angels. 
Text. — "  Si  ceciderint  in  terram  a  semi- 
tipsis  uon  consurgent." — Baruch  vi.  (26). 

Antitype. 

The  Garden  of  Gellusemane  and  the 
Ministering  Angel. 

Text. — "  Pater,  si  vis  transfer  poculum 
hoc  a  me." — Luke  xxii.  (42). 


No.  X. 


Type. 

Shimei  Cursing  David. 
Text. — "  Egredere,  egredere,  vir   san- 
guinum,  et  vir  Belial." — 2  Sam.  xvi.  (7). 

Antitype. 
Christ  Mocked  by  the  Soldkrs. 
Text. — "Velaverunt    eum  et   percutie- 
bant  faciam  ejus." — Luke  xxii.  (64). 


No.  XI. 


Type. 

Noah  Drunken  and  Naked. 

Text. — "  Bibensque  vinum  inebriatus 
est  et  nudatus  (in  tabernaculo  suo)." — 
Gen.  ix.  (21). 

Antitype. 
Christ  Stripped  before  Herod. 
Text. — "  Vse  qui  dicitis  malum  bonum, 
et  bonum  malum." — Is.  v.  (20). 


No.  XII. 


Type. 

Job  Vexed  by  Satan. 

Text. — "  Dominus  dedit,  Dominus  abs- 
tulit  ;  sit  noruen  Domini  benedictum." — 
Job  i.  (21). 

Antitype. 
Christ  Scourged, 

Text. — "  Tunc  ergo  reprehendit  Pilatus 
Jesam  et  flagellavit." — John  xix.  (1). 


Type. 
Solomon  Crowned. 

Text. — "  Egredimini  et  videte,  filije 
Zion  regem  Salomonem." — Cant.  iii.  (11). 

Antitype. 

Christ  Crowned  with  Thorn*. 

Text. — "  Et  niilites  plectentes  coronam 
de  spinis  imposuerunt  capiti  ejus." — John 
xix.  (2). 


iiw 


kino's  college  chapel  windows. 


No.  XI11. 

The  Great  East  Window  contains  six  pictures  relating  to  the  Crucifixion,  without 
correspondencee.  Recommencing  at  the  south-east  corner  and  counting  westward,  we 
have  : — 

No.  XIV. 
Type.  (Some  modern  glass.) 

Naomi  and  her  Daughters. 
Text.—"  Ne  vocetia  me  Naomi." 


AirriTTPB. 
Christ  7)<  wailed. 

Ti  xt  — "  Qnin  el  tuum  ipsius  animani 
peuetrabit  yladius." — Luke  ii.  (35). 

No. 
Type. 
Josiph  in  the  Pit. 

Text — "Et  mittamus  eum  in  cisternam 
m    quae    est   in   solitudiue." — Gen. 
xxxvii.  (22). 

Antitype. 
i  |  laid  in  'In  Tomb. 
Text— "Posuit    Qlod    in   monumento 
suo  novo." — Matt,  xxvii.  (GO). 

No. 
Type. 
Jonalt  and  the  Whale. 
Text — ''  Evumuit  Jonain  in  aridam." — 

Jon  ii.  (11). 

Antityti:. 
Tin   I-  of  t 'liri.it. 

Text — "  Hevolvit  lapidem  et  Bedebal 
super  eum." — Matt,  xxviii.  ("2). 

No. 
Typk. 

/  ,1     tin      I'll. 

Text. — "  Reversuaque  Reuben  ad  cia- 
ternam  oon  invanil  puerum." — Gen. 
xxxvii.  (29). 

Avim  i  i 

The  Women  at  tht  Sepulchre. 
Text     '•  l-t    rald<    mane  a  primo  die 
(Sabbatorum)  reniunl   ad  monumentnm, 

oli ."     M.,1-1.  wi.  < 2). 

\., 

T;  ii. 

Tin  .1  ngtl  appears  to  Habh  < 
'I .  ..t     "  Argi  ii  i  mil  it  anram  oon  i   I 
iiiiln,  qd,  autern  baboo  boo  tibi do.*' — Aetn 

(Tbia  text  ia  a  repetition  <>i  No.  xxi) 

i  ii  . 

CI,,  j  I     In      tin       tlWO      I ' 

I 

•  \  ii  i    Judei   'i    '|ih   habitati 
.is mm  mm  ■  i  i,  hoc  i  obi  i  notum 
bit "     An    n   (14), 

|..  tltion  "i  So  xxi.) 


XV. 

Type. 
The  Exodus. 

Text  —  "  Eduxit  Israel  per  turmas 
suas." — Ex.  xii.  (51). 

Antitype. 
Tin  Harrowing  of  Hell. 
Text. — "  Advenit  te    liberai'e  Salvator 
muml(i   angnst  .  .  .  ." 

(See  Spurious  Gospel  of  Nicodemus.) 

XVI. 

Typk. 
Tobias  returning  to  his  Mother. 
Text. — •'  El    illii-o  agnovit   renientem 

lilium  suum." — Tobit  xi.  {0). 

A  Nil  TYPK. 

C7iri.-<i  appearing  to  his  Mother. 
Text. — "Salve,  parens, enixa  es  puer- 
pera  regem  <|ui  coslum  terramque  regit" 

(No  reference  :  see  Golden  Legend.) 

XVII? 

Tim:. 

Daniel  in  th  Lions'  /'<«  addressed  by 

l>n    IUS. 

Text — '•  \  '  nil    au|.  in    rex 

Ii.iin.ii-,  Daniele!1' — Dan.  vi  (80). 

Antittps, 

<  'hri.it  app  aring  to  Mary  MagdaiU  »- . 

Text-  "lla'c  cum  dixiaset,  convene, 
eetretrorsum  >i  ridit  Jeaum  atantem." — 
John  x\.  (l-l). 

Will. 

■\\v\ 

Habbacuc  feeds  Daniel. 

i .  xi.— "  Kt  illi  quidam  ibanl  gaudentea 

■  conapectn  i ailii."     Acta  \.  (4  l). 

(Tins  tr.xt  it<  a  repetition  <>t  No.  xxi.) 

Am  i  n  ii  . 

Christ  breaking  bread  at  Emmavi. 
T<  Kt    "  Quid    utique    convenM    robl 
tentare  apiritum  Domini."     Acta  r,  (.'')• 
(Text  belonga  t"  No.  nxi.) 


KINGS   COLLEGE   CHAPEL   WINDOWS. 


1G5 


No.  XIX. 


Type. 

Joseph  meeting  Jacob. 

Text. — "  Dixit  Jacob  ad  Joseph  :  jam 
laetus  moriar  quia  vidi  i'aciem  tuam." — 
Gen.  xlvi.  (.'30). 

Antitype. 

Christ  appearing  to  the  Desciples. 

Text. — "  Pax  vobis,  et  cum  hsec  dix- 
isset,  osteudit  eis  mauus  et  latus." — John 
xx.  (29). 


Type. 
The  Prodigal  Son. 

Text. — "Pater,  peccavi  in  coelum  et 
coram  te." — Luke  xv.  (21.) 

Antitype. 

The  Unbelieving  Thomas. 

Text.  —  "  Pax  vobis  ;  deinde  dixit 
Thomas,  infer  digitum  tuum  hue  et  vide 
manus  nieas." — John  xx.  (27). 


No.  XX. 


Type. 
Elijah's  Ascent  to  Heaven. 
Text — "  Cumque     transissent,    Helias 
dixit  ad  Eliseum." — 4  Kings  ii.  (9). 

Antitype. 
Christ's  Ascension. 

Text. — "  Qui  est  iste  qui  venit  de  Edom 
tinctis  vestibus." — Is.  lxiii.  (1). 


Type. 

The  Law  given  to  Moses. 

Text. — "  Videns  autem  populus  quod 
moram  faceret  descendi  de  monte  Moses." 
— Ex.  xxxii.  (1). 

Antitype. 
Tlie  Holy  Spirit  given  to  the  Apostles. 
Text. — "Spiritus    Domini  replevit  or- 
bem  terrarum." — Wisdom  i.  (7). 


No.  XXI. 


Peter  and  John  heal  the  Lame  Man. 

Text. — "  Advenientes  autem  principes 
sacerdotum  et  omnes  qui  cum  eo  erant 
convocaverunt  consilium." — Acts  v.  (21). 

(This  text  is  misplaced.) 

The  Crowd  following  Peter  into  the 
Temple. 

Text. — "  Viri  Judei  et  qui  habitatis 
Hierosalvmis  universi  hoc  vobis  notum 
sit." — Acts  ii.  (14). 


Imprisonment  and  Scourging  of  Peter 
and  John. 

Text. — "  Et  dimiserunt  eos,  et  illi  qui- 
dem  ibant  gaudentes  a  conspectu  con- 
silii."— Acts  v.  (41). 

Death  of  Ananias. 

Text. — "  Petrus  autem  dixit,  argentum 
et  aurum  non  est  mihi,  quod  autem  habeo, 
tibi  do." — Acts  iii.  (C). 

(This  text  misplaced). 


No.  XXII. 


Conversion  of  St.  Paul. 

Text. — "  Et  subito  circumfulsiteumlux 
de  coelo  et  cadens  in  terram." — Acts  ix. 
(3,  4). 

St.  Paid  and  Barnabas  at  Lystra. 

Text. — "(Sacerdos  quoque  Jovis  qui 
erat  ante  civitatem)  illorum  tauros  et  co- 
ronas ad  vestibula  afferens  cum  turbis 
volebat  (sacrificare)." — Acts  xiv.  (12). 


St.  Paul  disputing  with  the  Jews  at 
Damascus. 

Text. — "  (Fuit  autem)  Saulus  cum  dis- 
cipulis  qui  erant  Damasci  per  dies  ali- 
quot."— Acts  ix.  (19). 

The  Apostles  assaidted  at  Iconium. 

Text. — "  Supervenerunt  autem  quidam 

ab  Antiochia  et  Iconio  Judei " — 

Acts  xiv.  (19). 


No.  XXIII. 


St.  Paul  casting  out  the  Spirit  of  Divi- 
nation. 

Text. — "  Prsecipio  tibi  in  nomen  Jesu 
Christi  exire  (ab)  ea." — Acts  xvi.  (18). 

St.  Paul  parting  from  his  Friends. 

Text  —  "  Cum  soluissimus  igitur  a 
Troade  recto  cursu  venimus  Samothra- 
cen." — Acts.  xvi.  (11). , 

(This  is  obviously  a  mistake  for  Acts 
xxi.  1). 


St.  Paul  arraigned. 

Text. — "  Et  apprehendentes  Paulum 
trahebant  eum  extra  templum." — Acts 
xxi.  (30). 

St.  Paul  before  Felix  or  Nero. 

Text. — "  Permissum  est  Paulo  manere 
sibimet  cum  custodiente  se  milite." — 
Acts  xxviii.  (16). 


I  have  now  only  to  mention  the  arrangement  of  the  last  two 
windows,  that  is,  the  westernmost  on  the  south  side.    These, 


VOL.  XII. 


166  KINGS   COLLEGE   CHAPEL   WINDOWS. 

containing  the  conclusion  of  the  Virgin  Mary's  history,  have 
sustained  irreparable  injury,  and  arc  only  intelligible  after 
much  patient  study.  They  represent  "the  death  of  Mary," 
typified  above  by  "  the  death  of  Tobit."  The  correspondence 
lies  in  this:  thai  when  Tobit  and  Mary  were  dying  each  of 
them  sent  for  their  sons.  Hence  both  legends  begin  with 
words  taken  from  the  last  chapter  of  the  book  of  Tobit  :  "  In 
bora  mortis  vocavit  filium  s^uln).',  In  the  upper  picture  is 
Been  the  young  Tobias  with  the  Angel  by  his  side  ;  and  in 
the  lower,  our  Lord  (with  the  labarum,  or  resnrrection- 
Btandard  in  his  hand)  at  the  foot  of  his  mother's  bed. 

Then  follows  in  order,  Mary's  burial  :  this  is  typified 
above  by  "the  burial  of  Jacob,"  with  the  legend:  uJosep 
tribus  sepeliunt  Jacob."  The  point  of  correspondence  lure 
must  be,  that  (according  to  the  spurious  gospel)  Mary, 
like  Jacob,  gave  commandment  concerning  her  burial. 
On  tliis  occasion  a  disturbance  with  the  Pagan  soldiery  is 
said  to  have  taken  place,  all  of  which  is  faithfully  depicted 
on  the  glass. 

The  last  window  contains,  on  the  left  hand,  "the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin."  typified  by  ki  the  apotheosis  of 
an  unknown  saint"  with  a  conspicuous  pouch  by  his  side.8 
On  the  right  is  "the  Coronation  of  Mary,"  typified  by  the 
subject  of  Solomon  placing  Bathsheba  on  a  throne  at  his 
Bide."  The  proximity  of  the  small  stone  image  of  the  Virgin 
in  tin'  rose  to  this  window  will  now  be  understood. 

1  have  dwelt  a  little  upon  these  two  windows,  because  the 
guide-book  does  not  name  them  ;  indeed  1  believe  this  is 
the  firei  time  that  either  they  or  the  first  window,  or  any 
iif  the  texts  given  above,  have  been  described. 

THE  MESSENGERS. 

Another  pari  of  the  general  arrangemenl  worthy  of  note 
is  the  system  of  "  messengers  "  as  they  are  called  in  the 
central  lights  of  all  the  side  windows,  ranged  one  ever  the 
other.  Of  these  there  are  four  to  each  win. lew  (ninety-four 
altogether  in  the  chapel)  holding  Bcrolls  with  the  texts  of 
scripture  to  explain  the  Bubjecl  of  the  pictures. 

A   similar  arrangemenl   occurs   in  the  Meek  I ks  and 

to  ri.nj.-i-       with  Saint    Wary.     U  an  Old  Testament 
ton  that  it  '    Nicholas,  to  whom        ubject,  might  it  toot  be  thi  Translation  ol 

tl,.-  .  ted  in  eon  junction       Enoch  ' 


king's  college  chapel  windows.  107 

illuminations  of  the  period,  and  in  many  collections  of 
glass. 

We  have  already  seen  that  this  was  the  case  with  the 
windows  of  Henry  VII.'s  chapel,  Westminster.  In  Fairford 
church  the  prophets  face  the  apostles,  and  whilst  the  latter 
recite  the  Apostles'  Creed  amongst  them,  the  former  exhibit 
prophecies  relating  to  the  last  judgment.  Even  Norman  and 
Early  English  glass  have  traces  of  this  explanatory  method. 

The  messengers  of  Kino's  consist  of  two  classes,  the  one 
venerable  figures  like  prophets,  the  other  angels,  with  or 
without  the  nimbus. 

This  distinction  I  imagine  was  only  made  for  the  sake  of 
variety  ;  for  they  follow  no  order,  but  illustrate  indiscrimi- 
nately an  Old  or  New  Testament  subject,  always  observing, 
however,  that  two  of  each  sort  are  attached  to  a  window. 
To  this  seeming  disorder  there  is  but  one  exception,  viz.,  in 
the  windows  illustrating  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles,  where  six 
figures  of  St.  Luke  (with  the  bull  at  his  feet)  carry  his  own 
texts ;  but  even  they  share  this  honour  with  as  many 
angels. 

The  demi-figures  with  wings  are  usually  called  St.  Michael ; 
and  the  prophet  Ezekiel  may  perhaps  be  distinguished  by 
his  dress.  But  it  is  plain  that  all  symbolism,  whether  of 
colour  or  form,  wTas  by  this  time  held  with  a  very  loose 
hand. 

the  texts. 

The  texts  or  legends  are  written  in  large  Gothic  cha- 
racters, with  the  usual  abbreviations,  and  sometimes  having 
Lombardic  capitals.  The  book  and  chapter  are  invariably 
marked  according  to  the  custom  of  the  day. 

The  Old  Testament  quotations  generally  agree  with  the 
Vulgate,  or  with  some  of  the  scarcely  dissimilar  varieties  of 
Jerome.  But  not  so  the  quotations  from  the  New  Testa- 
ment, which  vary  very  much  from  any  version  (I  have 
compared  seven  or  eight)  except  that  of  Erasmus,  especially 
his  second  edition,  1519.  This  coincidence  taken  in  con- 
nection with  the  fact  that  Erasmus  had  not  left  Cambridge 
when  our  windows  were  begun,  would  favour  the  idea  that 
the  great  reviver  of  learning  as  well  as  of  morals  has  had  a 
hand  in  these  inscriptions.  Such  a  thing  would  not  be 
beneath  him,  professor  though  he  was  ;  for  we  find  him  in 
the  year  I.")!.')   receiving  twenty  shillings  for  drawing  up  an 


L68  king's  college  chapel  windows. 

epitaph  for  Margaret  of  Richmond's  tomb  in  Westminster 

Abbey. 

THEIR  VALUE  AS  WORKS  OF  ART. 

But,  besides  being  curiously  and  historically  interesting, 
these  windows  are  truly  invaluable  as  works  of  art.  They 
other  altogether  the  best  and  almost  only  examples  of  an 
English  historical  school  of  painting.  As  marble  was  the 
material  of  Greece,  and  fresco  of  Italy,  so  glass  is  certainly 
the  material  and  Burface  upou  which  our  native  genius  has 
expended  itself.  Define  a  school  of  high  art  as  yon  may, 
what  is  there  in  this  kingdom,  we  ask,  in  point  of  scale,  of 
quantity,  or  of  merit  (and  that  under  considerable  disad- 
vantages), to  compare  with  the  collections  of  glass  in  our 
cathedrals  and  churches,  to  say  nothing  of  scattered  remnants 
and  of  demolished  glass.  Surely  nothing  formerly  done  in 
the  way  of  illuminations  or  woodcuts,  or  latterly  in  the  way 
of  oils,  can  claim  such  a  title  \  lint  here  (to  confine  our- 
selves to  this  single  specimen)  are  at  least  one  hundred 
gigantic  pictures,  retaining  much  of  their  original  vigour, 
and  executed  ai  (lie  iwi\al  of  art  in  Europe,  and  in  rivalry 
of  the  greai  [talian  school  itself. 

That  1  am  not  speaking  without  warrant,  hear  Vandyke's 
opinion  of  tin1  Fairford  glass,  tar  inferior  to  this  in  respect 
of  historic  merit :  "  He  often  affirmed  to  the  king  (Charles  I.) 

that    many  of   I  lie    figures   in    the  Fairford  windows  were  so 

exquisitely  done  thai  they  could  he  exceeded  by  no  pencil." ' 
Walpole  also  remarks  of  these  very  windows  of  King's 
chapel,  thai  "the  artists  who  executed  them  would  figure 
as  considerable  painters  in  .'my  reign,"  adding,  in  true  anti- 
quarian spirit,  ••and  what,  a  rarity,  in  a  collection  ol 
draw ingSj  would  be  one  of  their  vidimuses  !  " 

Bui  an  example  is  worth  a  thousand  recommendations. 
For  this  purpose  I  would  beg  to  poin!  oul  the  two  figures  on 
horseback,  one  in  profile,  the  other  a  three  quarter  face,  <-(>u- 
irersing  together  in  the  lower  righl  band  subject  of  the  greai 
easl    window.     Nothing  can  he  more  lull  of  expression  and 

individual  character  than  the  countenances,  or  i <•  easy  than 

i  he  composition  of  1  bese  figures.  And  here  let  me  explain  one 
ol  the  difficulties  which  our  glass  painters  had  to  contend  with 
in  making  their  designs.     Each  bay  or  light  i    divided  both 

Popo  [raplij  ol '  Houei   U  rahu  - 


KINGS   COLLEGE   CHAPEL    WINDOWS.  169 

vertically  and  horizontally  by  iron  bars  ;  that  is  to  say,  the 
cartoon,  ere  the  design  was  commenced,  had  to  be  marked  off 
like  a  gridiron  ;  and  then  every  head  and  hand  was  brought 
into  one  or  other  of  the  divisions  !  Sometimes,  in  older  glass, 
this  may  be  mentioned  as  an  apology  for  stiff  necks  and  other 
contortions  ;  but  here  it  is  only  another  matter  of  astonish- 
ment and  praise,  when  we  find  how  well  the  difficulty  has  been 
overcome.  And  does  not  this  peculiarity  of  conformation 
(together  with  the  necessarily  high  pitch  of  the  horizon  line  in 
all  old  glass  designs)  prove  their  originality, — another  point  of 
merit  in  any  work  of  art  I  4  "  The  Christ  "  likewise,  "  bearing 
his  cross,"  in  this  window,  has  a  fine  face,  quite  of  the 
Spanish  school. 

Another  example  of  the  historic  merit  of  King's  chapel 
windows  is  the  well-known  figure  of  Ananias,  in  the  window 
on  the  south  side  of  the  chapel  nearest  the  organ-loft.  The 
ghastliness  of  the  face  is  exceedingly  well  done,  and  will 
repay  an  examination  through  a  glass. 

Lastly,  as  a  piece  of  difficult,  but  most  graceful  design, 
observe  the  apotheosis  of  the  unknown  saint  in  the  last 
window  in  the  south-west  corner  in  the  upper  left-hand 
compartment. 

Upon  the  whole,  though  there  are  doubtless  many  inferior 
parts  and  a  considerable  amount  of  mutilation  and  displace- 
ment, and  some  still  later  damage,  yet  these  windows  must 
ever  be  acknowledged  to  offer  a  truly  wonderful  collection  of 
designs  and  details,  worthy  of  a  high  place  (yea,  I  submit, 
in  the  absence  of  anything  more  worthy,  of  the  highest 
place)  in  our  kingdom  of  historical  art. 

The  men  who  painted  them  were  not  mere  vitrifiers  or 
glaziers,  but  artists  in  a  high  sense  of  the  term. 

Refreshed  from  the  fountains  which  Michael  Angelo  and 
Raffaelle  had  just  opened  to  the  world,  they  approached 
their  material  with  no  mean  ideas  or  trembling  hands  ; 
their  arms  seem  to  have  forgotten  the  trammels  of  lead  and 
of  arming,  and  to  have  swept  over  the  glass  with  grand  and 
flowing  lines,  that  can  scarcely  be  outdone,  and  every  bold  con- 
trast  of  colour  and  composition.  To  brilliant  lights  and  colours, 
such  as  no  other  kind  of  painting  can  approach  to,  they  have 
added  a  manly  vigour  of  conception  that  never  seems  to  flag. 

1  I  should  add  hen-,  that  this  "  a  No  plagiarism  but  that  of  subject  and 
priori"  supposition  is  rally  sustained  by  conventional  treatment  can  be  brought 
an  examination  of  the  windows  before  us.      against  them. 


i:n  king's  collbge  chapel  windows. 

Observe,  too,  how  well  they  tell  a  story  !  In  choosing  a 
subject,  instead  of  invading  the  province  of  poetry  or  of  the 
histrionic  art  (the  vice  of  modern  painters)  they  seize  upon 
some  stirring  incident,  like  that  of  the  Hampton  Court 
cartoons  ;  and  then  narrate  it  to  the  eye  both  simply  and 
earnestly,  and  (conventionalisms  apart )  \\  Lib  astonishing  truth 
to  nature.     This  shows  power  of  mind  as  well  as  of  hand. 

But  I  hasten  to  offer  a  few  remarks  upon  the  manufacture 
of  these  windows. 

The  ironwork — or  arming — is  very  heavy,  a  •'defence,'' 
as  the  contracts  need  scarcely  tell  us,  "against  great  winds 
and  outrageous  weatherings."  Besides  the  vertical  bars  on 
the  outside,  there  are  saddle-bars  within,  seven  inches  apart, 
one  being  missed  or  bent  occasionally,  to  avoid  cutting  a  face 
or  any  material  part  of  a  figure.  It  is  a  question,  whether 
we  attend  enough  to  the  arming  of  our  windows  now-a-days. 
Tunc  only  can  prove  ;  but  certain  it  is,  that  this  cobweb  of 
iron  bars — some  of  them  an  inch  square — have  only  just 
sufficed  to  preserve  their  charge  for  three  centuries.5 

The  glass  itself  is  all  perfectly  transparent,  except  where 
it  is  shaded,  and  even  the  shadows  are  stipple-shaded,  that 
is,  made  as  diaphanous  as  possible.  In  this  respect  the 
windows  under  review  agree  with  all  old  glass.  It  remained 
for  later  times  to  think  of  obscuring  glass  with  enamels  or 
dirt.  Our  modern  obscurists  would  do  well,  I  think,  to  bear. 
in  mind  that  the  contractors  for  these  windows  were  espe- 
cially bound  to  supply  "clean  "  glass. 

The  specific   tint   is  slightly  warm  or  golden,  being   indeed 

only  the  white  glass  of  the  day,  as  may  still  be  seen  in  old 
cottages.  I'-ut  it  is  observable  thai  this  tint  or  basis  under- 
and  affects  all  the  colours,  as  well  as  the  white  glass, 
Bubduing  the  blue,  for  instance,  and  enriching  the  ruby, 
Here  is  an  Important  hint,  I  imagine,  on  the  general 
harmony  of  any  window  which  may  hope  to  vie  with  old 
glass.  The  cathedral  tinl  a&  the  manufacturers  term  i< 
oughl  to  pervade  all  I  he  colours. 

Some  very  successful  attempts  have  been  made  lately  to 
prepare  r;iw  glass  in  this  way.  But  for  myself  (if  I  m;i\  be 
allowed  to  offer  an  opinion)  I  believe  we  shall  eventually  come 
to  tli  of  commerce     the  glass  of  the  day.     We  ought, 

i       racomn Ird      answer  very  wbII  on   ••'    m«JI  scalo,  but 

on  ili<-  nut        could  Imi.lU  l..  tpplii  'l  to  i  ucli  i  building 
tide,  in  1 1 •  u  "i    ••  ;iriiiin  •  l  in.i  umy      m  that  befori 


king's  college  chapel  windows.  171 

indeed,  only  to  be  too  thankful  that  it  is  so  pure  and  good  as 
it  is  ;  and  I  feel  persuaded  that  we  shall  be  doing  better  by 
giving  attention  to  the  essential  principles  of  the  art,  than  to 
the  recovery  of  this  or  that  tint,  which  our  ancestors  were 
constantly  changing,  and  always — it  appears  to  me — with  the 
hope  and  determination  of  getting  rid  of  it  altogether. 

The  flesh  in  King's  chapel  windows  is  stained  with  iron,6 
which  allows  of  its  being  transparent  also,  another  point  not 
to  be  overlooked  in  pictorial  glass-work  ;  for  it  is  plain  that 
the  flesh,  constituting,  as  it  does,  the  prominent  parts  of  the 
picture,  is  a  sort  of  key-note  to  the  whole  :  if  this  is  dulled 
with  enamels  of  any  kind,  the  entire  window  has  to  be  dulled 
too.  Thus  the  glass  is  shorn  of  its  glory,  its  brightness,  its 
first  essential  property,  without  which  it  is  turned  into  a 
mere  transparency  or  blind,  quite  out  of  place  in  a  window 
made  on  purpose  for  the  admission  of  light. 

The  colours  used  in  this  chapel  are  very  varied  ;  several 
shades,  particularly  of  purple  and  green,  producing  delightful 
associations  with  the  more  positive  colours. 

The  colour,  moreover,  varies  in  depth  on  the  same  piece 
of  glass.  Many  effects  of  sky,  foliage,  and  drapery,  are  thus 
skilfully  imitated.  This  difference  of  shade,  in  the  present 
instance,  depends,  I  observe,  upon  the  thickness  of  the  glass. 
But  I  believe  the  great  charm  of  these  windows  lies  in  their 
restricted  and  careful  use  of  colour ;  quite  three-fourths,  in 
some  cases  seven-eighths  of  the  whole  surface,  being  white 
glass,  or  white  glass  shaded.  This  reservation  gives  intense 
value,  by  contrast,  to  the  colours  employed,  greatly  reducing 
their  gaudiness,  and  enhancing  their  depth. 

And  then  the  colour  that  is  used  is  collected  into  nose- 
gays, as  it  were,  and  not  spotted  or  diluted  by  being  spread 
over  the  picture.  This  is  bold  treatment,  no  doubt,  but  it  is 
very  successful  here,  particularly  in  the  three  windows  on  the 
north  side  of  the  chapel,  illustrating  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles  ; 
and,  I  doubt  not,  would  be  with  us  also,  if  we  could  induce 
our  artists,  or  rather  their  patrons,  once  to  reflect  that  there 
may  be  too  much  of  a  good  thing. 

r'  I  was  fortunate  enough,  three  or  four  with  a  flux  of  any  sort     I  may,  perhaps, 

years  ago,  after  a  number  <>f  experiments,  be  allowed  to  say,  that  Mr.  Winston  fully 

to  succeed  in  recovering  the  cin<[ue-cento  approves  of  it. 
flesh  stain.     Its  value  lies  in  dispensing 


17:2  KINGS    COLLEGE    CHAPEL   WINDOWS. 

It  is  a  curious  fact,  in  the  history  of  painted  glass  in  tin's 
country,  that,  from  first  to  last,  there  lias  been  a  growing 
tendency  to  reduce  the  quantity  of  colour.  It  may,  perhaps, 
I"'  explained  thus: — the  art  was  imported  (say  during  the 
sixth  in-  Beventh  centuries)  from  southern  countries,  whence 
it  came  glowing  with  colour  suited  to  the  richness  of  those 
skies,  and  necessary  to  obscure  some  of  their  light. 

Hut  this  exuberance  was  soon  found  inappropriate  ami 
inconvenient  here  ;  hence  arose,  in  the  first  place,  the  white 
pattern  windows  of  our  various  styles,  and  then  the  gradual 
but  genera]  preponderance  of  white  glass  over  colour,  which 
we  speak  of. 

I  had  -nine  more  remarks  to  make  on  the  manipulation  of 
these  windows  ;  but,  as  they  are  purely  technical,  they  may 
be  spared  in  a  paper  of  this  sort. 

Such  are  a  few  of  the  ideas  naturally  suggested  to  the 
student  of  King's  chapel  windows  ;  and  nothing  shows,  I 
think,  more  clearly  the  intimate  and  interesting  connection 
there  is  between  archaeological  reviews  and  our  future  pro- 
gress in  art. 

Here  is  an  art,  the  art  of  glass  painting,  which  must,  in 
the  nature  of  things,  ever  he  popular  in  this  country.  It  is. 
in  fact,  just  the  ornamented  state  of  a  material,  the  use  of 
which  i-  increasing  every  day  among  us. 

How  necessary,  then,  that  it  should  be  securely  grounded 
and  rightly  directed!  And  what  so  useful  for  this  purpose 
as  the  experience  of  the  past ;  those  first  principles  obtained 
from  a  survey  of  long   periods    together,  and  the  comparison 

of  various  Btylee  ! 

At  the  same  time,  we  see  the  lolly  of  going  back  to 

ancient    times,   when   circumstances    were    so    different,    and 

taking  thence,  in  too  Blavisb  a  manner,  our  model,  either  of 
architecture,  or  of  any  of  its  parts. 

Eternal  principle-  of  taste  of  course  there  are,  and  prin- 
ciples  based  upon  climate,  materials,  ami  habits,  equally 
binding;  hut  their  application  should  e\er  he  left  to  the 
independent  impulses  of  genius,  under  the  direction  of  pre- 
:-•  in  exigences,  ami  of  the  ever-shifting,  but.  no  doubt, 
.it  v  ,-oid  happy  effects  of  time  ami  providence.     For 

light    of   i  hi-    hind,  and  on  an  ;ir!  BO  easily  abused,  il    seemfl 

to  ii ie  we  cannot  he  too  thankful 

w    .1     BOLTON 


Original  Botttmcnts. 

AGREEMENT  BETWEEN  THE  DEAN  AND  CHAPTER  OF  ST. 
PAUL'S,  LONDON,  AND  WALTER  THE  ORGONER,  OF 
SOUTHWARK,  RELATING  TO  A  CLOCK  IN  ST.  PAUL'S 
CHURCH.    DATED  NOVEMBER  22,  1344. 

(COTTONIAN  CHARTER,  XXI.  24.) 

COMMUNICATED  BY  SIR  FREDERIC  MADDEN,  K.H. 

Ceste  endenture  tesmoigne,  qe  convenuz  est  parentre  le  Dean  et  le 
Cliapitre  de  leglise  de  Seint  Pool  de  Londres,  dune  part,  et  Wauter  Lorgoner 
de  Suthwerke,  dautre  part,  cestassaver,  qe  le  dit  Wauter  ferra  une  dyal  en 
lorloge  de  mesme  leglise,  od  rooss  '  et  totes  maneres  de  ustimentz  appar- 
tenantz  al  dit  Dyal,  et  au  tourner  del  Angel  par  amunt a  lorloge,  issint  qe 
le  dit  Orloge  soit  bon  et  covenable  et  profitable  a  monstrer  les  houres  de  jour 
et  de  nuyt  a  durer  sauntz  defaute,  et  en  cas  qe  defaute  soit  trove  apres  ces 
houres  en  le  dit  Orloge,  le  dit  Wauter  se  oblige  par  ceste  endenture  de  faire 
les  adresces  3  totefoiz,  quant  il  serra  garni  par  les  ministres  de  leglise.  Et 
pur  ceste  overaigne  bien  et  leument  parfaire  et  acomplir,  les  avantditz  Dean 
et  Chapitre  luy  ferront  payer  sis  livres  desterlinges,  cest  assaver,  au 
commencement  cessaunt  soutz,  et  quant  le  Dyal  serra  prest  de  mettre  sus, 
trent  souz,  et  a  la  parfesaunce  de  tote  lovereyne,  cest  assaver  a  la  quinzeme 
de  Paske  preschcin  a  venir  (interlined),  trent  soutz.  Et  le  dit  Wauter 
trovera  a  ses  coustages  ferre,  arresme,4  et  totes  manere  dautre  choses  a  la 
dit  overeyne  parfayre,  et  avera  de  vere  luy  les  veuz  ustimentz  qe  ne  volunt 5 
plus  servir.  Et  pur  cele  overeyne  faire  bien  et  leument  le  dit  Wauter  sei 
oblige  et  ses  heirs  et  ses  executours  et  touz  ces  biens.  Et  pur  seurte  de 
cele  overeyne  parfayre  bien  et  leument,  Nichole  Peautrer  de  Lodegate, 
Stephene  Peautrer  del  Cunditte,  Johanne  Barbir,  Sergeaunt  de  mesme 
leglise,  Thomas  Barneby,  archer  sur  le  Pount  de  Londres,  sount  devenuz  ses 
plegges,  et  soi  obligent  et  lour  heirs  et  lour  executours  et  touz  lour  biens, 
ou  qilz  soient  trovetz.  En  testmoignaunce  de  quele  chose  al  une  partie  de 
ceste  endenture  de  vers  le  dit  Wauter,  le  dit  Dean  et  le  Cliapitre  unt  mis  lour 
seals,  a  lautre  partie  de  vers  caus  lesse,  les  ditz  Wauter,  Nichole  et  Stepbene, 
Johan  et  Thomas  ount  mis  lour  seals.  Done  a  Loundres,  le  Samadi  le  jour 
de  Seint  Edmund  le  Roi  et  Martire,  Ian  du  regne  le  Roi  Edward  tierz  del 
conqueste  dyssuittime.     [22nd  Nov.,  1344.] 

The  present  deed  was  the  counterpart  remaining  with  the  Dean  and 
Chapter,  and  of  the  five  seals  originally  attached  to  it  only  two  remain,  and 
these  in  a  damaged  condition.  They  are  the  fourth  and  fifth  in  order,  and 
may  have  been  borrowed  by  the  parties  executing  the  indenture.     On  the 

1  i.  e .  Itoues,  wheels.  struire,  reparer.     Roquefort. 

I'ar-amont,  en  haut.     Roquefort.  '  Airain,  brass. 

3  Adrcscc,    repairs.     Adrenier,    recon-  '  For  vcdent, 

VOL.    XII.  A  A 


17  1  ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS. 

first  is  a  shield  bearing  the  letter  S,  through  which  is  a  cross  fitchee,  which 
risi  b  above  the  shield,  and  has  three  wavy  lines  proceeding  from  it,  like  a 
pennon.     Tart  of  the  seal  is  broken  off,  but  the  portion  of  the  legend  that 

remains,  read — s>u:l HAN  STRAVN6E.    On  the  second  seal  is  a  rude 

representation  of  the  Crucifixion,  with  the  legend  rjBSVS  n.\  z]akknv[s]. 

The  deed  is  indorsed  in  a  contemporary  hand,  Indentura  de  factum 
Orilogii.     In  transcribing  it,  the  contractions  have  been  written  at  length. 

In  connexion  with  the  early  history  of  clocks.  I  may  take  the  present 
OCCi  '•  0  few  other  particulars,  which  have  fallen  under  my  notice 

in  documents  preserved  at  the  British  Museum.  F.M. 

Add.  Charter,  4265. 

Jehan  de  Rfenelix,  master  of  the  works  to  the  Duke  of  Orleans,  certifies, 
that  Thinomas  Rogeret,  "coustcllier  et  ouvrier  de  forge,"  had  made  "  le 
Reloige6  de  Chasteauneuf,  cestassavoir,  les  mouvemens,  roes  et  roez,  et 
apparten'  au  dit  Reloige,  excepte  la  Cloiche,"  for  the  sum  of  3G  gold  crowns. 
Hat.  13  May,  1 

Add.  Charter,  4264. 

Pierre  le  Queux,  "  Orlaugeur,"  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  30  gold 
crowns,  at  18  solz  each,  from  Godeffroy  le  Fevre,  valet  of  the  chamber  of 
the  I  'like  of  Orleans,  "pour  la  vente  de  trois  Auloiges."  Dat.  22  Dec,  1396. 

Add.  Charter,  1397. 

Robert    Dorigny,  "fevre,"  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  9  livres  tournois 

"  pour  avoir  descendu  et  mis  par  membres   le  mouvement  de  l'Orloge  qui 

•  atoit  en  l'ostel  de  Mens,  le  Due  a  Asniere,  et  ycellui  conduit  et  fait  admener 

raiz  a  Villers  Costerct,"by  order  of  the  Duchess.  Dat.  7  Oct.,  1397. 

Add.  Charter,  4291, 

Jehan  Dalemaige,  "serrurier,"  of  Paris,  acknowledges  the  receipt  of  GG 
Bole  Paris,  from  the  receiver  of  the  finances  of  the  Duchess  of  Orleans,  "  pour 
un  mouvement  OU  petite  Orloge  achate  de  lui  pourmettre  en  la  chamhre  dc 
ma  dite  D  m  ••."     l».it.  9  Aug.,  1 101. 

J./,/.  Charter,  1  154. 

Jehan   Lie!, mire,  "  faiseur  d'Orloges,"  at   Paris,  acknowledges  the  receipt 
of  55  solz  tournois  from  the  receiver-general  of  the  Conte  d'Angoulesme, 
••  pour  deux  roes  et  antics  choses  par  lui  mises  pour  l'Orloge  de  mon  dit 
i  in-."     Dat.  L9  Dec.,  1  107. 

The  Agreement,  for  which  we  are  indebted  to  Sir  Frederic  Madden,  is 
the  only  evidence,  as  far  as  we  can  ascertain,  regarding  the  ancient  clock 
at  St.  i'aul's.  Dugdale.in  his  History  of  that  cathedral  church,  briefly 
mentions  the  dial  belonging  to  the  clock,  "  concerning  which  there  was  '-are 
;i  in  18  Bdw.  III.,  thai  it  should  be  made  with  all  splendor  that  might 
1,,  ;  which  wa  accordingly  performed,  having  the  image  of  an  Angell,  point- 
ing al  the  hour  both  of  the  day  and  night.  Ea  autog.  penes  Bliam  Ashmole. 
dale,  p.  22,  orig.  edit.  1658.  It  appears  probable  that  the  document 
referred  to  may  have  been  the  counterpart  of  that  now  in  the  Cottoman 
collection,  namely,  thai  winch  remained  in  the  hand  of  Walter  the  Orgoner. 
-  i  i  Madden  i  not  aware  thai  any  of  A  bmole'a  MSS.  came  into  the 
(  ottoman  collection,  and  ob  ervei  thai  the  charter  given  above  formed  part, 
probably,  of  Sir  Robert  Cotton's  library  in  the  time  of  Jamea  [..previous!] 
to  the  pei iod  w ben  I tugdale  wrote. 

It  may  be  concluded  that  there  bad  ezi  ted  a  elocl  in  St.  Paul'i 

I;,  |og<     i  -  Reli    Mini   additions  i"  Din 


ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS.  175 

time  previous  to  the  date  of  this  document,  since  Walter  was  permitted  to 
take  for  himself  the  old  works  (ustiments)  no  longer  serviceable.  We  are 
moreover  indebted  to  the  kindness  of  the  Ven.  Archdeacon  of  London  for 
an  extract  from  the  Compotus  Bracerii  of  St.  Paul's,  a.d.  1286,  in  which 
the  allowances  to  "  Bartholomeo  Orologiario  "  are  entered,  namely,  of 
bread,  at  the  rate  of  a  loaf  daily,  for  three-quarters  of  a  year  and  eight  days, 
281  panes.  "Item,  Bartholomeo  orolog',  post  adventum  Willclmi  Pikewell, 
23  bott."    (Botta,  butta,  Lagena,  Due.  a  liquid  measure,  probably  of  beer.) 

The  earliest  horologhim  of  which  we  have  any  account  in  this  country  is 
that  stated  to  have  been  constructed  in  1288,  16  Edw.  I.,  in  the  clock- 
house  near  Westminster  Hall  ;  it  was  memorable,  according  to  Seidell,  as 
having  been  the  result  of  a  fine  imposed  on  the  Chief  Justice,  Ralph  de 
Ilenghaui.  One  of  the  most  ancient  clocks  now  existing  in  England  is  that 
to  be  seen  in  Wells  Cathedral :  it  was  made  by  Peter  Lightfoot,  a  monk  of 
Glastonbury,  at  the  expense  of  Adam  de  Sodbury,  Abbot  of  that  house, 
1322-35.  It  was  removed  to  Wells  from  the  abbey  church  of  Glastonbury, 
at  the  suppression.  A  representation  of  this  remarkable  horloge  is  given 
in  Phelps'  Hist,  of  Somerset,  vol.  ii.  p.  66.  See  also  Warner's  Hist,  of 
Glastonbury,  pi.  ix.  Above  the  dial,  it  may  be  observed,  there  is  a  turret, 
round  which  four  mounted  knights  revolve,  when  set  in  motion  by  a  com- 
munication with  the  clock.  This  may  possibly  serve  to  explain  the  expression 
in  the  agreement  communicated  by  Sir  F.  Madden, — "  au  tourner  del 
Angel  par  aniunt  lorloge." 

Another  memorable  production  of  early  skill  in  clockmaking  was  the 
horloge  called  Albion,  in  St.  Alban's  Abbey  Church,  one  of  the  gifts  of 
Richard  de  Wallingford,  abbot,  1326-34.  Representations  of  the  abbot  and 
his  clock  may  be  seen  in  Cott.  MSS.  Claud.  E.  IV.  and  Nero,  D.  VII.  It 
seems  to  have  continued  to  go  as  late  as  the  time  of  Leland,  who  gives  an 
account  of  it  in  his  treatise  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  vol.  i.  p.  28. 7 

Mr.  Octavius  Morgan  suggests,  with  much  probability,  that  the  clock  at  St. 
Paul's,  for  which  Walter  the  Orgoner  constructed  "  une  dyal,"  may  have 
previously  been  one  which  struck  the  hours,  but  was  not  furnished  with  a 
face  ;  and  he  observes,  that  such  a  clock,  of  the  early  part  of  the  XVIth 
century,  is  now  at  Leeds  Castle,  Kent.  This  has  the  movement  and  striking 
part  complete,  but  no  dial-works  or  face.  We  may  here  express  the  hope, 
that  Mr.  Morgan  may  speedily  complete  for  publication  the  History  of 
Clock  and  Watchmaking,  from  the  earliest  times,  a  desideratum  in 
archaeological  literature  which  no  one  is  so  highly  qualified  to  supply. 

As  a  contribution  towards  the  materials  for  so  desirable  an  object,  the 
following  extracts  from  the  Sacrist's  Rolls,  preserved  amongst  the  archives 
of  the  Dean  and  Chapter  at  Norwich,  may  here  be  appended  to  the  valuable 
information  which  we  owe  to  the  kindness  of  Sir  F.  Madden.  The  earliest 
entry  which  has  been  noticed  in  the  Rolls  at  Norwich  is  in  1322. 

"  Horolog'. — In  uno  plate  de  mctallo  enipto  iv.  d.  ob.,  in  sound'  empto 
xvi.  d.1  in  faetura  v.  ymaginum  xx.  s.      Item,  garcioni   facienti  capit'  iij.  s. 

"  See  also   Newcome'a  Hist,  of  St.  Al-  Herts,  vol.  i.  p.  28,  states  that  it  was  com- 

hans.  |>.  250.      It    is   said    that  the  abbot,  pleted  by  Laurence  Stokes,  in  the  time  of 

who  was  the  son  of  a  blacksmith,  and  at-  Abbot  de  la  Mare,  1350-96. 
tained  to  great   proficiency  in  science  at  '   Doubtless   the  sounds  or  Bwimming 

Oxford,  had  began  early  in  life  to  construct  bladders  <>f  fish,  used  as  size  either  to 

this  clock,  and  resumed  his  work  through  temper  colours,  to  form  priming  for  the 

the  encouragement  of  Edward  111.     Mr.  ground,  &c.     In  the  accounts  relating  to 

Clutterbuck,  in  his  account  of  it,  Hist,  of  the  Painted   Chamber   frequent  mention 


176  ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS. 

In  stipcndiis  Ifagistri  Roberti  xxx.  s."  Andrew  ami  Roger,  carpenters,  are 
also  mentioned  as  employed  at  this  period  ;  the  total  of  the  expenditure, 
between  Michaelmas  and  Christmas,  amounted  to  ■!/.   L9s,  S  1  r/. 

In  the  Compotus of  L323,  several  entries  occur  under  the  head  Orologium, 
—  Payments  id'  wages  to  Andrew  the  carpenter,  to  Robert,  to  Roger  de 
Stoke  ;  with  the  following  payment  for  the  latter, — ■*•  pro  cariagio  pan- 
norum  et  instrumentorum  ejus,  viij.  s.- — In  uno  hose  de  Latoun,  iiij.  s.  vij.  d. 
q**  Item,  magistro  Ade  sculptori  ]>ro  factura  xxiiij.  parvarum  ymaginum, 
xj.  s.  Item,  in  cc.  lapidibus  de  Cadamo,  xxij.  s.  Item,  Johanni  fabro  pro 
opere  ferri  ad  orologium,  iij.  s.  ix.  d.  Item,  lib'  Roberto  de  Turri  pro 
factura  magni  laminis,  x.  s.  et  tantum  in  perdicione  quia  pro  paupertate  non 
potuit  opus  perficere  nee  aliquid  ah  eo  exigi,  Summa,  vi.  li.  xiij.  s.  ix.  d.  q**'1 

The  Roll  of  the  following  year  is  not  to  be  found. 

The  ( '  mpotus  of  the  year  1325  comprises  the  following  entries  : — 

"  Expense  Orologii. — Item,  in  cc.  et  diinid'  Bord'  emptis,  xlvij.  s.  Item, 
in  cariagio  ejusdem,  xvj.  d.  Item,  in  x.  lapidibus  nomine  Clobctz-  cum 
cariagio,  vij.  s.  ij.  d.  Item,  in  stipendio  unius  cementarii  circa  fundum 
orologii,  iij.  s.  viij.  d.  Item,  in  meremioad  curbas,  xviij.  d.  Item,  inferro 
empto,  xvj.  s.  ix.  d.  oh.  Item,  in  opere  ferri,  xvij.  s.  v.  d.  Item,  in  ere 
empto,  xvj.  s.  iij.  d.  Item,  in  uno  lamine  cupreo,  vj.  d.  Item,  in  factura  lune 
cum  pictura  et  deauratura,  x.  B.  Item,  in  uno  lamine  cupreo  cum  dcauratura 
ad  solem,  xj.  d.  Item,  in  ij.  tenuibus  laminibus  eris,  xv.  d.  Item,  in  instru- 
mentis  et  emendacione  instrumentorum,  \.  d.  Item,  in  cordis  ad  orologium, 
ij.  s.  vij.  d.  oh.  Item,  in  factura  xxx.  ymaginum,  xlvij.  s.  iiij.  d.  Item, 
in  meremio  ad  quaBdam  ymagines,  ij.  s.  j.  d.  Item,  in  pictura  choree 
monachorum  in  grosso,  xiij.  s.  iiij.  d.     Item,  in  albo  et  rubeo  plumbo,  foliis 

.  ol t  coloribus  ad  ceteras  ymagines,  x.  s.  viij.  d.  ob.     Item,  in 

pictura  dialis  interioris  et  tabulc  sub  diali  exteriori,  ix.  d.  Item,  in  v'  •  auri 
cum  cariagio  de  London',  xxj.  s.  vj.  d.  Item,  in  xxv.  foliis  ami,  xiij.  d. 
Item,  in  pictura  barellorum,  xvj.  d.  quia  bis.  Item,  in  stipendio  pictoris el 
garcionic  Bui  per  \iiij.  Beptimanas  et  ij.  dies,  capieutis  per  diem  viij.  d.  per 
Beptimanam  iz.  b.  vj.  d.  et  non  plus  quia  steterunt  in  mensa  domini.'  Item, 
in    magno    lamine    ad    diale,  iiij.  li.  vij.  s.  videlicet   iiij""  vij.  li.  metalli  pro 

totidem  Bolidis,  [tern,  in  cariagio  ejusdem  laminis  de  London'  apud 
Norwycum,  vii.  .s.  Item,  in  expeu.-is  divi-r-orum  garcionum  diversis  vicibua 
London1  missorum  pro  predicto  lamine,  v.  b.  viij.  d.     Item,  in ferro empto, 

iij.    -.        Item,    datum    cuidam     operator]     noinine    Roberto    de    Tuny    ad 

predictum  lamen  faciendum,  in  partem  Bolucionis,  sviij.  s.,  in  cujusmanibus 
totum  opus  periit,  et  Ita  depauperatus  \.  Bolidos  restituil  et  octo  amittuntur 
quia  nichil  babuit  in  bonis,  [tern,  pacatum  cuidam  operatori  apud  London' 
in  partem  solucionii  ad  predictum  lamen  faciendum,  vij.  s.  Item,  cuidam 
alio  sub  Bimili  paoto,  \.  b.  qui  ambo  totum  quod  fecerunt  perdiderunl  et 
nichil  propter  eorum  egestatem  potuit  ab  eis  exigi.  Item,  in  expensis 
tri  Etc  mi  garcionu  e(  equi  ui,  propter  predictum  lamen  London 
.  iij.  b.  j.  d.     [tern,  in  cariagio  rerum  de   London1  xij.  d.     Item,  in 

I  v.  ,,//.,  ..'I'"   ,ai  alio  i.uttr.                Gobet  of  a  brok  vn  th  vnge, 

In  tboM  concerning  St  Stephen's  Cliapol,  frogmen." 

■!,,,,   i          ..-.  in  tin'  i  The  express  mention  of  oil  for  the 

l.iv  account    is   the   Item    "i   boat'   de  preparation  of  pigment*  is  not  undeserving 

l             •  1 1. 1 *,  i  .';>i  "    These  of  notioe, 

probabl)   cuttings  of  parchment  ox  '  The  painter  and  his  assistant  liad  their 

\                ,i    i     j  board  ai  the  table  "i  the  Lord  Prior,  snd 

lli.-    ['romptorium    :•  ■•        "Gobet,      on  that  ace i  i  reduction  was  made  in 

I po,                        [,  Gobel  thoir  h 


OKIGINAL    DOCUMENTS.  177 

factura  cimbalarum,  xvj.  s.  ix.  d.  Item,  in  viij.  cimbalis  parvis  emptis  a 
quadam  venicntc  de  Cantuar',5  ij.  s.  viij.  d.  Item,  pro  una  lapide  pro  cimbalis 
emendandis,  vj.  d.  Item,  in  Batellulis  ad  cimbalas,  vij.  d.  Item,  in  ferro  et 
factura  ferri,  xx.  s.  Item,  in  clavis,  ij.  s.  v.  d.  Item,  inopere  ferri,  ix.  s. 
Stipendia  cum  Robis. — In  stipendio  Roberti  Orologiarii  pro  iiij.  terminis, 
xl.  B.  Item,  in  roba  ejusdem  cum  furure,  xvj.  s.  Item,  in  garneamento 
dato  filio  suo,  iiij.  s.  Item,  in  stipendio  Andree  carpentarii  per  xxiiij. 
septimanas,  capientis  per  septimanam  vij.  d.,  xiiij.  s.  Item,  in  stipendio  ejus- 
dem pervj.  septimanas,  capientis  per  septimanam  ut  supra,  iij.  s.  vj.  d.  Item, 
in  stipendio  J.  de  Belawe  per  xij.  septimanas,  viij.  s.,  qui  comp'  viij.  d.  per 
septimanam.  Item,  in  stipendio  magistri  Rogeri  Orologiarii  per  ij.  annos  et 
xj.  septimanas,  vj.  li.  qui  cepit  per  septimanam  x.  d.  Item,  in  stipendio 
Laurencii  Orologiarii  per  ij.  annos,  lxix.  s.  iiij.  d.  qui  cepit  per  septimanam 
viij.  d.  Item,  in  roba  magistri  Rogeri  primi  anni,  cum  furur',  xix.  s.  vj.  d. 
Item,  in  robis  Rogeri  et  Laurencii  secundi  anni,  cum  furur',  xxxiiij.  s.  vj.  d. 
Item,  in  robis  eorundem  tercii  anni  cum  furur',  xxxiij.  s.  viij.  d.  Item,  in 
oblacionibus  eorundem  per  totum  tempus,  v.  s.  vj.  d.   Summa,xl.  li.  xvj.  s.ob." 

By  the  foregoing  extracts  it  appears  that  the  Orologium  at  Norwich  was 
an  elaborate  piece  of  mechanism,  furnished  with  many  painted  images,  which 
doubtless  performed  surprising  evolutions,  like  the  twelve  knights  issuing 
from  small  windows  in  the  horologium  described  as  sent  by  Aaron,  king  of  the 
Persians,  to  Charlemagne ;  ( Annales  Francorum,  a.d.  807.)  There  were  such 
automata  connected  with  the  Glastonbury  clock,  above  mentioned,  as  also 
in  the  celebrated  piece  of  mechanism  at  Strasburgh.  At  Norwich  there 
was  a  set  of  24  small  images,  the  work  of  Master  Adam  the  sculptor,  pro- 
bably personifying  the  hours  of  the  day  and  night.  There  were  also  30 
images,  doubtless  representing  the  days  of  the  month  ;  painted  and  gilded 
plates  pourtraying  the  sun  and  moon,  <fcc.  A  painted  chorea  monachorum, 
or  procession  of  monks,  formed  part  of  this  curious  mechanical  pageantry. 
A  large  metal  plate  for  the  dial  was  procured  from  London,  apparently  with 
6ome  difficulty,  numerous  messages  having  been  despatched  thither  regarding 
it  by  various  garciones.  This  lamen,  which  weighed  87  lbs.,  was  evidently 
a  complicated  and  very  elaborate  work,  engraved  possibly  with  a  multiplicity 
of  lines  indicating  the  movements  of  the  heavenly  bodies.  The  construction 
was  obviously  attended  with  no  ordinary  difficulties  ;  Master  Robert  de 
Turri  failed  in  the  attempt,  and  two  artificers  from  London  who  succeeded 
in  his  place  were  equally  unsuccessful.  The  works  appear  to  have  been  in 
progress  during  three  years,  and  besides  iron-work,  brass,  copper,  and 
"  latoun,"  a  considerable  amount  was  expended  in  carpenters'  work,  deco- 
rations in  colours,  enriched  with  gold  and  silver  foil,  «tc.  Two  hundred 
pieces  of  Caen  stone,  and  ten  of  stone  termed  "  Gobetz,"  were  employed, 
possibly  in  the  construction  of  the  base  upon  which  the  clock  was  fixed; 
[fundum  orologii.)  The  position  which  it  occupied  in  the  church  is  not,  as 
far  as  we  are  aware,  now  to  be  ascertained. 

A.  W. 

5  The    pilgrims  to    the    shrine   of  St.  would  have  bagpipes — "so  that  in  everie 

Thomas  appear  to  have  furnished  them-  towne  that  they  come  through,  what  with 

selves  with  small  bells,  in  the  manufacture  the  noise  of  their  singing,  and  with  the 

of  which,  probably,  Canterbury  had  some  sound  of  their  piping,  and  with  the  jangling 

celebrity.     In  the  examination  of  William  of  their  Canterburie  bels  " — more  noise 

Thorpe  by  Archbishop  Arundel,  in   1  in;,  was  made  than  if  the  king  came  that  way, 

as  related  by  himself,  it  is  said  that  some  Wordsworth,  Eccl.  Biogr.  vol.  i.  p.  1G8. 
pilgrims  indulged  in  wanton  songs,  otto  rs 


}3roccctJtngs  at  tf)c  /Hcctinns  of  tftc  .^rcftncologtcal  institute. 

February  3,  1S55. 
William   Henry   BtAAUW,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Rev.  11.  M-  Scabth  communicated  further  notices  of  the  Roman 
inscription  found  at  Bath,  and  represented  in  this  Journal,  see  p.  90,  ante. 
A  discussion  ensued,  in  which  Mr.  Franks,  irho  had  recently  examined  the 
original,  now  in  the  Museum  of  the  Bath  Institution,  stated  the  grounds  of 
his  conviction  that  the  tahlet  should  he  assigned  to  the  reign  of  Blagabalus, 
The  inscription,  he  observed,  can  only  apply  to  Caracalla  or  Elagabalus  ; 
but  it  does  not  appear  that  the  epithet  Iwoictw  was  given  to  the  former, 
There  are,  however,  coins  of  Elagabalus  on  which  he  is  thus  styled.  Mr. 
Franks  thought  that  the  inscription  might  have  suffered  mutilation  in  a 
slight  degree,  and  the  popular  indignation  which  defaced  or  destroyed  the 
memorials  of  that  emperor,  may  possibly  account  for  the  occurrence  of  this 
tablet  used  as  part  of  the  cover  of  a  sepulchral  cist. 

Mr.  WebtwooD  observed  that,  as  he  had  been  informed,  the  French 
Government,  with  their  accustomed  liberality  in  the  encouragement  of  all 
purposes  for  public  instruction,  had,  even  in  the  present  eventful  crisis, 
formed  a  Commission  for  collecting  and  preserving  all  the  vestiges  of 
i  occupation  in  France.  It  must  be  a  cause  of  great  regret  to  every 
English  archaeologist,  that  in  our  country  the  monuments  of  past  times, 
Roman,  Saxon,  or  Medieval,  so  valuable  as  auxiliaries  to  historical  enquiry, 
were  disregarded  as  neither  worthy  of  the  care  of  the  Government,  nor  of 
preservation  in  our  National  Depositories. 

Dr.  Bell,  Phil.  Dr.,  gave  the  following  account  of  the  establishment  of 
the  Museum  at  Mayence,  one  of  the  most  instructive  collections  in  that  part 
of  the  continent,  and  remarkably  rich  in  Romano-Germanic  antiquities,  lie 
exhibited  specimens  of  the  admirable  reproductions  of  objects  of  bronae, 
jewelled  ornaments,  ace,  produced  with  singular  Bkillby  Mr.  Lindeschmidt, 
in  order  to  facilitate  the  comparison  of  the  rarest  types  of  the  earlier 
antiquities  preserved  in  various  remote  continental  museums,  in  cases  where 
originals  might  be  unattainable,  Thai  distinguished  antiquary  has  suc- 
ceeded in  supplying  facsimiles  not  only  perfect  in  form  and  in  the  most 
minute  details,  but  presenting  the  precise  appearance  of  the  metallic  and 
patinated  surface, 

"The  beneficial  re  ultt    (Dr.  Bell  observed)   that    must    arise  from  a 

synoptical  and  comprehensive  riew  of  German  objects  of  antiquity  were  so 

nt)  iii:,i  ,  I  fjongre     oi   the  Aroheaological  and  Historical 

Teutonic    Societies,  held   at   Main/.,  in    L852,  ii  olved    that    two 

.,    thai   purpose  should  be  founded  ;  a  Mediaeval    Mu  eum  at 

Nurem  which  the  verj  large  collection  of  Baron  von  ^.ufreea  which 

I  thoro  formed  a  valuable  nucleu    ;  and  a  Romano  Germanic  Mir  emu 


PROCEEDINGS    OF    THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL   INSTITUTE.  179 

at  Mainz.  An  extensive  assemblage  of  the  numerous  Roman  remains  from 
that  neighbourhood  already  existed  at  Mainz,  and  for  the  furtherance  of 
the  object  the  services  of  C.  L.  Lindeschmidt,  an  eminent  historical 
painter  and  an  ardent  archaeologist,  were  fortunately  attainable.  As  it 
was  at  once  seen  that  the  valuable  objects  in  other  museums  or  in  private 
collections  could  not  be  obtainable,  the  talents  of  that  gentleman  enabled 
him  to  perfect  facsimiles  so  exact  that  the  eye  can  perceive  no  distinction, 
and  the  touch  alone  has  convinced  many  an  observer  that  they  were  not  the 
original  metal  objects,  as  possibly  the  Members  of  the  Institute  will  admit 
upon  the  inspection  of  the  following  four  specimens." 

No.  198.  A  large  bronze  Celt  found  near  Frankenthal,  Rhenish  Bavaria, 

and  now  in  the  museum  at  Wiesbaden. 
No.  204.  A  round  Fibula,  found  in  the  Francic  Graves  of  Oberolm,  near 
Mainz.     Copper  inlaid  with  gold,  ivory,  and  pastas  of  red 
glass,  and  bordered  with  studs  of  silver.     The  original  is  in 
Mainz  Museum. 
No.  272.  A  large  double  Spiral  Breast-clasp  (Brust  Spange)  of  bronze, 
found  at  Little  Hesebeck,  near  Uelzen,  in  Hanover,  and  like 
the  next  in  the  collection  of  the  Baron  von  Estortf,  Chamber- 
lain of  H.  M.  the  King  of  Hanover. 
No.  310.  A  hanging  vessel  or  ampulla  found  with  the  preceding,  and 

in  the  same  valuable  collection. 
Mr.  Hawkes  communicated  the  following  particulars  regarding  the 
Manilla  African  ring-money,  obtained  from  one  of  the  principal  manufac- 
turers, Mr.  Frederick  Smith,  of  the  Waterloo  Works  and  Brass  Foundry  at 
Birmingham,  and  accompanied  by  a  specimen  which  closely  resembles  in 
form  certain  examples  of  the  so-called  "  Fenannular  ring  money,"  discovered 
in  Ireland.  Upwards  of  3U0  tons  of  manilla-money  is  now  made  in 
Birmingham  on  an  average  in  a  year,  for  the  African  market.  A  vessel 
freighted  with  these  rings  was  wrecked  upon  the  Irish  coast  near  Cork,  in 
1830,  and  some  of  the  manillas  came  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Sainthill,  who 
was  struck  with  their  close  analogy  to  the  rings  found  in  Ireland.  The  late 
Sir  W.  Betham  made  known  this  curious  fact  to  the  Royal  Irish  Academy, 
and  his  observations  may  be  seen  in  their  Transactions,  vol.  xvii.,  p.  91,  in 
which  he  has  given  all  the  forms  of"  ring-money,"  which  had  fallen  under 
his  observation  in  Ireland,  from  the  small  plain  penannular  ring  weighing 
only  12  grains,  to  the  remarkable  types  with  terminal  cups,  one  specimen 
weighing  not  less  than  50  oz.  of  gold.  He  gives  also  a  bronze  manilla 
described  as  found  in  Co.  Monaghan,  and  one  of  iron,  almost  identical  in 
fashion,  obtained  from  the  wreck  before  mentioned.1  (These  examples 
closely  resemble  the  sample  of  recent  fabrication  presented  to  the  Institute 
by  Mr.  Smith.j  Sir  William  Betham  states  that  in  Western  Africa  such 
rings  with  dilated  ends,  simdar  to  those  manufactured  for  the  purposes  of 
trade,  at  Birmingham,  are  made  of  solid  gold. 

"  Manilla  money  (Mr.  Smith  observed)  is  manufactured  in  large 
quantities  in  Birmingham  and  the  district.  Some  years  ago  it  was  made 
of  cast-iron,  but  did  not  answer,  I  believe,  in  consequence  of  its  having  no 
sound  when  struck.     The  specimen  sent  herewith  is  a  sample  of  some  ot 

'See  also  Sir  William  BethamVEtruria  Journal,  Vol.  vi.  p.  56,  and  the  curious 

Celtica,"    .Mr.   Lindsay's    View    ol    the  papers  by  Mr.  Dickinson  on  African  ring- 

Coinage    of  Ireland,  Air.  Way's    Memoir  money  in  the  Numismatic  Cluouicle. 
on    Ancient    Armilla;    of  Go.u,    in    tins 


180 


PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 


which  I  have  made  large  quantities.  The  metal  is  a  mixture  of  copper,  tin. 
ami  spelter,  although  this  varies  very  much  with  different  makers,  and  main- 
tons  have  been  returned  in  consequence.  The  object  is  to  produce  a  metal 
at  the  least  C08(  that  will,  when  manufactured,  ring  or  sound  when  struck. 
The  regular  bell-metal  would  be  far  too  expensive  a  mixture.  The  patterns 
vary    both    in    Bize   and    shape,    although   the  general   outline    of    form    is 

ryed  :  it  is  merely  the  thickness  of  the  centre,  the  size,  and  the  ends, 
that  constitute  the  difference.  I  should  imagine  that  the  various  sizes  are  for 
different  districts,  as  they  are  very  particular  in  having  them  precisely 
to  pattern.  The  natives  reject  them  for  the  least  deviation,  and  will  not 
buy  them  from  the  merchants  who  export  them.  A  peculiar  feature  in  the 
manilla  which  I  send  as  an  example,  is  the  rough  edge  both  inside  and  out, 
which  to  a  manufacturer  would  he  considered  a  Haw  in  the  casting,  and 
would  at  least  be  filed  away,  but  if  so  filed,  the  manillas  would  be  rendered 

is  ;  it  may  be  that  the  natives  prefer  the  rough  edge  being  left,  so 
that  they  may  the  hotter  see  the  quality  of  the  metal." 

The  Eon.  Richard  Neville  sent  a  short  notice  of  the  latest  results  of 
the  explorations  in  progress  at  Chesterford  under  his  direction.  Not  many 
days  previously,  his  workmen  had  brought  to  light  at  a  depth  of  only 
1  5  inches,  a  vase  of  white  pottery,  in  the  form  of  a  jug,  an  ampulla  of 
glass  of  square  form,  and  two  dishes  of  Samian  ware,  both  of  which  had 
been  broken  in  Roman  times,  and  repaired  by  means  of  leaden  rivets.  The 
patters'  names  are  distinctly  legible. — OF.  SECVNDI.  and  CASSIVSCA.  This 
last  supplies  a  correction  of  the  mark  previously  given  in  this  Journal 
(vol.  x.,  p.  233),  in  which  amongBt  the  examples  preserved  in  Mr.  Neville's 

Mo-'  lim,  this  name  had  been  read  I  A.88V3CA. 

Mr.  ('.  II.  Pubday  sent  a  notice  of  the  recent  discovery  of  a  sculptured 


■  1 '  '' 
Oil.  km  •».  ill D 


,1,  (e  Cathedral,     in  the  course  of  the  works  now 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  181 

in  progress,  this  ancient  fragment  had  been  brought  to  light.  It  lay 
imbedded  in  the  masonry,  in  the  south-wall  of  the  transept,  which  is 
Norman  ;  but  several  alterations  were  made  in  it  about  the  year  1300, 
when  the  Chapter  House  was  built  against  its  south  front.  At  that  time, 
n<  Mr.  Purday  supposes,  the  cross  may  have  been  built  into  the  wall.  A 
representation  of  this  relique  is  here  given  from  a  drawing  which  Mr. 
Purday  has  kindly  supplied.  lie  stated  that  the  cross  seems  to  have  been 
quite  a  low  one,  probably  placed  over  a  grave  ;  the  upper  arrises  are  com- 
pletely rounded  off,  as  if  by  friction  ;  the  workmanship  is  extremely  rude 
and  irregular.  The  back  of  the  cross  is  plain,  with  the  exception  of  a 
small  round  knob  or  boss  in  the  centre.  Some  persons  had  been  disposed 
to  regard  this  cross  as  of  Saxon  times,  subsequent  to  the  rebuilding  of  the 
church  and  city  of  Carlisle  by  Egfrid,  King  of  Northumberland,  in  680. 
The  most  ancient  portion  of  the  existing  fabric  formed  part  of  the  Priory 
Church,  commenced  about  1092  by  Walter,  a  Norman  priest,  to  whom,  as 
it  is  supposed,  the  government  of  Carlisle  had  been  entrusted  by  the 
Conqueror.  The  church  was  completed  about  1100  by  Henry  I.,  who 
established  the  bishop's  see  there,  and  made  the  church  a  cathedral 
in  1133.2 

Mr.  Westwood  remarked  that  he  was  unable  to  recall  any  cross  of 
pre-Norman  date  bearing  resemblance  to  the  fragment  found  at  Carlisle. 
He  thought  that  had  it  been  of  that  early  period,  it  would  have  presented 
more  of  the  character  which  he  might  designate  as  Northumbrian,  analogous 
to  the  Early  Irish  style  of  ornamentation.  Mr.  Westwood  considered  that 
the  cross  might  possibly  be  assigned  to  the  twelfth  century. 

This  fragment,  it  may  be  observed,  appears  to  be  part  of  a  cross  of  the 
Latin  form,  the  transverse  portion  forming  the  top  being  possibly  intended 
to  represent  the  Titidus.  This,  however,  is  very  rarely,  if  ever,  indicated 
on  early  sculptured  or  sepulchral  crosses,  which  are  for  the  most  part  of 
the  Greek  type,  with  the  four  limbs  of  equal  length,  and  forming  the  head 
of  a  long  shaft.  Amongst  the  few  existing  examples  of  early  head-stones, 
may  be  cited  those  found  at  Bakewell,  figured  in  this  Journal,  vol.  iv.,  p.  57; 
at  Rauceby,  Lincolnshire,  vol.  x.,  p.  03  ;  and  at  Cambridge  Castle,  Archaeo- 
logia,  vol.  xvii.,  p.  228. 

Mr.  Ashdrst  Majendie  gave  an  account  of  some  remarkable  memorials 
of  the  noble  family  of  De  Vere.  He  produced  a  carefully  detailed  drawing 
which  he  had  lately  caused  to  be  executed  by  Mr.  Parish,  of  Colchester, 
representing  the  upper  slab  of  the  tomb  of  John,  fifteenth  Earl  of  Oxford, 
who  died  in  1539.  The  monument,  of  black  marble,  sometimes  termed 
"  touch-stone,"  is  in  the  middle  of  the  chancel  of  Castle  Hedingham  Church, 
Essex.  On  the  top  of  this  altar-tomb  are  sculptured  in  bold  relief  the 
effigies  of  the  earl  in  armour,  with  an  heraldic  tabard  and  the  mantle  and 
collar  of  the  garter,  and  of  his  countess,  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  Sir  Edward 
Trussell,  in  a  rich  costume,  her  mantle  displaying  the  bearings  of  De  Vere 
with  quarterings.  The  figures  appear  kneeling  under  a  canopy,  and  this 
sculpture  occupies  nearly  half  the  upper  surface  of  the  tomb,  the  remainder, 
above  the  figures,  displaying  a  bold  atchievement  of  the  arms  of  De  Vere 
with    six    quarterings,    impaling    Trussell    and    Burley,    quarterly.       The 

-An      Ilis'orical     Sketch     of    Carlisle  would  refer  for  more  detailed  particulars. 

Cathedral  has  l>een  recently  published  by  London  :  Groombridge,  Paternoster  Row. 

(be    Very    Kev.   the    Dean,  to  which  we  12 mo. 

VOL.  III.  >!  >'■ 


L82 


PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 


escutcheon  is  surrounded  by  the  garter.  The  crest  is  the  hoar  on  a 
ehapeau,  placed  on  a  helmet  ;  the  supporters  are  the  harpy  and  the  hart. 
On  the  north  and  south  Bides  of  this  fine  tomb  are  sculptured  the  kneeling 
figures  of  their  children  ;  of  the  former,  on  which  appear  the  daughters, 
Elizabeth,  Anne,  Frauncis,  and  (Jrsela,  Mr.  Majendie  had  the  kindness  to 
bring  a  drawing  by  Mr.  Parish,  at  the  subsequent  meeting.  He  expressed 
the  hope  that  an  engraving  of  this  tine  memorial,  a  remarkable  example  of 
the  style  of  the  Renaissance,  without  any  mixture  of  Gothic  character, 
might  be  produced  under  the  auspices  of  the  Essex  Archaeological  Society. 
Mr.  Almack,  of  Melford,  has  engaged  to  prepare  descriptive  notices. 

Mr.  Majendie  produced  also  coloured  drawings  by  the  talented  antiquarian 
draughtsman,  John  Carter,  representing  the  sculptured  chimney-piece 
formerly  at  Gosficld  Hall,  Essex,  and  removed  thither  in  1687  from  Bois 
Hall,  one  of  the  seats  of  the  De  Veres.  It  had  hecn  stated  that  it  was 
taken  from  Gosfield  by  the  Marquess  of  Buckingham  to  Stowe,  hut  all 
inquiries  had  been  made  there  without  avail  to  discover  whether  it,  still 
exists.  No  representation  of  this  sculpture  appears  to  have  been  published, 
and  the  drawings  by  Carter  are  well  deserving  of  being  engraved.  Over 
the  chimney-piece  were  statues  of  Henry  VII.  and  his  queen,  and  in  the 
central  compartment  was  introduced  a  spirited  representation  of  the  battle 
of  Bosworth  Field,  between  liichard  111.  and  the  Earl  of  Richmond,  with 
whom  the  De  Veres  took  part.  The  two  armies  appear  in  the  moment 
when  the  conflict  drew  towards  its  close,  the  king  lying  prostrate  before  tlie 
rictor  in  the  fore-round,  holding  his  crown.  Amongst  the  combatants,  as 
nised  by  their  emblazoned  shields,  there  appear  on  the  king's  side, 
the  I  'like  of  Norfolk,  who  lies  slain  in  the  field,  the  Earl  of  Northumberland, 
Sir  William  Berbert,  Sir  John  Tyrcll,  Sir  Richard  Etatcliffe,  and  Sir 
William  CateBby.  With  the  victor  ESarl  are  seen  John,  Earl  of  Oxford, 
Lord  Stanley  and  Sir  William  his  brother,  Sir  William  Brandon,  Henry's 
standard-bearer,  Sir  Gilbert  Talbot,  and  Sir  John  Savage.  The  date  of 
the  Bculpture  is  prohably  of  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  century.  Mr. 
Majendie  exhibited  al  the  same  time  a  drawing  of  another  relique  of  the 
De  Veres,  a  richly  carved  oak  bedstead  purchased  by  his  father  at  Sible 
Hedingham.  At  the  head  appears  an  escutcheon  under  a  crown  with  the 
lion  and  dra  upporters,  and  initials  which  may  he  those  of  Edward 

VI. — Iv —  JO.  Below  is  an  heraldic  achievement;  De  Vere  and  Trussell, 
quarterly,  with  six  quarterings  as  en  the  tomb  above  described.  This  bed 
!-  possibly  of  the  time  "f  John,  sixteenth  Marl  of  Oxford,  whose  mother 
■  i  and  i  ■  •  s  of  John  Trussell.  The  Marl  was  Lord  Great  Chamber- 
lain in  the  reig  n  of  Edward  V I . 

^iniquities'  anti  RKoriutf  of  Sri  iLTbiuitett. 
By  the  Rev.  W.  li.  Gi  etneb.     A  photographic  repre  entation  of  a  small 

M  \  i  i;lii 
[TALIS    on; 

MAMS. 
..  \l.    .    BR]  I 

I  RET!  UH 
POOS 

...I  ultar,  di  d ..  Vntoniu    Crctianu    i"  ih«    Dchj  Matrc  .  found 


THE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE.  183 

at  Winchester  during  the  last  summer.'1  It  has  been  subsequently  published 
by  Mr.  Roach  Smith  in  vol.  iv.,  part  i.  of  his  Collectanea  Antiqua,  the 
original  altar  liaving  come  into  bis  possession.  He  haft  given  some  valuable 
remarks  on  the  worship  of  tbc  Deaa  Matres,  and  various  inscriptions  found 
in  England  in  which  they  are  named.  Mr.  Roach  Smith  proposes  tbe 
following  reading  in  extenso,  of  that  which  has  been  found  at  Winchester. 
"  Matribus  Italis,  Germanis,  Callicis,  Britannicis,  Antonius  Cretianus  Bene- 
ficiarius  Consulis  restituit."  Mr.  Gunner  states  that  this  altar  was  found  in 
Jewry  Street,  in  digging  foundations  for  houses  built  on  the  site  of  the 
south  wing  of  the  old  county  jail.      Height,  19  inches;  width,  8  inches. 

By  the  Rev.  Walter  Sneyd. — Two  remarkable  specimens  of  the 
enamelled  work  of  the  twelfth  century,  possibly  by  the  artists  of  Limoges. 
They  represent  two  of  the  evangelistic  symbols,  those  of  St.  Mark  and 
St.  Luke,  the  lion  and  the  ox.  They  are  formed  of  gilt  copper,  and  are  in 
high  relief,  having  been  formed  possibly  to  be  affixed  to  the  binding  of  a 
Textus,  or  Book  of  the  Gospels,  which  they  might  serve  in  some  degree  to 
protect  in  lieu  of  the  bosses  usually  placed  upon  mediaeval  bindings.  The 
design  is  singularly  quaint  and  spirited.  The  animals  have  wings,  and 
each  holds  a  clasped  book. 

In  reference  to  a  little  inscribed  plate  of  metal,  in  the  collection  of 
Mr.  Sneyd,  exhibited  at  a  previous  meeting  (see  vol.  x.,  p.  259)  and  of 
which  the  use  had  not  been  ascertained,  tbe  following  explanation  has  been 
offered.  Two  objects  similar  in  dimension  and  in  the  inscriptions  which  they 
bore,  existed  in  the  Cabinet  of  Antiquities  in  the  Library  of  St.  Genevieve, 
at  Paris,  and  they  are  represented  in  the  account  of  those  collections 
published  by  Du  Molinet,  in  1692  (Plate  18,  p.  66).  They  are  described 
as  Roman  weights,  sextulce,  the  sixth  part  of  tbe  uncia,  and  are  noticed  as 
remarkable  on  account  of  the  mode  in  which  the  inscriptions  were  produced 
— "des  inscriptions  ecrites  d'une  maniere  singuliere,  qui  n'est  ni  en  creux 
ni  en  relief,  avec  de  l'cncre  de  pourpre  sur  de  petites  bandes  d'argent."  On 
one  were  the  words,  salvis  d.d.  albinvs  fecit,  basilivs  rep.  and  on  the 
other,  Obv.  salvis  d.d.  n.n.  albinvs  fecit. — Rev.  salvis  d.d.  n.n.  bas.  fec. 
Albinus  and  Basilius,  tbe  learned  writer  observes,  were  Masters  of  the  Mint, 
and  the  formula  Dominis  nostris  indicates  that  these  pieces  were  made  in 
the  time  when  two  emperors  were  ruling  simultaneously,  for  instance, 
Valentinian  and  Valens.  The  same  propositi  monetae,  it  will  be  observed, 
are  named  on  tbe  sextula  obtained  by  Mr.  Sneyd,  at  Strasburg.  Occa- 
sionally, the  heads  of  the  two  emperors  occur  on  these  Roman  weights 
(Cab.  de  Sainte  Genev.  pi.  18.  Montf.  Ant.  Bxpl.  tome  iii.,  pi.  95). 

By  Mr.  Brackstone. — Several  antiquities  of  bronze,  chiefly  from  Ireland, 
comprising  three  bronze  daggers,  a  serpent-shaped  finger  ring,  three  fibula?, 
one  of  them  of  a  bow-shaped  Roman  type,  a  small  bronze  spoon  with  round 
bowl  and  pointed  handle.  (Compare  plate  xiii.,  fig,  12,  in  Akcnnan's 
Archaeological  Index).  Also  specimens  of  penannular  bronze  "  ring-money  " 
from  Ireland,  one  of  them  with  trumpet,  or  cupped,  ends  ;  it  was  found  in 
the  County  Cavan,  in  1839,  and  was  in  the  collection  of  the  late  Mr.  C. 
Loscombe  ;  the  other,  with  oval  or  leaf-shaped  solid  ends,  locality  unknown. 
These   rings,  in  their  dimensions,  resemble  small   armlets,  and  the  latter 

3  Collectanea  Antiqua,  vol.  iii.  p.  '27-  ;  ii.  p.  193  ;  and  Mr.  Wright's  Memoir  in 
vol.  iv.  p.  41,  pi.  xiv.  See  also  notices  of  tlie  Journal  Brit.  Arch.  Assoc,  vol.  ii. 
the  DtiL-   Matres,  vol.  i.  p.  136,  and  vol.       p.  239. 


184      PROCEEDINGS    OP    THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 

specimen  is  almost  identical  in  form  with  the  "manilla"  ahove  described 
(see  page  180),  presented  to  the  Institute  by  Mr.  P.  Smith. 

By  Mr.  GrKORGE  ROOTS. —  Two  objects  of  baked  clay,  of  which  the  age 
and  intention  has  been  ascertained.  <me  is  a  massive  ring,  presented  to 
the  Surrey  Archaeological  Society  by  Mr.  Jesse,  accompanied  by  the 
following  particulars.  "  This  ring  was  dug  up  in  Richmond  Park,  by  some 
labourers  trying  to  open  a  new  gravel-pit,  to  the  right  of  the  road  leading 
from  the  Robin  Mom,!  gate  to  the  Kingston  Hill  ladder-style  gate.  There 
were  twelve  of  them  In  all,  carefully  secured  in  a  sort  of  cairn  built  up  of 
Btones,  which  are  not  to  be  found  in  the  neighbourhood.  Each  of  the 
terra-cotta  rings  had  a  circumference  of  about  12  inches,  with  a  hole  in  the 
centre  of  from  1  \  or2  inches  in  diameter."  A  similar  object  found  in  the 
churchyard  of  St.  Nicholas',  Wilton,  was  exhibited  at  a  previous  meeting  by 
Mr.  Nightingale,  and  is  described  in  this  Journal,  vol.  .\i.,  p.  190,  where 
notices  of  other  examples  may  be  found.  Rings  of  this  description  have 
been  found  with  Roman  remains.4 

Mr.  Roots  brought  also  for  examination  a  cylindrical  perforated  brick, 
belonging  to  Dr.  Roots,  of  Kingston,  who  states  that  it  was  found  some 
years  since  at  the  spot  called  Caesar's  Camp,  on  Wimbledon  Common,  and 
near  the  site  where  spear-heads  and  weapons,  funereal  urns  and  pottery, 
indicating  Roman  occupation,  have  been  discovered.  This  object  in  form 
resembles  a  small  cheese,  the  diameter  is  5\  inches,  thickness  o;(!  inches, 
diamet«r  of  the  perforation  ,:  inch.  Several  "  cylindres  en  terre  cuite  "  are 
d  as  found  in  Normandy,  supposed  to  be  of  the  Roman  age,  but  their 
dimensions  are  not  stated.     Mem.  des  Antiqu.  de  Norm.  1820.  p.  liii. 

By  Mr.  ROHDE  Hawkins. — An  elaborately  carved  ivory  box.  with  an 
Arabic  inscription;  probably  of  Saracenic  workmanship.  A  similar  boz  is 
rved  in  the  Treasury  of  Sens  Cathedral.  The  inscription  round  the 
top  has  the  following  signification:-  Bail  to  him  whose  equal  I  never  met, 
upon  whom  I  rely  more  than  on  any  other,  that  generous  man  for  whom, 
whenever  I  came  with  a  request,   1   never  returned  but  with  what  contented 

me,  and  with  a  joyful  lace. — Also,  a  Venetian  salver  of  damascened  metal, 
from  the  collection  of  the  late  Mr.  Crofton  Croker.  It  bears  an  enamelled 
escutcheon  of  the  arms  of  the  Priuli  family,  and  the  initials,  1). — P.  Hate, 
X  Vth  century. 

By  Mr.  Nightingale,  of  Wilton. — Two  carvings  in  ivory,  of  which  one 
represents  a  kind  of  radiated  ornament,  or  flower,  supported  by  two  winged 
and  eaglt  -headed  animal-:  il  resembles  in  design  Borne  of  the  curious  sculp- 
tures in  marble  at   St.  Mark  Bj  Venice,     tl    was  found,  as  far  as  •■an  be 

:. lined,  at   Old    Sarum.       The    other    represents    our    Lord    seated    mi    a 
throne  and  riving  the  benediction;    in  his  left    hand  is  an  open    hook.      The 

character  of  the  design  resembles  thai  of  the  Byzantine  school. — An  ala- 
tablet,  found  mar  Salisbury!  as  it  has  been  staled,  at  old  Sarum. 

(See  * dcut.)       It    represent-  a  head   with    long    hair   and    heard,   the    eyi 

clo  ed    iii    death,  and    apparently    placed    upon    a    circular    object    or    ili.-k. 

Above  i   a  small  naked  figure,  with   the  bands  clasped,  surrounded  by  an 

aureola   of  pointed-oval   form,  and   supported  by   two   angels,  now    much 

broken  and  defaced,  who  appear  to  hen  towards  Heaven  this  representation 

i    pint.    Bi  neath  is  the  upper  pari  ofa  figure,  with  upraised 

i\.'l  in   the  I  ]<>ii.    K.       vol.  k,  p.  232      See  alao  Mr  Artie' Duro 
Arcl  Bol  Join  nal,      brivn,  pi,  29. 


ALABASTER  TABLET,  POUND  NEAR  SALISBURY. 

Representing  the  lluad  of  St.  JoLn  the  Baptist  in  a  charger,  St.  Peter,  and  St.  Thoiuaa 
of  Canterbury. 


Dimena  mi*  of  t'ue  original,  10J  by  7  inche*. 


186  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

hands,  apparently  rising  from  a  Bepulchre,  Like  an  altar-tomb.  On  the 
dexter  Bide  of  the  tablel  appears  St.  Peter,  with  a  key  and  book;  on  the 
other  side  is  a  mitred  figure  vested  in  a  cope,  holding  an  archiepiscopal 
cross-staff  and  a  book.  This  probably  represents  St.  Thomas  of  Canter- 
bury.    The  date  of  this  curious  tablel  is  the  XYth  century. 

Alabaster  tablets,  similar  in  dimensions,  and  in  the  general  features  of 
design,  have  been  noticed  in  several  antiquarian  works,  and  various  expla- 
nations of  their  import  have  been  offered.  The  example  produced  by  Mr. 
Nightingale  appears  to  correspond  precisely  with  the  object  bequeathed  in 
L522  by  ^gas  Berte,  of  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  amongst  her  household  effects, 
and  described  as  a  "  Seynt  Joh'is  hede  of  alabaster  with  Seynt  Peter  and 
Seyni  Thomas  and  thefygur  of  Cryst."  (Bury  Wills  and  Inventories,  edited 
by  Mr.  Tymms  for  the  Camden  Society,  pp.   I  15,  255.) 

In  the  Notes  on  this  Will  Mr.  John  Gough  Nichols  has  fully  detailed  the 
evidence  which  may  be  collected  from  various  sculptures  of  this  description. 
Representations  of  such  tablets  may  be  found  in  Stukeley's  Palseographia, 
in  Schnebbelie's  Antiquaries'  Museum  (also  given  in  Nichols'  Hist,  of 
Leicestershire,  vol.  iv.,  p.  70,  and  Fosbroke's  Encyclopedia  of  Antiquities, 
p.  G88).  Two  are  given  Gent.  Mag.,  xciv.,  ii.,  p.  209,  of  which  one  be- 
longed  to  the  Rev.  E.  Duke,  and  the  other  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr. 
.1.  Bowyer  Nichols,  who  has  also  a  third  not  engraved,  received  by  him 
from  the  late  Sir  S.  Meyrick,  (Gent.  Mag.  xciv.,  i.,  p.  397.)  Another, 
formerly  at  Borrington,  Somerset,  ib  described  by  Mr.  Adderley,  Gent.  Mag. 
xciv.,  ii.,  p.  292.  In  all  of  these  the  head  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  of 
large  proportionate  Bize,  occupies  the  centre;  it  has  been  taken  for  the 
Vernide  ;  the  image  of  our  Lord's  face  given  to  Abgarus  alter  the  siege  of 
Edessa;  and  the  first  person  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  The  figure  beneath  has 
been  regarded  as  Chrisl  rising  from  the  tomb,  and  in  the  example  given  by 
By  it  is  B  seated  figure,  naked,  and  the  hands  hound  with  cords.  On 
the  tablel  in  Mr.  Nichols' possession,  the  Agnus  /)<>  occupies  this  position. 
In  every  instance  the  accompanying  saints  are  St.  Peter  and  St.  Thomas 
of  Canterbury,  one  only  excepted  (Stukeley),  on  which  the  second  is  repre- 
sented as  St.  Paul.  On  Beveral  are  seen  in  the  back  ground  St.  Catherine 
and  St.  Helen.  The  four  saints  occur  on  the  tablet  above-mentioned, 
which  was  exhibited  by  the  late  Rev.  B.  I »uke  iii  the  museum  formed  during 
the  meeting  of  the  Institute  at  Salisbury.  Engraved  Gent.  Mag.  tciv.,  ii., 
p.  209.  Tic  little  figure  above,  Bupported  by  angels,  is  nearly  similar  in 
all,  in  two  instances  (one  of  them  represented  ibid.)  a  youthful  head  only 
appears,  upheld  in  a  napkin  by  the  angels.  On  a  tablet  in  the  Aahmolean, 
from  Tradescant's  museum,  the  head  of  St.  John  appears,  our  Lord  rising 
from  the  Bepulchre,  and  oo  other  figures  whatever.  It  is  described  as 
••the  Vernacle."  The  import  of  this  hagiotypio  combination  has  not  Keen 
explained. 

By   Mr.  Edward  Chbnby.-    An  oblong  tablel  of    bronze,  probably  of 

Oriental  workmanship;  <»n  one  side   appear,    in    low  relief,   the  Savi ■ 

enthroned,  the  Virgin  and  St.  John,  and  angels;  the  reverse  is  covered 
with  characters,  partly  in  relief  and  partlj  engraved,  hitherto  unexplained. 
Their  formi  bear  re  emblance  to  those  occurring  on  Gnostic  objects,  and 
lo  not  appear  to  belong  to  any  known  language  in  the  East.  Dimen- 
in.  by  '.' ,  in.  The  date  has  been  conjectured  to  be  about  the 
XNtli  century,     It  was  purchased  bj  Mr.  Cheney  in  Italy. 

i  auoo      A  RusBO-Greek  triptych  found  in  L853  in 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  187 

the  churchyard  of  Christ  Church,  Spitalfields,  having  probahly  hcen  interred 
with  the  corpse  of  some  foreigner,  a  member  of  the  Greek  church.  A 
remarkable  silver  reliquary,  supposed  to  be  of  Greek  workmanship,  was 
found  in  1831,  suspended  by  a  silver  chain  to  the  neck  of  a  skeleton,  in  the 
churchyard  of  St.  Dunstan's,  Fleet  Street.  On  one  side  appeared  St. 
Helena;  on  the  other,  St.  George.  Representations  of  this  curious  encomium 
were  given  in  this  Journal,  vol.  v.,  p.  166. 

By  Mr.  Westwood.- — -Specimens  of  anastatic  drawings,  representing  the 
subjects  of  the  legend  of  St.  Guthlac,  from  the  vellum  roll  in  the  British 
Museum,  of  the  latter  part  of  the  Xllth  century,  containing  a  series  of 
admirable  drawings  with  the  pen,  illustrative  of  the  life  of  that  saint. 
Representations  have  been  published  in  Nichols'  History  of  Leicestershire, 
and  in  Gough's  Croyland  Abbey;  a  reduced  facsimile  of  one  of  the  most 
interesting  subjects  is  given  in  Mr.  Shaw's  Dresses  and  Decorations,  vol.  i., 
No.  16.  Mr.  Westwood  observed  that  this  Roll  is  of  remarkable  value  as  an 
undoubted  example  of  English  design  at  that  early  period,  lie  took  occa- 
sion to  state  that,  as  he  had  recently  been  informed,  the  ivory  crosier-head, 
formerly  in  the  Allan  Museum  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  and  supposed  to  have 
been  brought  from  Easby  Abbey,  is  no  longer  to  be  found.  An  account  of 
it  may  be  found,  with  a  woodcut  representation,  in  Mr.  Fox's  Synopsis  of  the 
Newcastle  Museum,  p.  181,  and  in  Clarkson's  History  of  Richmond,  p.  362. 
It  has  also  been  figured  recently  in  Mr.  Scott's  Antiquarian  Gleanings  in 
the  North  of  England,  pi.  xiii.  The  diameter  of  the  volute,  in  the  centre 
of  which  is  the  Agnus  Dei,  is  stated  to  be  3-|  in.  It  had  been  preserved  at 
the  Museum  of  the  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society  of  Newcastle. 

Mr.  Franks  remarked  that  this  curious  crosier  had  been  sought  for  in 
vain  on  the  occasion  of  the  meeting  of  the  Institute  at  Newcastle  in  1852. 
Dr.  Charlton  stated  that  it  had  been  missing  since  1848,  when  the  anti- 
quities in  the  Museum  of  the  Philosophical  Society  had  been  removed  for 
temporary  exhibition  at  the  Castle. 

By  Mr.  Ashurst  Majendie. — A  casting  in  iron,  representing  Christ  and 
the  woman  of  Samaria ;  also,  a  large  engraving  of  the  west  front  of  Cou- 
tances  Cathedral ;  Mr.  Majendie  presented  the  latter  to  the  Institute. 

By  Mr.  W.  Tite. — Two  volumes,  productions  of  the  press  of  Ca.xton,  in 
the  finest  preservation,  one  of  them  being  the  "  Myrrour  of  the  World," 
printed  in  1480;  the  other,  the  "  Book  of  Fayttes  of  Armes  and  Chyvalrye," 
about  1493-4.  Mr.  Desborough  Bedford  (by  whose  kindness  these  speci- 
mens of  early  printing  were  brought)  pointed  out  in  the  former  a  representa- 
tion of  an  arithmetician  making  calculations  by  aid  of  Arabic  numerals. 

By  Mr.  W.  J.  Bernhard  Smith. — Three  spurs,  of  which  one  with  a  long 
neck,  date  about  1460;  the  others,  with  straight  shanks,  date  XVIIth 
century. 

By  Mr.  W.  R.  Deere  Salmon. — An  iron  spur,  date  about  the  reign  of 
Henry  VI.,  accompanied  by  a  note  of  Captain  Boteler,  of  Llandough  Castle, 
co.  Glamorgan,  where  it  was  found.  In  excavating  foundations,  about 
20  ft.  from  the  boundaries  of  the  churchyard  which  adjoins  the  castle,  ten 
or  twelve  human  skeletons  were  found,  buried  probably  at  some  very  distant 
period.  No  tradition  of  such  interment  can  be  traced.  They  lay  in  separate 
graves,  E.  and  W.,  three  excepted,  which  lay  together:  the  graves  being 
cut  out  of  the  hard  clay,  about  4  feet  below  the  surface;  no  trace  of  coffins 
appeared,  but  a  few  fragments  of  charcoal  occurred.  The  remains  were 
evidently  those  of  adults.      The  spur  was  found  at  the  same  place,  about 


L88  PROCEEDINGS    AT    .MKF.TINtJS   <>F 

3  feet  deep,  not  however  in  a  grave.  An  old  parish  road  passes  between 
the  churchyard  and  the  spotwhere  these  remains  lay. 

By  the  Hon.  W.  Fox  Strangways. — A  series  of  drawings  by  Mr.  R.  II. 
Short,  of  Yeovil,  representing  a  ver\  interesting  example  of  domestic  archi- 
tecture in  the  earlier  pari  of  the  XV  1th  century,  Barrington  Court,  near 
Siiuth  Petherton,  Somerset.  It  is  now  the  residence  of  Mr.  Peters.  This 
ancient  mansion  appears  to  have  been  preserved  in  its  original  condition, 
with  scarcely  any  "restorations."  An  account  of  it  was  given  in  the 
Builder. 

By  Mr.  T  .WlLLSON. —  Specimens  of  the  knives  found  at  Crovland,  Lincoln- 
shire, and  traditionally  supposed  to  have  been  of  the  kind  given  to  visitors 
of  Crovland  Abbey,  on  St.  Bartholomew's  day.  This  ancient  custom, 
abolished  by  Abbot  John  de  Wisbech  (1469 — 1476),  had  become  an 
onerous  expense  to  the  monastery.  It  had  been  introduced,  as  stated  by 
Gougb  in  his  history  of  the  Abbey,  in  allusion  to  the  knife  with  which  the 
saint  had  been  flayed.  (  Bibl.  Top.  Brit.  No.  XI.  p.  70.)  Gough  observes 
that  a  number  of  these  knives,  found  in  the  ruins  of  the  abbey  and  in  the 
river,  were  in  the  possession  of  a  local  collector,  and  he  gives  representa- 
tions of  several,  from  drawings  in  the  Minute  books  of  the  Spalding 
Society.  Mr.  Willson  brought  also  a  local  token,  "  The  Poores  halfe  : 
peny  of  Croyland,  1670,"  on  the  reverse  of  which  appear  three  knives 
with  three  whip-,  the  latter  supposed  to  have  been  used  by  St.  Guthlac. 

By  Mr.  J.  II.  MATHEWS. — A  small  round  plate  of  mixed  metal,  originally 
enamelled,  displaying  the  arms  of  Charles  I.,  and  probably  intended  to 
be  affixed  to  the  central  boss  of  a  large  dish  or  charger. 

By  Captain  OaKES. — A  small  watch,  of  the. With  century,  in  the  form  of 
a  shell;  it  bears  the  maker's  name — "  Tho.  Reeue  In  Popes  head  Alev," 
and  the  initials  B.  P.  A  key,  probably  of  contemporary  date;  and  a  seal, 
with  the  device  of  an  anchor  passing  through  a  heart,  arc  appended.  Also, 
a  small  relique,  such  as  were  worn  l>v  partisans  of  Charles  L,  a  silver  heart, 
with  a  heart  on  one  Bide  transfixed  by  arrows  in  Baltire,  and  the  posy — "  I 
Hue  and  die  in  Loyaltie."  On  the  other  side,  a  skull,  with  the  initials,  C.R. 
— "  Prepared  be  to  follow  mee." 

Impressions  from  Seal-. — By  the  Rev.  EDWARD  Trollope.-  Impressions 
from  two  matrices  found  in  Lincolnshire.     One  of  them,  of  oval  form,  is  of 

had,  and  IB  engraved  on  both  Bides.       The  central  compartment  on  one  side 

is  in  the  form  of  the  Norman  or  "  kite-shaped  "  shield,  and  the  device  is  a 
fleur  '1"  l\  b.  The  inscription  is  as  follows  : — sigill'  .  ma  .  .  .  m,'  |  ? )  nichol', 
I  late,  X  1 1 1th  century.  The  work  on  the  other  side  is  of  rude  and  probably 
later  execution  :  the  device  ia  a  leaf  or  branch  1  ?)  with  the  inscription, 

*  -'  j  ■  •  1  r '  1  .  .  ,  OR' ALA.    This  matrix  was  found  in  the  parish  of  I'dankiiev,  near 

Lincoln.  The  second  matrix  was  found  in  the  adjacenl  parish  of  Scopwick, 
ubjecl  represented  upon  it  is  the  death  of  St.  Peter,  Martyr,  murdered, 
in  1252,  near  Milan,  by  the  hired  at  assinsofthe  Manicbee  heretics,  whose 
principles  be  bad  zealouslj  opposed.  The  martyr  appears  in  the  Dominican 
habit,  kneeling,  and  one  of  the  murderers,  probably  representing  Carinus, 
afterwards  admitted  into  the  Dominican  convent  at  Forli,  cleaves  the  head 
of  the  Sainl  with  a  sword.'    Beneath  is  introduceda  monk,  kneeling.    'I  he 

B     •'     Livi  ioI  the  Saints,  April      useful  manual  of  tlie"  Emblems  of  Sainta," 
uriot     1      r  •     "'  ttioni        p.  I  I  1 . 
n  hi    1  in  •  nbeth'a 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  189 

following  inscription  indicates  that  his  name  was  Warm. — svscipe  :  petre  : 
altvi  :  (?)  devoti  :  vota  :  waiiini.  This  matrix  is  of  hrass,  of  pointed-oval 
form,  with  a  ridge  upon  the  reverse,  terminating  in  a  loop  for  suspension. 
Date,  XlVth  century. 

By  Mr.  Ready,  2,  St.  Botolph's  Lane,  Cambridge. — A  small  heraldic 
seal  of  good  design,  of  which  impressions  are  preserved  in  the  treasury  at 
Pembroke  College,  Cambridge.  It  is  the  seal  of  William  Giflard,  valectus 
to  the  foundress,  Mary,  Countess  of  Pembroke,  t.  Edw.  III.  The  bearing 
is  a  lozenge  within  a  double   tressure  flory  and  counter-flory. — SIGILLVM. 

WILLELMI.  GIFFARD. 

By  Mr.  J.  Gougii  Niciiols. — Impressions  from  two  signet-rings,  bearing 
as  a  device  the  "  Jerusalem  cross,"  or  cross  potent  between  four  crosslets, 
the  insignia  of  the  kingdom  of  Jerusalem,  worn  likewise  on  the  mantle  of 
the  knights  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre. fi  This  device  is  regarded  as  emble- 
matical of  the  Five  wounds  of  our  Lord.  On  one  of  these  rings,  of  gold, 
purchased  at  Brighton,  the  cross  appears  between  two  olive  branches,  with 
the  word  Jerusalem  in  Hebrew  characters,  beneath  ;  on  the  other,  the 
branches  alone  are  introduced.  The  ring  last-mentioned,  which  is  of  silver, 
is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Thompson,  of  Leicester.  These  are  supposed  to 
be  memorial  rings  brought  as  tokens  of  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  City. 

March  2,  1855. 
The  Hon.  Richard  C.  Neville,  F.S.A.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  W.  W.  E.  Wynne,  M.P.,  gave  a  short  account  of  the  discovery  of 
burnt  bones  at  a  circle  of  stones  near  Llanaber,  Merionethshire.  In  the 
excavations  which  he  had  caused  to  be  made  with  the  view  of  ascertaining 
the  character  of  that  ancient  site,  he  had  found  several  flakes  or  chippings 
of  flint,  with  very  sharp  edges,  possibly  the  points  of  arrows.  No  silex 
occurs  in  the  neighbourhood,  Mr.  Wynne  also  produced  facsimiles  taken 
in  plaster  and  gutta  percha  from  the  singular  sword-like  impressions  on 
two  rocks  near  Barmouth,  as  described  by  Mr.  Ffoulkes  in  this  Journal, 
vol.  ix.  p.  91.  The  place  is  called  "the  Field  of  the  Swords;"  and  on 
each  of  these  rocks,  which  appear  originally  to  have  formed  one  mass,  now 
riven  asunder,  there  appears  an  indent,  about  2  ft.  7  in.  in  length,  resem- 
bling a  leaf-shaped  British  sword.  Tradition  points  out  the  spot  as  the 
scene  of  a  battle.  Mr.  Wynne  observed  that  he  had  considered  it  possible 
these  cavities  might  be  natural,  arising  from  the  structure  of  the  rock,  or 
some  fossil  remains  which  had  been  imbedded  in  it.  On  submitting  the 
casts,  however,  with  specimens  of  the  rock,  to  the  best  authorities  at  the 
Museum  of  Economic  Geology,  it  had  been  decidedly  affirmed  that  they 
are  not  organic. 

The  Rev.  J.  Collingwood  Bruce,  LL.D.,  communicated  some  remarks 
on  the  Roman  Inscription  discovered  at  Bath.     (See  p.  93,  in  this  volume.) 

The  Hon.  Richard  Neville  read  a  memoir  on  the  deep  shafts  which  he 
had  discovered  at  the  Roman  station  at  Chesterton.  (Printed  in  this  volume, 
p.  109.) 

A  discussion  ensued  on  the  purpose  of  these  singular  pits,  frequently 
found  near  Roman  sites.  Mr.  Octaviua  Morgan,  Mr.  A.  Way,  Mr.  Hunter, 
the  Hon.  W.  Fox  Strangwaya  and  Mr.  J.  Gough  Nichols,  alluded  to  the 
various  opinions  of  antiquaries  regarding  them.     Some  suppose  these  shafts 

,;  Bonanni,  Ordinum  Equeatrium  Catalogus,  pi.  1  <>.">,  160. 
VOL.   XII.  c    c 


L90  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OP 

to  be  the  cesspools  of  Roman  dwellings  :  Mr.  Thomas  Wright  regards 
them  as  cloacae.     The  evidence  appears  strongly    against  the  conjecture 

that  they  wen"  wells.  They  have  been  considered  with  some  degree  of 
probability  to  have  been  silos — subterraneous  granaries,  similar  to  the 
»'  Mattamorea "  in  Barbary,  in  which  the  grain  is  deposited  as  soon  as 
winnowed.  Shaw  states  in  his  Travels  that  two  hundred  or  throe  hundred 
of  these  magazines  occur  together,  the  smallest  containing  four  hundred 
bushels.     Dr.  Russell  Bays  they  abound  near  Aleppo. 

Mr.  OcTAViua  Morgan,  M.P.,   save  the  following  account  of  a  German 

MS.  chronicle  of  Strasburg,  which  he  brought  for  examination,  from  the 

library  of  Sir  Charles  Morgan,  Bart.     "This  ancient  German  manuscript 

■  n  in  the  possession  of  my  family  for  many  years.     How  or  when  it 

into  our  possession  I  do  not  know,  hut  it  lias  certainly  been  in  the 

library  at  Tredegar  nearly  a  century. 

"  It  is  entitled  '  Chronicles  of  all  the  most  memorable  histories  and  acts 
of  the  city  of  Strasburg  from  the  Flood  to  the  year  1330.'  The  MS.  was, 
however,  written  about  the  year  1612,  which  is  the  latest  date  found  in  it, 
and  the  binding  also  hears  the  date  1(>14.  It  must  then  have  been  com- 
piled  from  earlier  sources,  though  neither  the  authorities,  nor  the  names  of 
either  writer  or  artist  are  given.  It  is  beautifully  written  in  a  minute 
old  German  hand,  rather  flourished  in  some  of  the  letters,  which,  coupled 
with  the  different  mode  of  spelling  certain  word-,  renders  it  at  times 
difficult  to  read  and  understand.  It  is  richly  ornamented  throughout  with 
elaborate  illuminations,  representing  certain  historical  .subjects,  of  which 
the  title-page  contains  four,  the  portraits  or  figures  of  the  Roman  and 
German  emperors,  some  on  horseback,  and  some  on  foot,  and  also  with 
heraldry,  giving  on  the  fly-leaf  to  the  title-page,  the  arms  of  the  city,  and 
red  throughout  the  volume  are  the  arms  of  all  the  Bishops,  as  well 
as  those  of  various  cities.  1'rinces,  and  other  persons.  These  illuminations 
are  well  executed  with  the  most  minute  delicacy,  and  the  brilliancy  of  the 
colours,  ami  the  e\<|ui.-ite  manner  in  which  the  gold  ami  silver  are  applied, 
are  well  deserving  of  attention.  It  is  written  on  paper  of  very  tine  quality, 
and  rather  a  yellowish  hue,  probably  the  result  of  age,  ami  it  has  tor  a 

paper-mark  in  the  middle  of  the  pages,  a  shield  of  arms  surmounted  by  a 
Crown,  and  from  the  bottom    of    the    shield  is  dependent    the   golden    lleere. 

At  the  beginning  ami  end  of  the  1 k  are  Beveral  fly  leaves  of  marbled 

paper   of   various  Colours,  which   1  think  are  early  and  rare    specimens  —  the 

hook   al-o  contains   a   minutely  engraved   bird's-eye  view  of  the  city  of 
burg,  dateil  I 597. 

"  It   would  nut  hi'  worth  while  to  go  through  all  the  details  of  this  MS., 

which  i-  inl  I  with  vet  e    and  poetry,  which  usually  accompany  the 

illuminations,  tt  however  begins  with  the  Deluge,  and  here  at  the  commence- 
ment we  have  a  new  historical  Pact  recorded,  \i/..,  that  Noah  had  a  fourth 
ion  born  after  the  flood,  and  of  him  do  the  Germans  descend.  Thil 
fourth  on  of  Noah  was  the  great  and  mighty  hero  Tuisco,  who,  with  thirty 
other  heroee  and  princes,  his  kinsmen,  and  much  people,  travelled  out  of 
aero     the  water  into  Europe,  ami  to  Germany,  where  he  Bottled, 

and   divided  that    portion   of  the  World   ill i"    1    lu      followers.        IY"lil   'I'm   CO, 

do  !'      Teutonic   nations  derive  both  their  origin  ami   name, 

to  our   Chronicle.     This  To or   'I'm  in  is   a   verj    ancient 

.    I   think,  mentioned  by  Tacitus  as  one  of  tin  -  od    <>! 
the  German  tril  ■'■  to  have    prune  from  the  earth,  hot  we 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  19] 

have  here  a  new  parent  assigned  to  him.  Jajilict  is  not  mentioned  among 
the  emigrants,  but  Gomer,  Tubal,  and  others  of  his  sons  are  among  the 
thirty  heroes,  from  one  of  whom  named  Albion,  does  our  island  derive  its 
people  and  name.  Tuisco  reigned  118  years,  and  instructed  his  people  in 
the  art  of  writing.  We  are  also  informed  that  Treves  is  the  oldest  city  in 
Germany,  having  been  built  by  king  Trebectra,  the  son  of  Semiramis,  who 
fled  from  Babylon  to  escape  from  the  solicitations  of  his  mother,  took  ship 
and  came  and  settled  at  Treves.  As  the  population  increased  the  cities  of 
Cologne,  Mayence,  Worms,  Strasburg  and  Basle  were  built,  and  that 
Strasburg  was  a  populous  city  1200  years  before  the  Christian  era,  and 
came  into  the  hands  of  the  Romans  at  the  time  of  Julius  Cassar.  It  then 
gives  an  account  of  all  the  Roman  emperors,  with  their  portraits,  and  the 
kings  of  the  Franks  before  and  after  the  Christian  era.  The  history  of 
the  Cathedral  is,  that  it  was  first  founded  by  Clodoveus  (Clovis)  the  forty- 
eighth  king  of  the  Franks,  a.d.  500;  that  being  chiefly  built  of  wood  it  was 
burnt  by  lightning  in  1007;  that  in  1015  the  rebuilding  commenced,  and 
that  in  1275  it  was  all  completed  except  the  towers,  that  they  were  begun 
in  1277  by  Master  Ehrwein  of  Steinbach,  and  in  1305  were  carried  up  to 
where  the  spire  begins  by  John  Hultzer  of  Cologne,  when  the  master  of 
the  works  dying  the  work  came  to  a  stand,  but  that  at  length  the  tower 
was  completed  by  a  native  of  Swabia.  It  also  gives  an  account  of  all  the 
bishops  of  Strasburg  (the  see  having  been  founded  in  640),  and  their 
armorial  bearings  ;  the  emperors  of  Germany,  with  their  portraits  and 
arms,  and  the  mayors  and  Stadtmeisters  of  Strasburg,  who  began  in  1271. 
Amongst  many  other  historical  events  it  records  all  the  great  conflagrations 
in  the  German  cities,  severe  winters,  great  storms,  appearance  of  comets,  <fcc. 
The  last  event  recorded  is  in  1327,  when  a  dreadful  fire  suddenly  broke 
out  in  the  house  of  a  currier,  in  the  Curriers'  street  in  Strasburg,  and 
burnt  down  all  one  side  of  the  street,  and  fourteen  houses  on  the  other.  In 
addition  to  these  chronicles  it  gives  the  ordinances  and  forms  of  proceeding 
in  all  the  different  councils  and  courts  of  Strasburg,  and  the  oaths  taken 
by  the  various  officers,  and  concludes  with  finely  painted  representations  of 
all  the  costumes  of  the  different  classes  of  society  in  Strasburg  at  the 
period  at  which  it  was  written.  This  is  the  most  interesting  and  curious 
part  of  the  book,  not  only  from  the  great  beauty  and  minutely  detailed 
finish  of  the  paintings,  but  because  it  is  very  rare  to  meet  with  a  complete 
series  of  coloured  costumes,  as  well  ceremonial  as  ordinary,  of  all  the  grades 
of  society,  both  male  and  female,  from  the  chief  officers  and  nobles  to  the 
humble  peasantry  of  any  country  at  any  period,  and  especially  one  so  early 
as  the  beginning  of  the  XVIIth  century." 

Mr.  P.  Orlando  Hutciiinsox,  of  Sidmouth,  communicated  a  notice  of  a 
sepulchral  slab,  in  the  middle  aisle  of  the  nave  at  East  Budleigh  church, 
Devon,  commemorating  Joan,  the  first  wife  of  Walter  Raleigh,  father  of  the 
distinguished  statesman  and  favourite  of  Elizabeth.  She  was  the  daughter, 
according  to  Prince  (Worthies  of  Devon,  p.  530)  of  John  I  Make  of  Kxmouth. 
Walter  Raleigh  originally  resided,  as  it  is  stated,  at  Fardel,  in  the  parish 
of  Cornwood  near  Plymouth,  and  having  a  lease  of  the  farm  and  house 
called  Bays  in  the  parish  of  East  Budleigh,  he  removed  to  that  place,  where 
Sir  Walter  was  born  in  1552.  In  his  letter  to  Mr.  Duke,  owner  of  Hays, 
written  from  the  court  in  1584,  Sir  Walter  expresses  his  desire  to  purchase 
the  house  in  which  he  Mas  born.  Sir  Walter  was  the  second  son.  by  a 
second    marriage  ;    his    mother    was    Catherine,   daughter  of   Sir   Philip 


i.92  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS  OF 

Champernon.  Tlie  Blab,  which  appears  to  he  of  dark  grey  shite,  measures 
4  ft.  !>  in.  by  2  ft.  8  in  ,  and  a  cross  flory  is  engraved  upon  it,  resembling 

rign  the  crosses  usually  found  on  memorials  of  an  earlier  date.  The 
character  of  this  cross,  as  compared  with  the  less  skilful  execution  of  the 
inscription  around  the  margin,  has  led  the  Rev.  Dr.  Oliver,  who  gives  a 

mentation  of  the  dab  in  his  "  Ecclesiastical  Antiquities  in  Devon," 
vol.  ii.  p.  64,  to  conjecture  thai  the  inscription  bad  been  cut  over  a  more 
ancient  memorial.  It  is  now  greatly  defaced  by  time,  and  partly  illegible  ; 
the  letters  stand  out  on  a  sunk  ground,  which  was  doubtless  tilled  in  with 
dark  coloured  substance.  The  inscription,  in  large  ornamental 
character,  is  remarkable  in  this  respect  that  the  letters  are  reversed 
throughout,  reading  from  right  to  left,  a  caprice  hitherto  unexplained,  and, 
as  it  is  believed,  peculiar  to  this  slab. — orate  pro  aTa  [OHAkme   ualeyii 

VX(ORIS)  WALT']  RA.LEYH  .  .  .  QVE  OMIT  X°  DIE  MENS*  AVdVSTI  (?  )  ANNO  DNI 
MCC  .  .  .  Mr.  Hutchinson  stated  the  popular  tradition  that  the  head  of 
Sir  Walter  Raleigh  was  brought  to  Devonshire  by  his  widow,  and  huried 
under  this  slab  at  Budleigh.  It  was  his  desire,  in  his  farewell  letter  to  his 
wife,  that  his  remains  should  be  interred  either  at  Sherborne,  or  in  Exeter 
Cathedral,  near  his  father  and  mother  :  his  corpse  was,  however,  taken  to 
St.  Margaret's,  Westminster,  after  his  execution,  and  buried  in  the  chancel. 
Mr.  Hutchinson  sent,  with  a  rubbing  of  the  cross  slab  above  described,  a 
sentation  of  the  date  1537,  in  Arabic  numerals  of  early  forms  ;  it  is 
cut  on  the  woodwork  of  the  seat  in  the  nave  of  Budleigh  church,  said  to 
been  occupied  by  Walter  Raleigh  and  his  family.  Also  a  representa- 
tion of  a  rudely-incised  slab  in  the  south  aisle,  bearing  the  name,  Roger 
Vowles  (  I )  without  date. 

Mr.  Le  Ki:i\  read  a  short  notice  of  some  fragments  of  the   sculptured 
-  found  at  Bakewell,  Derbyshire,  during  the  restoration  of  the  church. 
He  brought  several  drawings  received  from  Mr.  Barker,  of  Bakewell,  repre- 
senting three  early  Christian  reliques  which  had  been  built  in  and  used  as 
materia]  in  forming  the  piers  and  walls  of  the  porch.     Of  these  fragments 
one  is  part  of  a  shaft,  with  interlaced  ornaments  of  a  \cvy  early  type,  but 
only  now  present  any  sculptured  work,  the  broad  faces  having 
been  cut  away.     The  material  is  sandstone.     Height  of  the  fragment  33 
Another  is  part  ot  the  head  of  a  cross,  possibly  a  portion  of  that 
now  Btanding  in  the  churchyard  at  Bakewell,  and  of  which  a  representation 
has  been  given,  by  Mr.  Le  Keux's  kindness,  in  this  Journal,  vol.  xi.  p.  282. 
The  running  moulding  round  the  outer  edge  of  this  fragment  is  similar  to 
one  now  remaining  on  the  upper  pan  of  that  shaft.     Another  fragment,  of 
.ii,'!  tone,  now  present!  three  sculptured  tacts,  the  fourth  having  been  cut 
Height,  35  inch         It    eems  singular,  Mr,  Le Keux observed, that 
remains  of  object              acred  a  nature  Bhould  have  been  thus  inconsider- 
ately u  ed  a    mere  building  material  ;  thej  are  evidently  of  an  earlier  age 
than  the  sculptun  d  monuments  <>l  the  Norman  period.     I  te  produced  also  n 
rapbed  representation  ol  part  of  the  head  of  a  cross  of  Norman  work, 
iting  a  curious  mixture  of  interlaced  with  diaper  ornament,  which  he 
dered  a  new  feature  in  work  of  the  period. 
Mi.1',  i               offered    om<  observations  on  old  plate,  which  might  he 
:  with  interest  in  connexion  with   the    r<   earches   of    Mr.   M 
tablishing  the  li  ti  of  a    aj  mark    prior  to  the  time  whin  thi- 
ol  the  Gold  until  '  C pany  commence.     \l<-  produced  a    mall 

which  had  b igarded  by    ome  per  ona  as  a  chalice; 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 


193 


it  was  found  imbedded  in  the  mud,  in  forming  the  docks  at  Newport, 
Monmouthshire,  about  the  year  1838.  Tbe  marks  are  the  leopard's  bead, 
lion  passant,  the  initials,  G.  W.,  and  black  letter  capital,  fft,  indicating  tbe 
year  16G9,  according  to  Alphabet  XII.  in  the  useful  lists  for  which  we  are 
indebted  to  Mr.  Morgan,  given  in  this  Journal,  vol.  x.  p.  36.  Mr.  Cowlnirn 
brought  also  a  salver,  the  date  of  which  he  was  enabled  to  ascertain  by  the 
same  lists  to  be  16G7. 


•Hnttquittr^  airtr  KUorfcS  of  girt  eyhtbttco". 

By  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society. — Two  bronze  weapons,  from 
the  collection  of  the  late  Mr.  Deck.  One  is  a  strong  blade  which  had  been 
attached  to  the  haft  by  four 

massive   rivets.      Length,  ^ 

11  inches  ;  width,  near  the 
rivets,  4  inches.  It  bears 
much  resemblance  to  that 
found  in  Shropshire,  repre- 
sented in  this  Journal,  vol. 
xi.  p.  414.  Found  near 
Maney,  Cambridgeshire,  in 
the  fen.  The  other  is  a 
portion  of  a  weapon  of  very 
skilful  workmanship.  In 
form  and  proportions  it  is 
similar  to  those  which 
might  be  produced  from 
the  stone  moulds  found 
near  Chudleigh,  Devon,  re- 
presented in  this  Journal, 
vol.  ix.  p.  185.  The  centre 
of  the  blade  is  formed  with  three  sharp  ridges  ;  the  haft  was  attached  by  two 
rivets.  Found  near  Waterbeach.  A  diminutive  urn  of  the  class  designated 
as  "  incense  cups  "  by  the  late  Sir  R.  Colt  Hoare.  It  was  found  within  a 
large  urn  filled  with  fragments  of  bone  in  the  "  Twin  Barrow,"  Bincombe 
Down,  Dorset.  Presented  to  the  Society  by  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Smith.  Height, 
1^  inches.  Diameter,  nearly  3  inches.  On  one  side  there  are  two  small 
perforations,  as  if  for  suspension.  (See  woodcut.)  An  account  of  the  discovery 
is  given  in  the  Communications  to  the  Society,  No.  V. 

By  Mr.  W.  J.  Bekxhard  Smith. — A  sculptured  fragment,  in  Greek 
marble,  recently  found  at  Rome  near  tbe  catacombs.  It  appears  to  repre- 
sent a  horse. 

By  Mr.  Franks.— Several  bronze  palstaves,  found  near  Goudhurst,  Kent, 
three  of  them  presented  to  the  British  Museum  by  Mr.  S.  Stringer.  Eight 
were  discovered  piled  up  in  regular  order,  and  they  arc  in  remarkably 
perfect  preservation.     They  have  no  loops  at  the  side. 

By  tbe  Hon.  RlCHARD  Nevillk. — Several  reliques  of  bronze  found  at 
Chesterford  and  tbe  Saxon  Cemetery  at  Little  Wilbrahain  ;  they  con- 
sisted of  objects  of  personal  ornament,  a  Roman  ring  of  bronze,  formed 
to  serve  as  a  key,  another  bronze  ring,  kc.  Mr.  Neville  also  brought 
a  silver  ring  of  the  XVth  century,  lately  found  on  the  White  Farm, 
at    Kingston  Lacy,    Dorset.     On    the    facets   of   the  head   are  engraved 


l'.'l  PROCEEDINGS   AT    MEETINGS   OF 

diminutive  figures  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  ami  a 
female  saint  holding  a  pyx  with  a  conical  cover,  probably  Mary  Magdalene. 
Another  silver  ring  had  been  found  in  the  same  locality  two  years  since. 
Mr.  Neville  has  recently  added  to  his  Dactylotkeca  another  ring  of  the  same 
as  that  from  Kingston  Lacy,  with  similar  figures  of  St.  John  the 
Evangelist  and  a  female  hearing  a  pyx.  It  is  of  silver,  the  hoop  formed 
with  clasped  hands,  like  the  rings  supposed  to  have  been  given  at  betrothals, 
which  usually  bear  inscriptions  without  any  device.  This  ring,  which  had 
been  in  the  possession  of  the  late  Mr.  Windus,  was  stated  to  have  heen 
fonnd  in  digging  one  of  the  cofferdams  for  New  London  Bridge. 

By  Mr.  Bsinbken,  of  Sidmouth. — A  bronze  figure  representing  Chiron 
with  Achilles  on  bis  hack.  It  was  found  in  1840  by  some  fishermen  on 
the  beach  under  the  cliffs  near  Sidmouth,  on  the  Salcombe  side  of  the  river 
Sid.  Two  representations  of  this  singular  relique,  undoubtedly  the  head  of 
a  Roman  standard,  may  be  seen  in  Gent.  Mag.,  vol.  xix.  N.  S.,  p.  505. 
1  suffered  by  long  exposure  to  the  action  of  the  sea,  and  some  small 
pebbles  are  still  attached  to  it.  The  hit.  arm  is  bent  out  of  the  original 
position  ;  the  legs  of  the  centaur  are  broken,  and  the  design  is  now  with 
difficulty  to  he  understood.  Chiron  is  probably  represented  as  giving 
instruction  in  held  sports  to  the  youthful  Achilles,  who  appears  to  have 
held  a  how,  with  a  para  zonium  at  his  left  side,  and  a  parma  slung  between 
hi-  shoulders.  The  centaur's  right  hand  may  have  grasped  a  hunting  spear, 
it  new  appears  extended  to  a  dog  leaping  up  in  front.  Tins  bronze  measures 
7  inches  in  height,  including  a  square  socket  or  8captC8  below  the  figure,  by 
which  it  was  atlixed  to  the  shaft.  Mr.  lleinckcn  ohscrved  that  this  figure 
had  been,  possibly,  carried  by  a  cohort  of  the  second  legion  of  Carausius. 
'I  he  centaur  appears  to  have  heen  the  device  of  that  corps  ;  it  appears  also 
mi  coins  of  GrallienUB,  relating  to  the  Legio  II.  Parthica.  The  animals 
enumerated  by  Pliny  as  placed  on  Roman  standards  are,  the  eagle,  wolf, 
minotaur,  hoar  and  horse,  corresponding  to  the  live  great  military  divisions, 
Objects  of  this  description   are   of  great  rarity  ;   an  example  of  the  horse  is 

red    in   the    c Irich   Court    Armory.'      Roman   coins   have    heen 

rrequi  ntly  brought  to  light  on  the  shore  at  Sidmouth,  although  no  distinct 
evidence  of  Roman  occupation  can  now  he  traced  on  that  part  of  the  coast. 

There  '.ever,  on  tlie   heights  in  that    locality  earthworks  and  other 

vestiges  which  deserve  examination  ;  the  hill-fortress  called  Sidbury  Castle 
is  distant  about  three  miles  to  the  northward. 

By  the  Hun.  \V.  Pox  Stranowats.  The  recent  publications  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries  of  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Baden,  in  which  has  been 
given  a  Lithochromic  representation  of  a.  bronze  Roman  Btandard,  in  the  form 
of  a  caoricom.  It  was  found  in  L850  at  Otterschwang,  near  Pfullendorf, 
in  Baden.  In  the  accompanying  memoir  by  Dr.  /.ell  a  copious  mass  of 
curious  information  has  heen  brought  together  on  Roman  rigna  and  vexilla. 
Mr.  8l  called  attention  to  the  remarkable  Roman  structure  illus- 

:   in  another  niimher  of  the     81  tl"'  castle  of  Steinsberg,  near 

im,  of  octagonal  form,  built  by  Trajan,  or  at  latest  bj   Caracalla, 

HI. i  trations,  rol.  i.  pL   ' 6  '  nd   or   Britannic    Legion,  it  being  re- 

i                                              thi  l<  opard,  cordi  ■  !  thai  an    I  ,     lift   .  on  a  di  f<  at   in 

Domeiii.pl  64,65,  Franconia  in  the  timi    ol   \<>  ><  tus,  buried 

und    at  tin   ■  a  le.     it  «■  igha  71b.,  and  mei  m •  i 

i                    .  found  al  1 3  inche    in  hi  i  ;bt     A   ram  occurs  on 

it  of  thi  ■    i  tndai  d  on  Tj               i  inn. 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  195 

and  presenting  an  instructive  example  of  the  Roman  system  of  fortification 
as  shown  in  Germany,  a  central  insulated  tower  with  a  high  and  strong 
enceinte.  He  ohserved  that  Skenfrith  Castle  in  Monmouthshire  presents 
some  analogy  in  its  general  arrangement.  In  the  same  publication  by  the 
Baden  Society  is  represented  a  singular  effigy  of  St.  Nothburga,  existing 
at  Ilochhausen  on  the  Neckar,  a  crowned  figure,  on  an  altar  tomb.  She 
holds  a  serpent  (?).  from  whose  mouth  hangs  a  branch  or  sprig  of  some 
plant,  and  the  same  animal  appears  at  bcr  feet.  This  subject  is  accom- 
panied by  a  memoir  by  C.  B.  Fickler.  The  advancement  of  Archaeological 
Science  in  Germany,  Mr.  Strangways  remarked,  had  been  greatly  promoted 
through  the  intelligence  of  M.  De  Bayer,  director  of  the  Baden  Society, 
under  whose  care  their  transactions  had  assumed  an  important  position  in 
Archaeological  literature. 

By  Mr.  J.  T.  Irvine. — Representations  of  a  sculptured  stone,  found  in 
the  island  of  Uya  in  Shetland.  It  appears  to  have  been  part  of  a  head- 
stone, and  may  be  assigned  to  the  times  of  the  earliest  introduction  of 
Christianity  in  the  sixth  century, — sketches  of  the  upper  portion  of  the 
chancel-arch  in  the  church  of  Kirk  at  Ness,  North  Yell,  Shetland,  dedicated 
to  St.  Olave  ;  of  a  standing  stone  or  maenkir  in  the  island  of  Yell ;  and  of  a 
head-stone  found  at  a  spot  now  called  the  Kirks  of  Gloup,  in  Yell.  Two 
sketches  of  the  Roman  leaden  coffin  found,  Sept.  1811,  in  the  Old  Kent 
Road,  London.  It  was  ornamented  with  two  figures  of  Minerva  at  top, 
and  two  escallop  shells  at  the  foot,  in  relief.  (Archaeologia,  vol.  xvii.  pi.  25, 
p.  334.)  Also  a  specimen  of  elaborate  medieval  locksmiths'  work,  and  several 
coins. 

By  Mr.  Eohde  Hawkins. — A  chess-piece,  supposed  to  be  a  king,  formed 
of  the  tusk  of  the  walrus.     Date,  Xllth  century. 

By  the  Rev.  Walter  Sxeyd. — A  silver  cross,  exquisitely  engraved.  Date, 
XlVth  century.  It  had  probably  been  fixed  in  a  small  pedestal,  and  used 
in  a  private  oratory.  On  one  side  is  the  crucifix,  with  demi-figures  of  the 
Virgin  and  St.  John  introduced  in  the  quatrefoiled  extremities  of  the 
transverse  limb.  On  the  reverse  is  seen  the  Virgin  and  infant  Saviour,  the 
field  enriched  with  an  elegant  fretty  diaper.  This  beautiful  little  object 
had  probably  been  enriched  with  translucent  enamel,  now  wholly  lost. 

By  Mr.  Edward  W.  Godwin. — Representation  of  two  mural  paintings  in 
Ditteridge  church,  Wiltshire,  subsequently  to  the  discovery  previously 
noticed  in  this  Journal,  vol.  x.  p.  78.  One  subject  in  the  compartments 
lately  exposed  represents  St.  Christopher,  a  mermaid  is  introduced  in  front 
of  the  Saint's  statf  ;  the  other  is  St.  Michael  holding  the  scales  of  judgment ; 
the  image  of  Sin  in  one  of  them  is  very  expressive.  Also  drawings  of  three 
sculptured  figures  found  some  years  since,  built  into  an  interior  wall  of  the 
Angel  Inn,  Marshfield,  Gloucestershire.  One  of  them  is  the  Virgin,  seated, 
and  probably  formed  the  centre  of  a  series.  They  are  all  crowned.  Frag- 
ment of  a  medieval  dish  of  glazed  ware,  of  highly  ornamented  character,  pos- 
sibly Moorish.  It  was  found  on  the  site  of  the  Dominican  Priory  at  Bristol, 
and  when  entire  the  dish  must  have  measured  about  9i  inches  in  diameter. 
By  Mr.  Ootavius  Morgan,  M.P. — An  episcopal  ring  of  silver  gilt,  set 
with  a  large  cut  garnet,  and  opening  with  a  box  to  contain  relies.  Three 
singular  lanterns,  one  of  bronze,  of  the  later  part  of  the  XVIIfch  century, 
one  of  llispano-Arabic  ware,  with  metallic  glaze,  and  ornamented  with 
flowers,  and  a  third  of  red  glazed  ware  with  yellow  spots,  possibly  of 
Flemish  manufacture.  —  A  folding  viatorium,  or  portable  sun-dial,  of 
ivory. 


196 


PEOCEEDIXGS    AT    MEETINGS 


l'.v  lir.W.  IIyi.ton  Longstaffe. — Representations  of  two  sculptured  frag? 

■-.  portions  probably  of  crosses,  existing  in  the  church  at  Stainton-le- 

Etreet,   co.  Durham.     (See  woodcuts.)     Their  date  is  considered  by  Mr. 

WestWOod  to  be  prior  to  the  lXth  century. 


le  of  nave. 

■ .  co.  Durham 

•   |  fool 


X.  wall  ol  choir. 


One  of  tbc  fragments  here  represented  is  built  in  at  an  angle  in  the 

.  tbc  other  Bide  visible  is  quite  plain  ;  the  second  fragment  is  in  the 

North  wall  of  the  choir.    A  road,  apparently  Roman,  ran  through  Stainton- 

'.  The  church  is  placed  on  a  kind  of  platform,  and  it  is  Burrounded 

by  remains  of  buildings  still  to  be  discerned  beneath  the  turf. 

Impressions  from  Seals.  —By  Mr.  Robert  Fitch,  [mpression  from  a 
seal  lately  found  al  Field  Dalling,  near  Holt,  Norfolk.  It.  i>  of  pointed 
oval  form,  the  device  ;-  a  badger  (?)  '  bigill'  *  petrj  *  i>'  dallingb,  Date, 
about  L300.  The  family  of  thai  name  held  lands  in  Dalling  as  early  as 
Pub  John  :  Peter,  on  of  Philip  de  Dalling,  occurs  about  30  Hen,  III., 
and  I  I  Edw,  I.  Eu  tace,  son  of  Peter  de  Dalling,  occurs  2  Edw.  111.  The 
owner  of  this  teal  may  have  been  one  of  the  Rectors  of  Dalling,  the  form 
being   thai    usually   adopted    by   e<  William   de   Dalling   was 

Rector  in  L333  (Blomefield,  vol.  ix.  pp.  219     2  ' 

Bj  Mr.  Readt.  An  extensive  collection  of  casts  from  Beals  of  the 
Imperial    cries,  commencing  with  the  Beal  of  Charlemagne,  ll.  800,  and 

or,   and  comprising  the  greater  pari  of  the 

ificenl  Imperial    eals  ol  the  JCIVth  and  XVth  centuries.     Tl arlier 

■    •     ome    remarkable  illu  trations   of  the  use  of  antique 
or  copies  from  antiqui   .  in  the  Carlovingian  age      A  seal  of  con 
•iderable   inten   t   to  the    Engli  h  collector  i     thai   of   Richard,   Earl   of 

of  the  B hi  ,  I  157,  from  b  remarkably  perfect  impn 

.  on  ilo-  continent, 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 


197 


The  objects   found  in 


April  13,  1855. 

The  Hon.  Richard  C.  Neville,  F.S.A.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

Mr.  Neville  read  the  following  account  of  Roman  sepulchral  remains 
lately  found  in  Essex: — 

"  In  consequence  of  information  received,  I  rode  over  on  the  2nd  April 
to  Ilatfield  Broad  Oak,  Essex,  to  visit  Mr.  Thomas  Cocks,  surgeon,  and 
inspect  Roman  remains  in  his  possession,  discovered  in  the  parish  of  Take- 
ley,  which  intervenes  between  Hatfield  and  that  of  Stanstead  Mountfitchet. 
I  accomplished  my  object,  and  in  the  course  of  a  few  days  received  from 
Mr.  Cocks  a  sketch  of  the  articles  found,  with  a  memorandum  of  the  date 
and  circumstances  of  the  discovery.  The  following  are  the  particulars  sent 
to  me,  with  my  own  observations  on  the  objects  discovered,  and  an  account 
of  another  funeral  deposit  of  similar  nature  more  recently  found  in  the 
same  neighbourhood. 

"  Mr.  Cocks  says — '  In  compliance  with  your  request,  I  send  you  draw- 
ings of  the  articles  found  in  a  field  belonging  to  Mr.  Harvey  Clarke,  not  far 
from  the  road  near  Takeley  Church;  they  were  deposited  in  a  box  about  3 
feet  long  by  1^  deep,  and  fastened  by  the  brass  hasp  now  in  my  possession. 
The  box  was  about  a  foot  and  a  half  from  the  surface.  It  was  found  by  a 
labourer  employed  in  land-ditching,  January,  1849.  The  box  was  greatly 
decayed,  and  the  fragments  crumbled  to  pieces.' 
it  are  as  follow,  and 
the  accompanying 
woodcut  shows  their 
relative  position  in  the 
chest :  —  A  circular 
basin  of  green  glass 
(a),  with  fluted  sides, 
terminating  in  a  le- 
mon-shaped pointed 
end.  This  is  in  the 
possession  of  Mr. 
Clarke,  the  farmer, 
and  I  did  not  see  it; 
in  this  basin  stood  a 
circular  glass  bottle, 
about  8  inches  high,  and  nearly  4  inches  in  diameter,  with  a  reeded  handle. 
This  bottle  was  full  of  clay,  the  soil 
of  the  place,  and  the  inside  of  the  basin 
bears  marks  on  its  surface  made  where 
the  bottle  stood  when  discovered.  Re- 
mains of  probably  an  urn  of  sun-dried 
blue  clay,  (d)  full  of  fragments  of  cal- 
cined bones;  the  clay  of  which  it  was 
made  was  full  of  fragments  of  shells, 
or  pjobably  granulated  with  small  peb- 
bles, of  which  kind  of  pottery  I  have 
many  specimens.  Two  saucers  of  plain 
Samian  ware.  (n.  c.)  with  potters'  marks, 
op.  ponti.  and  martiali.  m.  Under  each  of  these  dishes  were  four 
VOL.  XII.  d    i> 


o 


^ 


19S  PKOL'HEDINCS    AT    MKETINCS    OF 

rings  of  plain  brass,  not  finger  rings,  but  probably  part  of  some  personal 
ornament  of  the  persons  buried.  Similar  rings  arc  of  frequent  occurrence 
in  my  experience  among  Roman  remains.  Mr.  Cucks  appealed  surprised 
when  I  assured  him  they  were  net  what  has  been  frequently  termed  •  ring 
money.'  Two  second  brass  coins;  (p.  p.)  one  of  Vespasian,  one  of  Domitian; 
the  former  coin  baa  been  struck  imperfectly  with  the  head  of  the  emperor 
on  the  reverse  a-  well  a-  obverse,  which  is  properly  stamped.  The  positions 
I'-  objects  are  marked  in  the  Bketch,  described  a-  fragments  of 
lamps  (i:.  i:.  .  butof  these  I  know  nothing  further. 

"  The  other  discovery  to  which  1  have  alluded  took  place  in  the  end  of 
last  February,  or  beginning  of  March,  on  the  property  of  Win.  Fuller 
Miithunl.  Esq.,  of  Stanstead.  The  spot  where  it  occurred  is  in  Takeley 
parish,  near  the  borders  of  Hatfield,  or,  as  it  is  called  there,  Takeley 
Forest,  about  two  miles  to  the  south-east  of  Mr.  Maitland's  residence.  Some 
labourers  were  employed  in  stubbing  an  old  hedge;  an  oak  stood  upon  a 
small  mound  in  the  middle  of  it;  under  this  tree  the  men  found,  and  unfor- 
tunately broke  most  of  the  following  objects,  now  in  Mr.  Maitland's  posses- 
sion, which  I  baveseen  and  examined: — A  circular  lamp  of  bronze,  with  a 
lid  and  top,  about  2  inches  high  and  2  in  diameter;  this  is  uninjured, 
a-  well  as  a  cup  of  the  same  metal  in  form  like  a  modern  drinking 
lioiii,  heing  nearly  4  inches  high,  and  not  quite  1'  in  diameter  at  bottom  and 
top.  Fragments  of  several  other  bronze  vessels  were  shown  to  me,  amongst 
which  I  traced  four  different  one-;  the  most  perfect  of  these  has  a  bronze 
horizontal  handle,  ornamented,  in  Bhape  like  one  found  in  Thornhorough 
harrow,  Bucks,  by  the  Duke  of  Buckingham,  now  in  my  possession,  which 
ha-  belonged  to  a  flat  pan  in  both  instances,  probably  Bacrificial.  I  also 
saw  fragments  of  two  glass  bottles  very  much  shattered.  The  only  vessels 
of  pottery  found  were  an  embossed  Samian  bowl,  which,  though  broken, 
has  been  \>  ry  nearbj  restored.  It  has  the  usual  festoon  and  tassel  border, 
and    medallions,    each    containing    the    wolf  and    twins;   no  maker's    name 

appears  upon  it,  hut  there  e  fragments  wanting,  which  prevents  my 

asserting  there  ha-  been  none.  A  Hat  dish  of  plain  Samian  ware,  with 
potter's  n  ime,  liASCI  i.l.  If.,  and  a  -mail  \e--el  of  the  same  manufacture,  of 
peculiar  shape.     It  is  circular,  rather  more  than  -  inches  diameter  al   top 

and  bottom,  and  a-  many  in  height,  being  in  Bhape  like  a  box  with  a  circu- 
lar hole    in    the    top    hi'.:;    enough  to   admit    the    thumb.       The    ed^es  of   this 

aperture  are  smooth  and  rounded,  and  the  ware  is  perfect.     I   have  never 

•  1  of  similar  form,  hut  ha\e  no  doubl  it  is  an  unguentarium,  for 
which  it  i-  well  adapted.  No  trace,  of  a  wooden  chest  were  observed)  hut 
these  might  easily  escape  the  notice  of  the  labourers.     The  ground  was 

afterward.-,  examined    in    the   vicinity  of  the   mound  without    Ending   further 

remains.     Possibly  when  the  pi  [nolo  ed,  a    nip  of  timber  wa    left 

standing  to  serve  as  a  hedge,  and  the  mound,  which  wa-  no  doubl  a  BmaU 

tumulus,  would  thus  remain  uiuli  t m bed.     The    lite  of  this  discovery   is 

•  n  two  and  three  miles  from  thai  where  the  deposit  first  described  was 

found.-  -In   December,   1851,  s  ra  e  of  light  green  coloured  glass,  with  a 

ottom,  in  shape  like  an  oval  de  »ert  di  b,  and  with  fluted  Bides,  re  em« 

that  in  the  po    e    ion  of  Mr.  Clarke,  of  Saffron  Walden,  was  exhibited 

.'  the  Sooietj  of  A ntiquai ie    bj  Mr.  Roach  Smith.     It  was 

de  ci  ound  in  Takelej  Forest,  which  appeal    to  be  rioh  in  Roman 

dr.  (      '     al  o  informs  me  that  Mr.  Robert  Judd,  a  farmer  01 

II. di.  While  Rod ing,  distant    two  mile    to  the  south  of  Hatfield,  haa 

.  nuracrou  o(  fictile  ware,  amongst  which  he  mentioned  lamps. 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  100 

objects  of  comparatively  rare  occurrence.     White  Roding  is  close  to  Match- 
ing, about  five  miles  from  Harlow." 

Mr.  Blaauw  communicated  a  note  addressed  to  him  by  Mr.  R.  G.  P. 
Mintv,  of  Petersfield,  relating  to  the  discovery  of  Roman  remains,  about 
two  miles  N.  W.  of  that  place,  and  in  the  parish  of  Froxfield,  Hants.  The 
site  is  near  an  encampment  which  has  been  assigned  to  the  Roman  period. 
.Some  labourers  had  recently  brought  to  light  a  place  resembling  a  shallow 
bath,  about  3  ft.  7  in.  square,  paved  with  Roman  flanged  tiles  (16  in.  by 
13  in.),  placed  with  the  flanges  downwards,  and  lined  with  a  row  of  similar 
tiles.  The  depth  of  the  cavity,  when  examined  by  Mr.  Minty,  was  about 
13  inches,  the  width  of  a  tile,  and  at  the  N.W.  angle  were  remains  of 
imbrices,  placed  to  serve  as  draining  tiles  on  the  level  of  the  floor,  and 
apparently  communicating  with  an  adjacent  fosse.  The  subsoil  is  stiff  clay, 
which  would  retain  water  for  a  considerable  time.  Near  the  spot  where 
the  drain  would  open  into  the  fosse,  now  part  of  a  lane,  fragments  of 
Saurian  and  other  Roman  wares  were  recently  found.  On  a  second 
visit  Mr.  Minty  found  the  whole  taken  up  and  broken  in  pieces  through 
wanton  mischief;  he  had,  however,  secured  specimens  of  the  tiles,  which  are 
well  made,  and  the  flanges  cut  so  that  the  tiles  might  dovetail  together;  a 
portion  of  the  flange  being  cut  away  from  the  lower  as  well  as  the  upper  end, 
a  mode  of  adjustment  not  invariably  found  in  Roman  tiles  of  this  kind  in 
England.  The  camp  is  of  small  size,  in  a  strong  position,  defended  by  a 
triple  fosse  on  the  N.  W.  side  and  a  single  fosse  on  the  S.  E.;  it  occupies 
the  termination  of  a  range  of  heights  overlooking  a  valley  of  considerable 
extent.  On  the  N.  E.  side  no  line  of  defence  is  apparent,  but  Roman  tile 
abounds,  with  remains  of  rubble-work,  apparently  foundations.  Earth- 
works, tumuli,  and  other  vestiges,  occur  in  the  adjacent  district. 

Mr.  W.  D.  IIyltox  Longstaffe,  F.S.A.,  author  of  the  History  of  Dar- 
lington, sent  a  memoir  on  the  church  of  Norton,  in  the  county  of  Durham. 
It  will  be  found  in  this  volume,  p.  141. 

The  Rev.  J.  Maugiiax,  Rector  of  Bewcastle,  Cumberland,  communicated 
a  memoir  on  the  sculptured  cross  at  that  place,  and  the  interpretations  of 
the  Runes  engraved  upon  it,  hitherto  unexplained.  They  have  become  in 
great  part  legible  through  the  results  of  an  ingenious  process  for  many 
weeks  carried  on  under  his  care,  in  order  to  detach  the  lichens  with  which 
the  stone  is  encrusted.  Mr.  Maughan  has  very  kindly  presented  to  the 
Institute  a  cast  from  the  principal  inscription,  and  drawings  of  this 
remarkable  cross.      His  memoir  will  be  given  hereafter. 

Mr.  Westwood  read  a  letter  from  Mr.  Shurlock,  of  Chertsey,  relating  to 
the  discoveries  of  decorative  pavement  tiles  on  the  site  of  the  Abbey  Church, 
where  extensive  excavations  are  actually  in  progress.  Very  numerous  frag- 
ments have  recently  been  found;  they  are  all  of  the  same  elaborate  design 
and  artistic  character  as  the  examples,  of  which  Mr.  Westwood  had  pre- 
viously exhibited  careful  delineations  by  Mr.  Shurlock.  (See  page  96,  in 
this  volume.)  Amongst  these  tiles,  which  appear  chiefly  of  the  close  of 
the  XHIth  century,  there  occurs  a  crossbowman  mounted,  his  saddle  being 
formed  with  singularly  high  projection  before  and  behind,  in  order  to  give  a 
firm  seat  and  enable  the  rider  to  take  steady  aim.  Mr.  Hewitt  observed 
that  mounted  arbaletriers  appear  in  illuminations;  for  instance,  in  Roy.  MS. 
20,  D.  i.,  in  the  British  Museum. 

Mr.  Hawkins  related  the  following  singular  discovery  of  gold  coins,  and 
the  liberal  proceedings  of  the  Government  on  this  occasion  in  regard  to  the 
rights  of  Treasure-trove: — 


200  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS    OF 

••  A  few  weeks  since,  as  a  servant  was  chopping  wood,  the  log  of  wood 
which  had  served  for  B  chopping-block  for  several  years,  suddenly  split,  and 
out  flew  fifty  guineas  of  the  reigns  of  Charles  II.  and  James  II.  These  were 
at  once  sent  to  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury,  who,  having  allowed  the  British 
Museum  to  select  Bucfa  as  were  required  for  the  national  collection,  sent 
back  to  the  proprietor  the  remainder,  and  also  the  amount  paid  by  the 
Museum  for  the  Belected  pieces.  It  is  hoped  and  believed  that  the  liberality 
displayed  by  the  Lords  of  the  Treasury,  upon  this  and  other  similar  occa- 
sions, will  be  a  mean-  of  preserving  from  destruction  many  objects  of  interest 
and  value.  It  is  highly  desirable  that  these  proceedings  of  the  Treasury 
should  be  as  extensively  known  as  possible." 

Mr.  Neville  observed  thai  so  gratifying  an  evidence  of  the  disposition  of 
ivernment  to  carry  out  a  more  liberal  course  of  proceeding  in  reference 
to  Treasure-trove,  and  to  adopt  the  practice  which  had  been  attended 
with  most  advantageous reBults  to  archaeological  science  in  Denmark,  must 
be  hailed  by  the  Institute  with  lively  satisfaction.  The  judicious  and 
energetic  proceedings  of  their  noble  President,  and  the  interview  which  the 
Premier  had  given  to  Lord  Talbot,  accompanied  by  a  deputation  from  the 
Society,  in  which  he  (Mr.  Neville)  had  taken  part,  as  also  the  Viscount 
Strangford  and  some  other  leading  members  of  the  Institute,  with  the 
Bpecial  object  of  soliciting  the  attention  of  Government  to  the  evils  which 
arise  from  enforcing  that  ancient  right  of  the  crown,  had  doubtless  contri- 
buted to  this  result.  Mr.  Neville  remarked,  however,  that  antiquaries  were 
especially  indebted  to  the  unwearied  remonstrances  and  mediation  of  Mr. 
Hawkins,  who  for  many  years  had  earnestly  exerted  himself  to  bring  about 
a  more  lenient  and  enlightened  course  of  proceeding  in  such  cases. 

A  conversation  ensued  regarding  the  ultimate  destination  of  the  museum 
formed  byMr.C.  Roach  Smith; — the  importance  of  such  a  classified  series 
of  illustrations  of  the  progressive  manufactures  and  arts  of  the  chief  city  of 
England,  the  habits  and  manners  of  its  inhabitants  at  various  periods,  and 
al  interest  of  the  collection,  formed  exclusively  in  London,  in  its 
bearing  on  historical  inquiries,  and  the  exemplification  of  all  that  concerns 
icial  condition  or  civilisation  of  the  metropolis  in  former  ages.  In 
reply  to  an  inquiry  by  Mr.  Westwood,  it  was  stated  by  Mr.  Hawkins  that 
the   b  the  British  Museum  had  refused  the  offer  of  these  collec- 

tions, which  bad  been  tendered  through  the  President  of  the  Institute,  Lord 
Talbot,  in  conjunction  with  Lord  Londesborough  and  Sir  John  Boileau. 
Mr.  Roach  Smith'-  offer  of  his  museum,  at  the  amount  whioh  he  had 
actually  expended,  had  been  declined,  it  is  understood,  without  anj  proposi* 
tion  for  further  negotiation,  or  explanations  of  the  grounds  on  whioh  so 
valuable  a  means  of  public  instruction  bad  been  rejected. 

flntfqttftfaf  anS  BBfafM  at  cut  ninbttro". 

Mr.  .1.  Sates.     A  collection  of  antique  terracottas,  belonging  to  Mr. 

•  ,  brother  of  the  poet,  and  compri  i  and  ornaments 

everal  of  1  emble  the  examples  pre* 

.  in  the  Briti  b  Mu  eum,  and  engraved  in  th"  Beries  published  by  the 

late  Mr.  Taylor  Combe.     Mr.  Yates  brought  also  a  drawing  of  the  Norman 

keep  it  R  e,  York  hire,  bj  Mr.  Moore,  of  York. 

•  .  througb  kind  permissi f  the  Rev.  S.  B 

irid      hire. — A  bronze  galeated  bust,  found  in  a 

!  pit  with  mucb  broken   Roman  pottery,  in  the  parish  of  Cottenham; 

i  the  ancieut  watercourse,  supposed  to  be  part  of  the   outhern 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 


201 


extension  of  the  Car  Dyke.  (See  Mr.  Babington's  Ancient  Cambridgeshire. 
Publications  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  8vo,p.G5.)  This  remark- 
able relique  of  Roman  art  may  have  been  one  of  the  Imperial  busts  which 
were  attached  to  Roman  standards.  It  measures  8  inches  in  height,  and  is  in 
very  perfect  preservation.  It  deserves  notice,  as  Mr.  Franks  observed,  how 
many  Roman  antiquities  of  a  fine  character  of  art  or  workmanship  have  been 
brought  to  light  in  Cambridgeshire.  He  cited  especially  the  bronze  bust 
for  a  stilyard  weight,  in  Mr.  Neville's  museum,  another  in  the  possession  of 
Mr.  Litchfield  of  Cambridge,  the  bronze  vases  and  prcefericulum  found  some 
years  since  near  Trumpington,  and  now  in  the  Library  at  Trinity  College, 
the  reliques  disinterred  in  the  Bartlow  Hills, 
the  vase  of  Arrhetine  ware  found  at  Foxton, 
in  the  Museum  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian 
Society,  and  the  rich  contents  of  the  Ustrinum 
excavated  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Webb  at  Litlington. 

By  Mr.  Franks. — Two  objects  found  in  the 
Thames, — a  small  bronze  two-edged  blade, 
suited  for  a  knife  or  dagger,  length  only  6 
inches,  and  a  bronze  sheath,  length  8  inches, 
much  resembling  that  found  in  the  lsis,  near 
Dorchester,  figured  in  this  Journal,  vol.  x.,  p. 
259.  (Fig.  on  right  side  of  the  page,  the  bluntly 
pointed  sheath  without  ornament.)  A  third, 
found  in  the  Thames,  is  in  the  Museum  of 
Practical  Geology,  it  was  presented  by  Dr. 
Roots;  and  there  is  one,  not  quite  perfect,  in 
Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith's  Museum,  figured  in  his 
Catalogue,  p.  81.  A  similar  bronze  sheath  is 
in  the  Collection  of  Irish  Antiquities  formed 
by  Mr.  Wakeman,  at  Dublin.  Mr.  Franks 
pointed  out  that  in  the  example  exhibited,  as 
likewise  in  some  others,  there  are  round  holes 
at  about  mid-length,  a  short  distance  from  the 
central  ridge,  not  pierced  one  opposite  to  the 
other,  so  as  to  form  a  continuous  perforation 
through  the  sheath,  but  alternately,  that  on 
one  side  of  the  sheath  being  on  the  dexter  side 
of  the  ridge,  that  on  the  reverse  on  its  sinister 
side.  Plugs  of  wood  usually  appear  in  these 
holes,  the  intention  of  which  has  not  been  ex- 
plained. 

By  Mr.  Way. —  A  representation  of  the 
sculptured  coffin  stone  or  grave  slab,  now  pre- 
served in  the  vestibule  of  the  Fitzwilliam 
Museum,  at  Cambridge.  It  closely  resembles 
the  slabs  found  in  Cambridge  Castle,  when  great 
part  of  it  was  destroyed  in  1810.  There  were  found  at  the  same  time  two 
stone  coffins,  head-stones  with  plain  crosses,  and  the  head  of  a  cross,  such  as 
were  placed  erect  in  cemeteries;  this  iast  is  now  in  the  Architectural 
Museum,  Canon  Row,  and  has  been  figured  in  this  Journal,  vol.  xii., 
p.  70.  Almost  all  these  reliques  present  the  same  character  of  ornament, 
the  gutlloches  or  the  simple  interlaced  riband  pattern,  crosses  at  both  ends 
of  the  slabs,  «fec.     All   the   slabs  are  wider  at    the  head   than    the  foot. 


Coffiu  slab  found  at  Cambridge 
Castle. 

Length, S  ft.  4}  in.    Bremlth  at  top, 
Jl  iu.;  at  foot,  Hi  in. 


20:2 


i'i:dci-:edinc;s  at  meetings  of 


Silver  bl  '  ■        'i  il  size. 


d  have  been  engraved  in  the  Archaeologies  vol.  xvii.,  p,  22S,  with  a 
notice  by  the  late  Rev.  T.  Kerrich,  whose  original  drawings  and  notes  of 
the  discovery  exist  in  the  Brit  Bias.,  Add.  MS.,  6735,  fol.  189,  190. 
The  Castle  at  Cambridge  was  built  by  the  Conqueror;  these  remains 
were  Found  under  the  original  ramparts,  and  their  date  may  be  assigned 
to  the  Xtli  century.  The  Blab  here  represented  was  dug  up  more  recently, 
10  or  12  feet  from  the  foundation  of  the  castle,  to  the  south.  It  lay  nut- 
side  the  castle,  in  gravel,  at  a  depth  of  about  G  feet,  and  in  the  direction  of 
north  and  BOUth.      Date,  about  Xth  century. 

By  Mr.  Yi  i.i.i amy. — Two  bronze  swords,  lately  found  in  the  Thames,  and 
now  preserved  in  Mr.  C.  Roach  Smith's  Museum.  Also  a  bronze  Roman 
armlet,  found  in   London,  from  the  same  collection. 

By  Mr.  WESTWOOD. —  A.  drawing  of  a  small  round  brooch  of  silver,  pre- 
served in  the  British  Museum,  and  bearing  the 
inscription — ►£<  r.i.n.n  v  mi:  an. — JElfgyvuowns 
me  (Aug.  Sax.  agan,  to  own.)  It  was  found 
about  ls!4  at  Chatham.  The  name  JElfgyvu, 
Mi'.  Westwood  observed,  occurs  on  the  Bavoux 
Tapestry;  Stothard's  plates,  Vetusta  Monum. 
vol.  vi.,  pi,  4.  Mr.  Westwood  brought  also  a 
benitoire,  or  small  holy-water  vessel  of  crystal, 
of  the  XVIIth  century,  engraved  on  the  re- 
verse in  the  same  manner  as  the  circular 
••magic  crystal"  of  King  Lothaire  (A.D.  954 
— 9SG),  formerly  at  the  Abbey  of  Vasor,  and 
lately  purchased  for  the  British  Museum  at  the 
Bernal  sale.  On  this  object  the  history  of  Susanna  appears,  cut  in  intaglio, 
and  seen  through  the  crystal.  Over  the  central  subject  is  inscribed — 
"  Lothariusrcx  Francorum  fieri  jussit."  The  vessel  shown  by  Mr.  Westwood, 

a-  an  earlier  example  of   the  same  kind  of  art,  presents  the    instruments  of 

the   Pas   inn — the  cross,   scourge,  verniclo,   sponge,    spear,    ladder,  hammer, 

pincers,  chalice,  three  dice,  the  cock  on  a  pillar,  the  purse,  lantern.  Beam- 

Bword,  with  the  ear  of  Malchus.      At  the  foot  of  the 
.ire    three    nail-.       Mr.   WestW 1    produced    a    drawing  of    a    painted 

panel  at  Cassington  Church,  Oxfordshire,  on  which  the  symbols  and  instru- 
ments of  our  Lord's  Passion  are  Bhown  in  marlv  the  Bame  manner. 

By  the  Rev.  W  \i.i  eh  Snei  d.-  -  The  horn  of  an  ox.  mounted  in  uilt  metal 
as  a  drinking  horn,  thus  inscribed  around  the  mouth  —  <©p;  utaato:  laha: 
inth  :  a:  maato:  <5ra:  nuh:  lonotic.  (or   Ioitooc),  which  may   be   rendered 

Qp  inii-t  thou  take  me,  and   see  me  all  round:   or.       Up  should  1  betaken, 

and    ee  me  empty.     On  another  hand  of  later  date  is  written,— grvndb : 
i :  L764.     Grunde  sun  of  Olaf  or  Olaue  of  Ousta(     This 
bom  i  -  suppo  ed  to  be  Danish,  probably  of  the  X  \  th  century  . 

I'.v  Mr.  Robebi  Ma<  Adam.  A  representation  of  a  powder-horn,  of  dark 
coloured  or  bog  oak,  with  hand-,  and  foliated  ornaments,  interlaced  work, 
a  e  ,  oj  horn,  fastened  oubj  pega  of  the  ame  sub  tance,  which  pass  entirely 
through  the  wooden  horn.  Some  of  the  ornament  approaches  in  character 
to  thai  of  a  ren  earlj  period,  but  the  date  of  the  horn  is  probably  about 
tonnd  in  the  county  of  Antrim.  It  will  be  figured  in  the 
i     ■      Joui  n. il  of  Archaeology  • 


•i  •    horn  Found  in  Iceland, 

I  l    ■ ; ,  ..a  which  inter 
■    in i.uji  '1 


with  ■  oroll  foliations.     The  traditi >i  an 

eai  in  r  ■  i  \  I.  hi  ornament*  maj  be  not  ic<  ■! 
mi  obji  oi     made  in  Scotland,  as  al  o  in 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  203 

By  Mr.  Octavius  Morgan,  M.P. — A  gold  enameled  hunting  watch,  date 
1630,  or  1640.  The  four  subjects  on  the  front,  back,  and  inner  side  of 
the  lid  and  case,  represent  the  chief  incidents  in  the  Episode  of  Tancredi 
and  Clorinda  in  the  "  Gierusalemme  Liherata  "  of  Tasso. 

By  Mr.  Hewitt. — Two  powder-flasks,  and  &rondache  of  cuirbouilli,  em- 
bossed with  armed  figures  on  horseback  on  both  sides,  and  with  a  steel 
spike.  From  the  Bernal  collection.  Of  the  former,  one  is  of  delicate 
Italian  marqueterie  work,  the  other  is  German.  The  buckler  is  remarkable 
as  having  a  small  lantern  attached  to  the  upper  edge.  There  is  an  Italian 
target,  date  about  1540,  in  the  Goodrich  Court  Armory,  formed  with  an 
aperture  for  a  similar  adjustment,  an  expedient  used  in  nightly  conflicts. 
Skelton's  Illustrations,  vol.  i.,pl.  52. 

By  Mr.  W.  J.  Bernhard  Smith. — A  birding-piece  of  the  time  of  Charles  I. 
— A  carving  in  oak,  representing  the  adoration  of  the  Golden  Calf;  the 
Demon  appears  playing  on  the  violin,  whilst  the  Israelites  are  dancing. 

Impressions  of  seals. — By  the  Rev.  II.  T.  Ellacombe. — Facsimile  of 
the  seal  of  John  Iluse,  taken  from  a  document  in  Mr.  Ellacombe's  pos- 
session. The  seal  is  of  circular  form,  and  presents  an  escutcheon  charged 
with  these  arms,  Barry  of  six,  erm.  and — within  a  bordure  escalloped. 
►Ji  s'ioiiankis  :  hvse.  The  bearing,  harry  of  six,  erm.  &nd  gules,  but  without 
a  bordure,  was  borne  by  various  branches  of  the  family  of  Hussey,  anciently 
settled  in  Dorset,  Wilts,  and  other  parts  of  England,  and  it  is  quartered  by 
Edward  Hussey,  Esq.,  of  Scotney  Castle,  co.  Sussex.  Mr.  Ellacombe 
stated  that  the  "  Johannes  Iluse,  dominus  de  Charlecumbe,"  to  whom  this 
seal  belonged,  was  living  in  1240,  as  ascertained  by  the  Prepositi  of  Bristol 
named  amongst  the  Avitnesses  to  the  deed.  The  manor  of  Charlcombe  near 
Bath  was  held  at  the  time  of  the  Domesday  survey  of  the  Abbey  of  Bath 
by  William  Hosett  or  Ilosatus,  and  by  his  descendants  subsequently  for 
several  generations.^ 

By  Mr.  Ready. — Facsimiles  taken  in  gutta  percha  from  two  impressions 
of  the  seal  of  Richard,  Duke  of  Gloucester,  who  succeeded  as  king  Richard  III. 
It  displays  an  escutcheon  of  the  arms  of  France  and  England,  quarterly, 
with  a  label  of  three  points.  Helm  and  lambrequins,  with  the  crest,  a  lion 
statant.  The  supporters  are  two  boars. — Jjtgtlltim  .  magnum  .  ritarti  . 
fcucts*  .  Cjlouccs'trte.  This  is  one  of  the  numerous  acquisitions  obtained  by 
Mr.  Ready  in  the  Treasury  at  Queen's  College,  Cambridge,  to  which,  as 
also  to  the  muniments  of  several  other  colleges,  he  has  liberally  been  per- 
mitted to  have  access. 


Annual  Report  of  the  Auditors,  Mat,  1845. 

We,  the  undersigned,  having  examined  the  accounts  (with  the  vouchers) 
of  the  Archaeological  Institute,  for  the  year  1854,  do  hereby  certify  that 
the  same  do  present  a  true  statement  of  the  receipts  and  payments  for  that 
year,  and  from  them  has  been  prepared  the  following  abstract,  dated  this 
5th  day  of  May,  1S55  : — 


(Signed)  Geo.  Gilbert  Scott. 

Wm.  PaBKBB  IIamond,  Jun 


I 


Audito 


rs. 


Inland.     Compare  the  Highland  powder-  Ml.      Madox  gives  a  lease   of  land   in 

horn,  presenting  features  of  a  very  early  Ceorlecumbe     to     William     Hosett    by 

age,  but  dated  1685,  probably  its  real  date.  Wlf wold  and  (Elfsig,  abbots  of  Bath,  to- 

Wilson's  Prehistoric  Annals,  p.  221.  wards  the  close  of  the  reign  of  the  Con- 

9  Colliuson,  Hist,  of  Somerset,  vol.  i.  p.  mieror.     Form.  Angl.  p.  7;?. 


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VOL.    XII. 


UR0P8HIR] 

I..  .1    v    I.     Il.'.l 


ilotias  of  Srrhacologtral  publication*. 

ANTIQUITIES  OF  SHROPSHIRE.  By  the  Rev.  R.  W.  Eyton,  Rector  of  Ryton. 
London  :  John  Russell  Smith,  :!(>,  Soho  Square.  B.  L.  Beddow,  Sliitl'ual.  Vols, 
I.  and  II.  8vo.  With  Illustrations  of  Early  Architectural  Examples,  from 
Drawings  by  the  Rev.  J.  L.  Petit.  (Three  hundred  copies  only  printed.)  1854-55. 
To  be  completed  in  Five  Volumes. 

We  regard  with  cordial  satisfaction  every  exertion  that  is  made  to  extend 
our  knowledge  of  county  history.  The  minute  details  into  which  the  topo- 
grapher is  necessarily  obliged  to  enter,  contribute  very  essentially  to  the 
enlargement  of  historical  truth  ;  and  of  all  kinds  of  histories,  there  is  none 
can  interest  us  more  than  those  relating  to  spots  and  districts  with  which  we 
are  individually  familiar.  But  in  the  volumes  before  us  we  discover  more 
than  the  common  attractions  of  topography,  inasmuch  as  Mr.  Ey ton's 
labours  throw  new  light  upon  one  of  the  most  interesting  counties  in  Great 
Britain,  hitherto  too  much  neglected  in  the  course  of  Archaeological  investi- 
gation, and  introduce  its  medieval  antiquities  for  the  first  time  to  public 
notice. 

It  is  not  a  little  remarkable  that  so  extensive  a  district  as  Shropshire 
should,  up  to  the  appearance  of  the  present  work,  have  received  less  atten- 
tion than  any  other  portion  of  England.  Yet  its  claims  on  the  score  of 
interest  can  yield  to  none.  Indeed,  in  many  of  those  points  to  which  the 
historian  chiefly  directs  his  attention,  such  as  the  antiquities  of  the  earlier 
ages,  the  British  battle-fields,  vestiges  of  Roman  occupation,  manorial  and 
genealogical  research,  the  county  of  Salop  is  pre-eminently  attractive. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  xvmth  century  a  Shropshire  gentleman 
began  to  search  amongst  the  public  documents  for  the  illustration  of  his 
native  county.  The  result  of  his  labours  lay  in  obscurity  for  a  considerable 
length  of  time,  and  it  was  not  until  a  very  recent  period  that  the  original 
manuscript  was  discovered,  though  two  or  three  transcripts  were  in  existence. 
One  amongst  Gough's  manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  was  frequently  consulted. 
Mr.  Eyton's  work  is  carried  out  very  much  on  the  same  plan  as  these  collec- 
tions made  by  Mr.  Mytton,  being,  like  his,  essentially  written  from  unpublished 
archives  in  the  custody  of  the  Master  of  the  Rolls,  or  amongst  private 
evidences.  The  author,  therefore,  of  the  "Antiquities  of  Shropshire." 
has  rendered  the  county  an  important  benefit  by  communicating  the  result 
of  his  labours  in  that  rich  and  almost  unexplored  mine  of  information.  If 
he  had  done  nothing  more  than  print  a  series  of  extracts  from  the  evidences 
belonging  to  the  people  of  England,  he  would  have  deserved  the  thanks  of 
an  enquiring  public,  by  rescuing  these  facts  from  ultimate  oblivion — to 
which  all  facts  are  inevitably  consigned  as  long  as  they  remain  in  manu- 
scripts and  confined  to  perhaps  only  one  record.  But  be  has  done  more,  for 
by  taking  up  his  history  at  the  period  when  the  author  of  "  Salopia 
Antiqua  "  left  off,  and  giving  his  toil  to  events  which  rest  on  the  indubitable 
testimony  of  official  statements,  he  has  greatly  augmented  our  knowledge  of 
the  medieval  history  of  Shropshire. 


208  NOTICES    OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 

As  far  aa  tills  work  has  proceeded  it  IS  entitled  to  our  warmest  appro- 
bation, for  the  very  clear  and  simple  method  of  its  arrangement,  and  for 
the  BOUndnt  SB  with  which  the  author  has  in  many  cases  of  difficulty  arrived 
at  his  conclusions.  The  history  of  the  peculiarly  interesting  and  picturesque 
town  of  Bridgnorth  is  followed  out  with  much  care.  We  seem  to  have 
the  very  freshness  of  the  Pipe  Rolls  themselves  in  the  whole  of  this  section, 
but  placed  so  methodically  before  us  that  the  student  may  draw  from 
this  undiluted  Bource  with  refreshment  and  additional  knowledge.  The 
squabble-  between  the  Ecclesiastics  of  the  Burgh,  and  the  intercourse 
held  with  the  town  by  king  John,  are  very  fully  set  forth,  and  this  portion 
is  so  complete,  that  we  regret  more  space  had  not  been  given  up  to  the 
history  of  Robert  de  Belesme,  whose  name  above  all  others  is  prominent  in 
it-  earliest  annals. 

As  the  value  of  this  unpretending  and  laborious  work  becomes  known, 
and  it-  progress  advances,  it  will  satisfactorily  remove  the  stigma  from 
Shropshire,  that  it  possesses  no  county  history,  and  show  to  the  literary 
world  that  they  owe  works  of  this  nature  to  the  unselfish  energies  of  private 
gentlemen,  who,  like  the  late  Mr.  Blakeway,  Archdeacon  Owen,  Mr.  Rowlands, 
and  Mr.  Bartshorne,  can  find  time  from  the  labours  of  their  profession,  to 
devote  their  talents  to  the  investigation  of  the  history  of  their  own  county. 

Mr.  Petit,  with  bis  usual  freedom  of  pencil,  and  his  desire  to  forward 
Mr.  Byton's  labours,  has  placed  some  of  his  own  at  the  disposal  of  the 
author,  who  bas  been  aided  likewise  by  the  Rev.  J.  Brooke,  in  the  illustra- 
tion of  various  Buhjecta  of  interest.  It  will  give  us  gratification  to  learn 
not  only  that  Mr.  Byton's  work  receives  sufficient  encouragement  to  enable 
him  to  bring  it  to  a  satisfactory  completion,  but  that  persons  who  are 
individually  interested  in  the  county  will  follow  the  example  thus  set  them, 
by  the  contribution  of  other  illustrations. 

Shropshire  contains  numerous  examples  of  church  architecture,  possess- 

ituree  of  interest   to   the  student  of  that  class  of  antiquities.     The 

magnificent    monastic    structures    now  in  picturesque   decay,  are   inferior  in 

importance  perhaps  only  to  the  abbeys  of   Yorkshire,  but  it  is  in  the  more 

simple  rural  churches,  many  of  which  in  remote  parts  of  the  Western 
Marches  have  remained  almost  unknown,  that  the  BccleBiologist  will  find 
gratification  in  tlii-  district.     Mr.  Byton  bas  not  contemplated  in  the  work 

before    as,    relating    mainly    to    the     interval    which     elapsed    between    the 

Conquest  ami  the  death  of  I  [enrj  III.,  to  describe  or  illustrate  the  churches 

of  all    tho-c     parishes,    the    early  hi-tory    of    which    he    has    so    succe.-sfull y 

developed.  The  interesting  examples,  however,  of  the  earlier  period, 
such  a-  Morville,  the  Membrefelde  of  Domesday,  Quatford,  Upton  Cressett, 

with    its    rich    Norman    door    and    singular    jar  lhaped     font,      l.inlcy    and 

Shiffnal,  are  brought  under  notice  in  these  volumes,  ami  their  peculiar  fea- 
illustrated  by  Mr.  Petit'a  skilful  pencil.  The  readers  of  this 
Journal  will  remember  with  pleasure  the  Memoir  relating  to  Tong  church, 
which  Mi.  I'etit  kindly  contributed  almosl  at  the  commencement  of  our 
publication.  Mr.  Byton  has  devoted  much  attention  to  that  interesting 
structure,  ami  entered  fully  into  tin  in  ton  of  the  earlier  lords  of  Tong,  <\r 
Belmei     and  la   Zouche,  the   Pembrugea  ami  the  Vernons,  and  the  ezqui 

ter,  which  will   pre  .lit  n ilinary   attraction  to  the 

student  of  medissval  tculpture,  on  the  occasion  of  tin'  \isit  of  the  Institute 
to  Shropshire,  thii  year.  Mr.  Byton  has  at  length  appropriated,  as  we 
belie'..  :!,,   t   of  these   impre  jive  memorials,  and   we  are 


210 


NOTICES   OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 


indebted  to  his  kindness  fur  permission  to  place  before  our  readers  the 
accompanying  woodcut,  from  a  drawing  1  > v  the  Rev.  J.  Brooke.  We  must 
refer  to  Mr.  Byton's  volumes  for  other  illustrations  of  this  most  picturesque 
church,  well  deserving  of  a  visit  for  the  sake  of  many  time-honoured  me- 
mories, and  not  least  as  having  preserved  the  verse  of  eulogy  on  Sir 
Edward  Stanley,  attributed  to  Shakspeare. 

There  exist  many  other  examples  of  monumental  sculpture  in  Shropshire 
well  deserving  of  attention,  and  we  observe  with  pleasure  that  Mr.  Eyton 
has  recognised  the  interest  of  these  sepulchral  portraitures,  deficient,  it 
may  1"'.  in  artistic  perfection,  but  very  valuable  as  regards  their  authentic 
originality.  The  cross-legged  effigy  of  Sir  Walter  de  Dunstanvill,  now  in 
the  A  ■<  v  church  at  Shrewsbury,  appears  amongst  the  illustrations  of  the 
Becond  volume  ;  he  took  active  part  in  the  affairs  of  the  times  of  Henry  II. 
and  died,  probably  at  Wbmbridge  Priory,  having  retired  from  the  world  in 
the  reign  of  Cceur  de  Lion,  about  1195.  As  examples  of  sculpture  in  the 
Norman  period  we  may  invite  attention  to  the  curious  baptismal  fonts  in 
this  part  of  England  ;  of  two,  at  Linley  and  at  Morville,  parishes  closely 
adjacent  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bridgnorth,  Mr.  Byton  lias  enabled  us  to 
give  the  accompanying  representations.  They  present  a  greater  similarity  in 
design  than  is  usually  found  in  productions  of  a  period  when  repetition  or 
imitation  seems  to  have  been  sedulously  avoided.  The  south  door  at 
Linley  Chapel  is  not  less  deserving  of  notice  than  its  font  (see  woodcut)  and 
more  especially  the  vortical  herring  bone  work  with  which  the  tympanum 


■ 


it  filled  in  so  unusual  a  manner,     At  Morville  there  wa     a  collegiate  foun 

and  the  font  maj  po    iblj  be  a  relique  of  that  age  i 

the  church  pr<   ent    '  I   Norman  work,  hut  great  part  of  the  fabric 

be   referred   to  that   int  Pran  itional   period,  when  the  pure 

Norman  ityle  wa    ix  \  for  the  Gothic  which  succeeded 


DOORWAY,  SOUTH  SIDE  OF  LINLEY  CHAPEL 


212  LRCHAEOLOGICAL   INTELLIGENCE. 

it.  In  this  instance,  the  arches  are  Bemi-circular,  their  mouldings  indi- 
cating the  incipient  change,  whilst  in  other  buildings,  as  in  that  most 
instructive    example    of  this    interesting   epoch     of    architecture,    Buildwas 

Abbey  Church,  the  transition  is  marked  in  the  form  of  the  arch. 

We  have  thankfully  availed  ourselves  of  the  author's  kindness  in  bring- 
iug  before  our  readers  some  of  those  illustrative  features  of  his  work,  with 
the  desire,  more  especially  at  a  time  when  the  notice  of  the  Institute  is 
directed  toward-  Shropshire,  to  invite  attention  to  the  interesting  character 
of  that  district,  and  to  the  value  of  Mr.  Eyton's  arduous  undertaking. 
We  heartily  wish  him  a  large  measure  of  that  encouragement  and  cordial 

••  in  his  purpose  to  which  he  is  BO  justly  entitled. 


;3uf)ncoloatcnl  Entclliacncc 


The  Cambrian  Archaeological  Association  has  recently  produced  the 
third  number  of  the  new  series  of  their  journal.  (London,  .).  K.  Smith.) 
It  is  issued  quarterly  to  members  only.  Mr.  Westwood  has  continued  Ids 
valuable  -cries  of  illustrations  of  early  inscribed  monuments  in  Wales.  Mr. 
Longueville  Jones  contributes  the  Church  of  Beaumaris,  in  continuation  of 
lii-  '•  M"iia  Mediseva,"  and  a  very  curious  account  of  Capel  Trillo,  in  Caer- 
narvon-hire, a  diminutive  structure  vaulted  over  with  rough  stones,  and  en- 
closin"-  a  holy  well.  Mr.  Wrighl  gives  a  notice  of  the  ancient  fortified  man- 
sion of  Treago,  in  Berefordshire,  and  of  the  "Tump,"  or  great  mound  at 
St.  Weouard's.  opened  in  April  last  under  his  directions,  when  its  sepulchral 
character  was  clearly  shown. — The  annual  meeting  of  the  Association  will 
take  place  in  September,  at  Llandeilo  Fawr,  Caermarthen shire. 

An  important  benefit  has  been  secured  for  the  preservation  of  ancient 

Vestiges  in  North  Britain,  and  the  permanent  record  of  local  facts  of  -rent 
value  to  the  archaeologist  anil  the  historian.  At  the  instance  of  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  of  Scotland,  the  government  have  determined  that,  in  the 
future  prosecution  of  the  Ordnance  Survey  of  Scotland,  especial  attention 

he    directed    to    all    ancient    remaiuB,    camps,    roads,   tumuli,   (fee,  and    their 

position  carefully  indicated.     Lord  Panmure,  in  announcing  to  the  Marquis 

..i  Breadalbane,  President  of  the  Society,  the  ready  compliance  of  the  Hon. 
Board  of  Ordnance  on  this  occasion,  expresses  the  request  for  local  informa- 
tion from    tie-  ministers  of  parishes,  and  other  persons,  in  furtherance  of  so 

desirable  an  object.     This  important  result  has  been  attained  through  the 
tion  of  an  intelligent  antiquary,  known  to  the  readers  of  this  journal 
through  hi  .he-  in  the  Orkneys,  Mr,  A.  II.  Rhind.     The  sub- 

ject was  brought  before  the  society  by  him  in  April  last. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Caerleon  Antiquarian  Association,  will  take 
place  at  Caerwent,  on  August  16.     A  complete  in  m  of  the  Roman 

remains  there  will  forthwith  be  undertaken,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  .1.  Y. 
man,  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries. 


ERR  \tim 

ih.   Note  at  the  and  ol  the  last  number  of  the  Journal,  p    108,  m  to  Godfrey  de  la 
mould  have  been  omitted  ;  en  opportunity  haviug  occurred  ol  Inserting  the 

ii  •  ol  n  in  the  U    I  si  i 


Eijt  Slrcijaeologtcal   3)ouvnaK 


SEPTEMBER,  1855. 


ON  THE  ROMAN  ANTIQUITIES  FROM  THE  NORTH  OF 
ENGLAND  IN  THE  LIBRARIES  OF  TRINITY  AND  ST. 
JOHN'S    COLLEGES,     CAMBRIDGE.! 

BY  THE  REV.  JOHN  COLLINGWOOD  BRUCE,  LL.D.,  F.S.A. 

To  the  student  of  the  Roman  Antiquities  of  the  North  of 
England,  Cambridge  has  a  peculiar  attraction.  Several 
altars  and  inscribed  stones,  derived  from  the  region  of  the 
Roman  Wall,  are  there  preserved.  The  collection  is  not 
large,  but  it  possesses  great  historic  value.  Nearly  every 
stone  sheds  light  upon  the  early  annals  of  our  country. 
Although  much  has  already  been  written  upon  the  subject 
of  these  stony  documents,  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  call  the 
attention  of  the  Institute  to  them,  now  that  it  has  met  within 
the  bounds  of  the  ancient  borough  of  Cambridge.  The 
inspection  of  them  will  be  all  the  more  interesting  from  the 
locality  whence  they  were  taken  having  been  visited  by  the 
Institute  two  years  ago. 

In  the  year  1600,  Camden  and  Sir  Robert  Cotton  visited 
the  Roman  Wall.  In  consequence  of  the  disturbed  state  of 
the  district,  and  the  "rank  robbers  thereabouts,"  they  were 
unable  to  inspect  the  middle  region  of  its  track,  where  the 
most  complete  portions  of  it  are  to  be  found.  They  saw 
much,  however,  to  reward  them  for  their  toils  and  brought 
away  the  altars  which  are  now  deposited  at  the  foot  of  the 
staircase  of  Trinity  College  Library. 

Before  examining  the  inscriptions  in  detail,  we  may  attend 

1  Communicated  to  the  Section  of  Antiquitiea  at  the  Cambridge  Meeting,  July,  1854. 
VOL.    XII.  l'    F 


214  ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES    AT   CAMBRIDGE 

to  some  general   facts  which   these  altars  press  upon  our 
Dotice. 

The  circumstance  that  these  stones  sculptured  by  Roman 
hands  were  brought  from  the  most  northerly  part  of  England 
is  impressive  evidence  of  the  extent  of  the  Roman  dominion. 
Who  can  look  at  them  without  being  reminded  of  the  words 
by  which  on  one  occasion  the  Romans  are  described  in  Holy 
Writ,  "a  nation  from  far.  from  the  ends  of  the  earth." 

Some  of  the  altars  were  found  at  Bremenium,  the  modern 
High  Rochester,  which  is  upwards  of  twenty  miles  north  of 
the  Wall,  and  some  are  from  llabitancum,  the  modern 
Risingham,  about  twelve  miles  to  the  north  of  the  Wall. 
Both  these  places  are  on  the  Watling  Street.  Here  we  have 
convincing  evidence  that  the  Romans  when  they  drew  their 
line  of  wall  from  the  Tyne  to  the  Solway,  had  no  intention  of 
relinquishing  their  hold  of  the  country  north  of  the  barrier. 

The  character  of  the  carving  and  letters  on  some  of  the 
altars  -hows  they  belong  to  the  best  periods  of  the  empire  ; 
others  exhibit  signs  of  the  lowest  age.  In  this  we  have 
proof  of  the  enduring  character  of  the  Roman  rule.  In 
taking  possession  of  the  bleak  and  inhospitable  solitudes  of 
northern  Northumberland,  the  Romans  contemplated  no 
ephemera]  occupation,  but  one  of  the  most  lasting  nature. 
W  >■  have  many  proofs  that  these  northern  stations  were  not 
evacuated  until  the  final  abandonment  of  Britain. 

The  altars  in  the  vestibule  of  Trinity  College  Library 
have  not  much  in  their  appearance  that  is  attractive.  They 
seldom  arrest  the  step  of  a  student  ascending  the  staircase. 
Even  this  (acl  is  instructive.  The  Romans  in  tin.'  north  of 
England  did  not  find  themselves  in  circumstances  calculated 
to  foster  the  line  arts.  They  were  engaged  in  warj  they 
had  a  held  and  vigilant  enemy  to  il;\\  with;  all  theircir- 
cumspection  and  all  their  energy  were  required  to  Bt rengthen 
their  position  and  to  preserve  themselves  from  destruction. 
Articles  of  taste  and  luxury,  such  as  are  found  in  Roman 
villas  in  th<-  south  of  England,  are  rarely  met  with  in  tin; 

Campfi    of  the    north.      The    rude    character    of  seine  of  tin; 

altars  in  question  is  in  keeping  with  this  observation. 

Another  fact  will  strike  the  student,  when  giving  these 
altar-  evens  cursory  examination.  Two  or  three  of  them 
are  n  ddened  by  lire.  This  is  a  circumstance  of  common 
occurrence.     Yen  can  scarcely  walk  over  the  site  of  a  sta 


FROM  THE  NORTH  OP  ENGLAND. 


215 


tion  without  noticing  fragments  of  stone  artificially  reddened. 
A  careful  examination  of  the  stations  proves  that  on  two 
occasions,  at  least,  they  have  been  involved  in  ruin.  The 
first  occurred,  probably,  in  the  reign  of  Commodus,  the  last 
on  the  final  withdrawment  of  the  Romans.  The  Caledo- 
nians, on  making  a  successful  onslaught  on  the  Roman  lines, 
burnt  whatever  was  combustible  about  the  stations.  To  this 
cause  the  reddening  of  the  altars  is  no  doubt  owing. 

In  the  collection  in  Trinity  College  there  are  some  mere 
fragments  of  altars.  It  is  by  no  means  unusual  to  find  the 
sculptures  in  a  Roman  station  broken  in  pieces.  The  excep- 
tion is  to  find  one  entire.  The  injury  is  usually  of  such  a 
nature  as  to  prove  that  it  was  the  result  of  design  and  of 
the  application  of  considerable  force.  It  may  be,  that  the 
Romans  and  their  allies  on  being  converted  to  Christianity, 
destroyed  their  altars  and  their  idols  in  testimony  of  their 
change  of  belief,  but  it  is  more  likely  that  the  work  of 
demolition  was  effected  by  the  Caledonians  after  the  stations 
were  abandoned  by  the  Romans.  These  northern  tribes  seem 
to  have  taken  a  special  delight  in  destroying  everything 
that  bore  traces  of  Roman  handiwork. 

We  may  now  examine  the  altars  in  detail,  beginning  with 
one  which  was  taken  from  Bremenium,  the  most  northerly 
station  in  England. 

This  is  described  by  Camden  at  page  661  of  the  last 
original  edition  of  the  "  Britannia." 
He  thus  interprets  it — "  Duplares  Nu- 
meri  exploratorum  Bremenii  Aram  in- 
stituerunt  Numini  ejus  (Caio)  Csopione 
Charitino  Tribuno  votum  solverunt 
libentes  merito." — The  exploratory 
troops  of  Bremenium  (receiving  double 
rations)  erected  this  altar  to  its  di- 
vinity, Caius  Crcpio  Charitinus  being 
tribune  ;  freely  and  duly  have  they  dis- 
charged a  vow.  Horsley  (xcv.  Northum- 
berland) in  commenting  upon  what  lie 
justly  calls  "  that  remarkable  altar,  with 
a  curious  inscription  upon  it,  published 
by  Mr.  Camden,"  says,  "  The  reading 
I  have  given  of  the  body  of  the 
inscription  is  the  same  as  his,  which  I  take   to   be  right  : 


BRENENARAM 
1NSXMR/N.T 

hpSsgfcreB 

CHARITINOTKB 
V&S    L  M 


216  ROMAS    AKTIQUITIBS    A.T    CAMBRIDGE 

but  nobody  (that  I  knot*  of)  has  given  a  satisfactory  explica^ 

tioii  of  the  D  i:  s  at  the  top.  1  think  it  plain  that  they  arc 
to  be  read  Dea  Roma  Sacrum.  That  they  made  a  goddess 
of  Rome,  and  erected  altars  and  temples  to  her,  needs  no 
proof  to  those  who  have  any  acquaintance  with  medals  and 
other  Roman  antiquities." 

Hodgson  gives  a  different  reading  of  the  three  initials, 
rendering  them  De  reditu  suo,  and  translating  the  whole 
inscription  thus — "Cains  Caspio  Charitinus  being  tribune, 
the  duplares  of  the  picket-guard  stationed  at  Bremenium, 
freely  and  duly  performing  a  vow  on  aeeount  of  his  safe 
return,  set  up  this  altar  to  his  guardian  god." — Hist.  North. 
Part  II..  voL  L,  p.  L39. 

No  one  acquainted  with  the  wild  region  to  the  north  of 
r.ivnieiiiuni  can  fail  to  recognise  a  sort  of  fitness  in  Hodgson's 
rendering.  Charitinus  and  his  troops  might  well  congratu- 
late themselves  on  their  safe  return  from  an  exploratory 
expedition — the  bogs,  the  forests  passed,  the  wily  enemy 
i  scaped.  At  the  same  time,  Horsley's  reading  is  less  forced 
than  Hodgson's.  It  is.  moreover,  usual  to  commence  a  dedi- 
cation with  the  name  of  the  god  to  whom  the  altar  was 
i  rected. 

That  Rome  was  worshipped  as  a  goddess  there  can  be  no 
doubt  ;   and    that    she   was    held    in    very   high    estimation  is 

apparent  from  the  lines  of  Martial  — 

••  Terrarum  dea  gentiumque  Roma, 
<  !ui  par  >•-:  nihil,  ei  nihil  secundum."     Epig.  XII,  viii. 

Words  more  lofty  could  not  be  applied  to  Jupiter  himself. 
A-  the  father  of  the  gods  is  usually  invoked  on  altars  by  the 
initial  letters,  [.o.M.,  there  is  no  impropriety  in  this  goddess 
being  indicated  in  a  similar  manner  \<\  the  letters,  D.B.S, 

The  chief  value,  however,  of  the  altar  arises  from  the 
mention  of  Bremenium  upon  it.  On  the  thud  line,  the 
letters  Bremen,  occur,  and  a  stop  is  placed  after  them  to 
indicate  a  contracted  word.  The  firs!  Iter  in  the  Itinerary 
of  Antoninus,  is  entitled,  "  A  route  from  the  limit,  thai  is 
from  the  Wall,  to  Prstorium,  L56  miles  :  and  the  firs!  place 
mentioned  in  it  is  Bremenium.  Camden  at  oner  conjectured 
thai  the  contracted  word  on  this  altar  was  Bremenii,  and 
conc<  ived  I  hat  it  furni  bed  a  I  rong  probability  that  1 1  igh 
Roch  i  If     mri  ing  point  of  the  Iter. 


FROM  THE  NORTH  OP  ENGLAND. 


217 


The  probability  of  the  correctness  of  Camden's  conclusion 
was  increased  by  the  discovery  of  another  altar  in  the  same 
station,  two  years  ago,  in  the  course  of  the  excavations 
carried  on  there  by  direction  of  the  Duke  of  Northumber- 
land, on  which  the  formula  occurs,  N.  explorator.  BRBM., 
Numerus  ewploratorurn  Brcmcnii. 

The  inscribed  stones  from  Risingham  next  claim  our 
attention.  Amongst  them  is  one  which  is  remarkable,  as 
giving  the  name  of  a  local  deity  worshipped  by  the  Romans, 
and  fixing,  with  much  probability,  the  ancient  name  of  the 
station.  Horsley,  speaking  of  it,  says,  "  I  was  pleased  to  see 
the  whole  inscription  still  so  legible,  and  particularly  the 
word  ffabitand  plain  and  distinct,  though  it  is  now  above  a 
hundred  and  twenty  years  since  this  and  another  altar, 
mentioned  by  Camden,  were  taken  out  of  the  river  Rede, 
which  runs  near  this  station."  Now  that  we  have  another 
period  of  above  a  hundred  and  twenty  years  to  add  to 
Horsley's,  our  satisfaction  is  proportionately  increased  in 
finding  it  in  so  satisfactory  a  state  as  it  is.  All  authorities 
agree  in  reading  the  altar,  "  Deo  Mogonti  Cadenorum  et 
numini  Domini  Nostri  Augusti,  Marcus  Gaius  Secundums, 
beneficiarius  consulis,  Habitanci, 
prima  statione,  pro  se  et  suis 
posuit." — To  Mogon  of  the  Cadeni 
and  the  deity  of  our  lord  Augus- 
tus, Marcus  Gaius  Secundums  a 
consular  beneficiary  at  Habitan- 
cum,  the  first  station  (from  the 
Wall),  erected  (this  altar)  for  him- 
self and  his  friends. 

The  god  Mogon  is  no  doubt  the 
local  deity  of  the  Cadeni,  who 
seem  to  have  been  a  tribe  located 
in  the  territory  of  the  Vangiones. 
Mogontiacum,  the  modern  May- 
ence,  was  the  capital  of  the  pro- 
vince of  the  Vangiones,  and  always  contained  a  strong 
Roman  garrison.  There  is  something  interesting  in  noticing 
the  yearnings  of  soul  in  these  Cadeni,  banished  to  Rising- 
ham,  after  the  gods  of  their  native  land. 

Camden  mentions  a  similar  altar  belonging:  to  the  same 
place,  also  erected  by  the  Cadeni,  bearing  the  inscription — 


«,«hmiTiMi  i«i«HHiu7Ti"H||i  i 


MOC0NT(aD 
£TNU;NAVC| 

mSsm^nv.! 
^fgoshabii5 

'^IPRIMASTATl 
"jSEET5V]SB5i 


J*JL 


<■ 


218  ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES    AT    CAMBRIDGE. 

Deo  Mouxo  Cad[  exorum].  For  a  number  of  years  this 
altar  was  missing,  having  been  used  in  the  erection  of  a  cow- 
shed ;  this  structure  being  now  pulled  down,  it  lies  in  the 
middle  of  the  station,  but  the  inscription  Is  barely  legible. 

The  chief  value  of  the  altar  arises  from  the  mention  of 
Habitancum.  This,  in  the  absence  of  any  evidence  of  a  con- 
flicting  character,  warrants  us  in  supposing  that  Habitancum 
was  the  Roman  name  of  the  station. 

We  next  direct  our  attention  to  a  slab  derived  from  the 
same  station,  which  is  of  a  more  ornate  character  than  any 
other  found  in  the  region  of  the  Roman  Wall.  It  has  been 
repeatedly  engraved,  but  never  so  correctly  as  to  supersede 
another  attempt,  which  is  here  presented. 

The  slab  consists  of  three  compartments.  The  centre 
contains  the  inscription  surrounded  by  a  very  elegant  octa- 
gonal border.  The  inscription  is,  "  Numinibus  Augustorum 
COHORS  QUARTA  GrALLORUW  EQUITATA  FECIT." — To  the  deities 
of  the  emperors  the  fourth  cavalry  cohort  of  the  Gauls 
erected  this. 

That  the  emperors  were  worshipped  as  gods  admits  of 
abundant  proof]  and  that  the  more  worthless  an  emperor  was, 
the  more  slavishly  he  was  adored  is  quite  natural.  The 
emperors  bore  referred  to  are  probably  the  two  sons  of 
Severus.  Several  inscriptions  mentioning  Caracalla  and 
Greta  have  been  recently  discovered  at  this  station.  Among 
them  is  a  slab  found  among  the  ruins  of  the  south  gate- 
way, and  now  preserved  in  the  museum  at  Newcastle  ;  it 
bears  a  Btrong  resemblance  to  that  which  we  are  discussing. 
CTpon  it  the  uame  of  Caracalla  is  given  with  all  the  usual 
epithets.  The  name  <>f  his  brother  has  also  been  there,  but 
is  erased.  This  is  uniformly  the  case  with  reference  to  the 
uame  of  this  emperor  in  Northumberland.     Ii  is  interesting 

to  notice  the  Same  thing  iii  the  arch  nf  Severus  at   Rome.    We 

here  gel  a  striking  proof  of  the  unity  of  the  empire  even  in 
the  time  of  Caracalla.  An  order  of  a  comparatively  trifling 
character  issued  in  Rome  was  quickly  obeyed  in  the  remotest 
region  of  I  he  earl  h. 

The  troops  by  whom  this  slab  was  raised  were  the  fourth 
cohort  of  the  Gallic  cavalry.  The  Notitia  places  Me  fourth 
cohort  oj '/In  Gauls  in  the  station  of  \  indobala,  the  modern 
Ch<  terholm,  where  several  inscriptions  by  this  body  have 
been  found.     The  Vindobala  cohort  was  a  troop  oi  foot,  the 


St  a    E 


«    ^ 


220  ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES    AT    CAMBRIDGE 

cohort  mentioned  upon  our  slab  was  a  mounted  one.  They 
are  no  doubt  different  bodies. 

The  principal  portions  of  the  side  compartments  of  the 
Risingham  slab  are  occupied  with  figures  of  Victory  and 
Mars.  Both  appear  as  they  are  usually  represented.  Victory 
has  wings,  a  laurel  crown  is  in  her  right  hand,  a  palm-branch 
in  her  left  ;  a  globe  placed  beneath  her  feet  indicates  Rome's 
claims  to  universal  empire.  Mars  appears  fully  armed  ;  his 
uplifted  right  hand  grasps  a  spear,  his  left  rests  upon  his 
shield  :  his  whole  posture  is  a  personification  of  the  motto — 

'■  Ready,  aye,  ready  for  the  field." 

Between  the  central  compartment  and  these  figures  an  orna- 
ment which  is  of  frequent  occurrence  on  Roman  shields  is 
introduced.  It  is  probably  the  conventional  form  of  a  shield. 
It  resembles  the  shield  which  is  sometimes  introduced  into 
trophies,  and  is  probably  an  ornamental  adaptation  of  the 
shield  of  the  earliest  period  of  the  Roman  polity.  Above  the 
shield,  on  each  side,  are  human  heads  ;  that  on  the  left  side 
is  triple-faced,  it  may  be  intended  for  Janus,  the  guardian 
deity  of  gates  ;  thai  on  the  righl  may  be  intended  forSeverus. 

Beneath  the  shields  are  cords  formed  into  a  knot.  Beneath 
the  figure  of  Victory  is  a  bird  apparently  a  stork  about  to 
seize  a  fish  ;  near  it  is  a  small  twig,  apparently  bearing  a  few 
billies  of  some  description. 

On  the  other  side,  below  the  figure  of  Mais  is  a  bird,  appa- 
rently a  goose  :  before  it  is  set  a  small  vase  which  seems  to 
contain  .-nine  fruit. 

How  far  these  minor  objects  are  emblematic  of  the  faith 
or  the  philosophy  of  the  cohort  of  the  Gauls,  or  bow  far  they 
are  the  mi -re  offspring  of  the  taste  of  the  sculptor,  is  not  easy 
to  decide.  If  the  bird  under  Mars  bad  been  a  cock,  as  has 
r .- 1 1  i  \  been  stated,  the  appropriateness  of  its  introduction 
would  have  been  plain.  We  know  that  Koine  was  once  saved 
from  the  Gauls  by  the  cackling  of  geese.  If  the  allusion  is 
to  this  circumstance,  it  shows  how  entirely  the  Romans  had 
succeeded  in  destroying  the  nationality  of  their  conquered 

:■  <       and  in  infusing  the  national  spirit  intothe  whole. 
Another    dab    which    was   found   in   the  same  station,  and 
probably  attached  to  a  temple   or   other   building,  bears 

the  inscription,  Coh[ors]  mm  ma  V"ang[ionum]  fecit  oi  bante 
Jul[io]  I'm  i.i.o  tbibi  ffo.     The  firsl  cohorl  of  the  Vangiones 


FROM  THE  NORTH  OF  ENGLAND. 


221 


erected  this  under  the  command  of  Julius  Paullus,  the 
tribune. 

The  Vangiones,  as  has  already  been  said,  were  a  people  of 
Belgic  Gaul.  As  several  in- 
scribed stones  found  at  Ilabi- 
tancum  mention  the  Vangio- 
nes, it  has  been  concluded  that 
this  station  was  chiefly  garri- 
soned by  them,  though  they 
are  not  named  in  the  Notitia 
Imperii. 

Below  these  two  slabs  in  the 
wall  of  the  lobby  of  Trinity 
Library  is  a  large  altar.  It 
is    reddened  by  fire,    and  is 

deeply  scarred  by  the  bad  usage  it  has  received  ;  notwith- 
standing this  its  aspect  gladdened  the  heart  of  Horsley. 
"  This  is  a  very  stately  altar,"'  he  says,  "erected  to  the  invincible 
Hercules.  It  yet  remains  at  Conington  very  entire,  and  is, 
I  think,  one  of  the  largest  altars  that  I  have  seen,  that  are 
so  beautiful."  It  reads  "  Deo  invicto  Herculi  sacr[um] 
L[ucius]  ^Emil[ianus]  Salvanus  Trib[unus]  coh[ortis] 
rRDLE  Vangi[onum]  v[otum]  s[olvens]  l[ibens]  m[erito]. 
Sacred  to  the  unconquerable  god  Hercules.  Lucius  iEmi- 
iianus  Salvanus,  tribune  of  the  first  cohort  of  the  Vangiones, 
(erected  this)  willingly  and  deservedly,  in  discharge  of 
a  vow. 

Personal  prowess  being  a  qualification  of  considerable 
importance  to  a  soldier,  Hercules  was  popular  in  the  Roman 
army,  and  we  find  several  altars  dedicated  to  him. 

The  formula  vslm,  at  the  close  of  an  inscription,  is,  with 
occasional  variations,  of  common  occurrence  upon  Roman 
altars.  Whilst  we  deplore  the  folly  of  the  idolatry  of  the 
Romans,  we  cannot  but  admire  their  readiness  in  acknow- 
ledging the  obligations  under  which  they  supposed  them- 
selves to  be  laid  by  their  gods. 

In  the  mention  of  the  Vangiones  on  this  altar,  as  well  as 
on  the  slab  already  noticed,  we  have  an  illustration  of  the 
Roman  policy  of  prosecuting  their  conquests  by  means  of 
tribes  already  subjugated.  The  Vangiones  were  stationed 
at  Risingham,  the  Varduli  and  Lingones  at  High  Rochester, 
and,  along  the  line  of  the  Wall,  were  troops  of  Spaniards, 

VOL.    XII.  O    G 


' 


n    >  i    i  HE   i.ir.u.M   ■ 


ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES    AT    CAMBRIDGE. 


223 


Moors,  Germans  and  others.  The  Britons  themselves  were 
drafted  off  in  large  numbers  to  the  other  ends  of  the  earth, 
or  perhaps  to  keep  in  order  the  very  tribes  and  nations  who 
were  doing  this  service  for  their  own  countrymen.  By  this 
means  a  single  legion  of  Roman  troops  were  sufficient  to 
hold  in  check  the  whole  of  North  Britain.  This,  which  was 
the  sixth  legion,  was  stationed  at  York,  whence  they  could, 
from  the  nature  of  the  country,  on  any  alarm,  expand  them- 
selves like  a  fan  over  the  region  to  the  north,  or  concentrate 
themselves  on  any  position  of  the  mural  barrier  which  was 
exposed  to  danger. 

One  other  inscription  only  from  this  station  shall  detain 
us  ;  it  is  on  a  monumental  slab.     It  reads — D[ns]  M[anibus] 

BlESCIUS   DiOVICUS  FILING    SILE    VIXIT    ANNUM  UNUM  ET  DIE[s] 

viginti  unum.—  Blescius  Diovicus  erects  this  to  the  divine 
manes  of  his  daughter  ;  she  lived  one  year  and  twenty-one 
days. 

The  bust  in  the  triangular  head  of  the  stone  is  probably 
meant  as  a  likeness  of  the  de- 
ceased. The  rude  character  of 
the  carving,  the  peculiar  shape 
of  the  letters,  and  the  mode 
of  spelling  vidit,  prove  the  in- 
scription to  be  of  late  date. 

There  is  something  touching 
in  all  these  Roman  tombstones. 
The  rudest  and  most  meagre 
of  them  shadow  forth  the 
kindliest  affections  of  human 
nature.  Blescius  Diovicus,  a 
wanderer,  probably,  from  the 
banks  of  the  Rhine,  and  inured 
to  all  the  hardships  and  priva- 
tions  of  war,  had  a  heart  that 


%  sews 

DiOVIC ' 

S  t  V  A -h I 

VI  ].OC\SJT 
AC  A/  vV^/A 
MLEIDvI  E 


could  bleed  for  his  little  daugh- 
ter. In  committing  her  dust 
to  the  urn,  he  was  unwilling 
that  the  memory  of  her  brief 
existence  should  perish  hastily,  and  accordingly  he  carved, 
roughly  enough,  but  probably  according  to  his  ability,  the 
lines  we  have  been  examining.  It  is  a  pity  he  has  not 
inserted  the  cognomen  of  the  young  lady,  for,  in  that  case,  a 


224  SOMAS    ANTIQUITIES    AT    CAMBRIDGE 

splendid  immortality  would  have  been  hers.  The  name 
of  the  daughter  of  Blescius  Diovicus  would  have  been  a 
household  word  with  the  learned  sons  of  Trinity  College, 
( lambridge. 

We  now  turn  from  the  stations  north  of  the  Wall  to  those 
of  the  Wall  itself. 

The  Notitia  Impi  rii  gives  the  stations  along  the  line  of  the 
Roman  Wall,  and  mentions  the  troops  and  the  prefects  which 
were  stationed  in  each.  At  Condercum,  the  fourth  station 
on  the  line,  reckoning  from  the  eastern  extremity,  it  places 
the  prefect  of  the  first  Ala  of  the  Astures.  At  Benwell 
several  Blabs  and  altars  have  been  found  inscribed  by  this 
of  soldiers.  Proceeding  westwards,  we  meet  with  a 
Roman  station  at  Rutchester.  The  Notitia  gives  us  as  the 
camp  next  in  order  to  Condercum,  Vindolana,  where  the 
fir-t  cohort  of  the  Frixagi  were  stationed;  here,  unhappily, 
no  stone  has  been  found  mentioning  this  cohort  or  any  other. 
Going  still  further  westward  we  meet  with  a  station  near 
Balton  Castle.  Next  in  order  to  Vindolana  the  Notitia  gives 
us  the  camp  of  Hunnum  with  the  Savinian  ala  for  its  garrison. 
The  only  stone  naming  this  troop  found  at  llalton  or  else- 
where in  England  is  the  broken  fragment  preserved  at 
Cambridge  and  here  represented.  Fragmentary  as  it  is,  it 
is  sunicienl  to  prove  Halton  Chestcrs  to  be  the  Hunnum  of 
the  Notitia,  ('specially  as  there  is  abundant  evidence  for 
Wishing  the  station  next  in  order  to  be  the  Cilurnum  of 
the  Notitia.     This   inscription  is  apparently  a  monumental 

one   erected   by    Messorius 

Magnus  to  the  manes  of  his 

brother.     The   reference  to 

J^y  the    Ala    Sabiniana    is    how- 

r\  er  disi  inct.and  i.^  sufficient 


-:\m. 


|  toestablish  for  this  battered 

and  ill-used  stone  an  historic 
value.  Several  ligatures  or 
tied  letters  will  be  noticed 
in    it.        For     example,    the 

i luce  letters  teb  in   Frater 

are    all   combined    in    one 

form.     A   peculiarity  in  the  writing  of  the  word    llae  is 

worthy   of  notice.     The  second  \  which   is  adjoined  t«»  the 

r<  pre  i  nted  upside  down.    In  Saxon  inscriptions 


PROM  THE  NORTH  OF  ENGLAND. 


225 


tAJJ*'^ 


Roman  letters  are  not  unfrequently  inverted  ;  this  docs  not 
often  occur  in  those  carved  by  Latin  hands. 

At  Carvoran  the  Roman  Magna,  the  eleventh  station  on 
the  Wall,  the  Syrian  goddess  seems  to  have  been  extensively 
worshipped.  An  altar  derived  from  this  quarter  is  preserved 
in  the  collection  at  Trinity  College.  The  upper  portion  of  it 
is  elaborately  carved,  and  the  first  and  second  lines  of  the 
inscription,  and  part  of  that  of  the  third  are  complete  ;  but 
all  the  subsequent  lines,  amounting  to  four,  have  been  lost 
through  the  exfoliation  of  the  stone.  Fortunately  Camden 
had  copied  the  inscription  before  this  destructive  process  had 
taken  place,  and  the  figure 
here  given  has  the  missing 
lines  supplied  chiefly  from  his 
copy.  I  have  ventured  to 
render  the  last  line  more  com- 
plete than  he  has  done,  for 
the  discovery  of  several  other 
inscriptions  at  this  place  of 
late  renders  it  quite  certain 
that  the  first  cohort  of  the 
Hamii,  not  the  fourth  cohort 
of  the  Gauls  (as  Horsley  sup- 
posed), were  the  dedicators 
of  the  altar.  The  inscription 
reads  Deao  Suriae  sub  Calpurnio 
Agricola  legato  augustali  pro- 
praetore  Aulus  Licinius  Clemens 
praefectus  cohortis  prima)  Ham- 
iorum.  To  the  Syrian  goddess 
Aulus  Licinius  Clemens  prefect 
of  the  first  cohort  of  the  Hamii 
under  Calpurnius  Agricola, 
Augustan  legate  and  proprie- 
tor.    The  Hamii  were  natives 

of  Syria.  The  Syrians  were  much  addicted  to  the  worship 
of  Cybcle.  There  is  at  present  lying  in  the  garden  at 
Carvoran  a  fragment  of  a  stone  which  bears-  all  the  ap- 
pearance of  having  formed  part  of  an  altar  similar  to  this 
one ;  at  all  events  the  name  of  Calpurnius  Agricola  is 
distinct. 

To  one  other  altar  only  will  we  direct  attention.     Though 


ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES   AT    CAMBRIDGE 


not  from  the  region  of  the  Wall  it  still  belongs  to  the  north 
of  England,  li  is  without  doubt  the  most  elaborately  carved 
altar  which  the  Romans  resident  in  Britain  have  Left  us.  It 
is  now  preserved  in  the  quadrangle  of  St.  John's  College. 
Camden  mentions  it.  and  tells  us  it  was  found  in  the  Roman 
station  of  Ribchester.  The  inscription,  which  he  informs  us 
••  was  copied  for  him.    he  gives  as  follows: — 

SEO  ESAM 

ROLNASON 

OSALVEDN 

AL.  Q.  Q.  SAR 

BBEVENM 

BEDIANIS 

ANTOM  I 
VS  MEC.  VI. 

IC   Do.MV 
BLITEB 

r,  perhaps,  was  so  unmeaning  a  concatenation  of  letters 
submitted  to  the  gaze  of  a  bewil- 
--—  dered  antiquary.    Camden  could 

make  nothing  of  the  inscription, 
but  BUggests  somewhat  waggishly 
thai  it  contained  little  more  than 
the  British  names  of  places  ad- 
joining. Ilorsley  grappled  with 
Camden's  corrupted  copy,  and 
elicited  one  portion  of  truth.  He 
Bays,  "  I  believe  the  foui  th  line 
may  he  Alae  equitum  Sarma 
[  tarum  I." 

The  altar  seems  soon  after  its 
disco\  ery  to  ha\  e  been  used  as  a 
common  building-stone  in  the 
ereel  ion  of  Salisbury  I  [all.  In 
L815  it  was  disentombed,  and 
fell  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  Whit- 
aker,  who  bequeathed  it  to  St. 
John's  College.  Dr.  Whitaker 
clli  bory  of  Richmondshire,  70L 
ii.  p.  161)  thus  expands  the  inscription :  Deo  sancto  Apollint 
Apono  06  8alutem   Domini  nostri  ala  equitum  Sarmatarum 


POMPON 
SALVED'N; 
•E  ao-SAU  . 

mm 

R'DI'ANl-'     !j 
TON!  : 

vs      ;vj  '! 

to       ,  \tsj:j:( 


1    '.-.'"■ 


mi 


FROM  THE  NORTH  OF  ENGLAND.  227 

Brenetcn.  sub  Dianio  Antonino  centurione  legionis  settee 
victricis.  The  correctness  of  this  reading,  in  the  main, 
cannot  be  disputed,  but  one  or  two  emendations  may  be 
suggested.  Instead  of  Apono,  which  Dr.  Whitaker  conceives 
to  be  an  epithet  of  Apollo,  Mapono  is  probably  the  true 
reading.  We  nowhere  else  meet  with  Aponus  (indolent)  as 
an  epithet  of  this  deity.  At  Plumpton,  in  Cumberland,  an 
altar  has  been  found  which  is  inscribed1 — 

DEO 

MArONO 
ET  N.AYG 

To  Mr.  Roach  Smith  I  am  indebted  for  the  reading  now 

o 

suggested,  as  well  as  for  the  idea  that  Maponus  may  be  the 
British  name  of  Apollo,  as  Belatucader  is  of  Mars.  It  is 
nothing  uncommon  to  address  a  god  both  by  his  classical  and 
local  name.  The  first  letter  in  the  fourth  line  appears  to  be  N 
(numerus)  rather  than  a  (aid)  ;  both  designations  as  applied 
to  a  troop  of  cavalry  are  common.  The  last  letter  on  the 
ninth  line  is  worthy  of  notice.  The  sculptor  seems  in  the 
first  instance  to  have  made  the  word  domic  and  then  to  have 
altered  it  to  the  usual  form  of  domo. 

The  chief  value  of  the  inscription  depends  upon  the  fifth 
line.  Mr.  Hodgson  Hinde,  in  a  paper  read  before  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries  of  Newcastle-upon-Tyne,  and  published  in  their 
Transactions,2  conjectured  (without  having  seen  the  altar) 
that  Dr.  Whitaker's  reading  of  Breweten,  should  be  Bre?weten. 
Such,  as  is  shown  in  the  woodcut,  appears  to  be  the  feet. 
He  further  argues  that  the  station  at  which  the  Sarmatian 
cavalry  (Ribchester)  were  located,  was  the  Bremeten  racum 
of  the  Notitia.  He  does  so  upon  the  same  principle  that 
High  Rochester  is  conceded  to  be  Bremenium,  and  Risingham 
Habitancum. 

The  emperor,  for  whose  welfare  this  altar  was  erected, 
docs  not  appear,  but  judging  from  the  excellence  of  the 
design  of  the  altar  and  from  the  clearness  of  its  lettering,  he 
must  have  been  one  of  the  earlier  series. 

Besides  the  inscription,  the  altar  is  sculptured  on  two  of 
its  sides.  The  subject  of  one  of  these  carvings  is  the  youthful 
Apollo  resting  upon  his  lyre.  The  figure,  notwithstanding 
the  hard  usage  it  has  met  with  in   the  course  of  centuries, 

Lyson's  Cumberland,  p.  civ.  Archeeologia  .K'iuna,  vol.  iv.  p.  109. 


jj 


ROMAN    ANTIQUITIES    AT    CAMBRIDGE. 


exhibits  considerable  grace.  Two  females,  the  one  fully 
draped,  the  other  only  partially  so,  are  shown  on  the  other 
Bid  •  of  the  altar.  They  hold  some  object  between  them 
which  is  so  much  injured  as  to  be  {indistinguishable  ;  it  may 
have  been  a  basket  of  fruit  or  an  offering  of  flowers. 
Dr.  Whitaker  is  Burely  wrong  in  describing  these  figures  as 
two  priests  holding  in  their  hands  the  head  of  a  victim. 


Such  are  "-nine  of  the  objects  oi  antiquity  connected  with 
the  domination  of  Rome  in  the  north  of  England,  thai  are  at 
pri  31  nt  to  be  met  with  within  the  precincts  of  the  University 
of  Cambridge.  However  rude  the  carving  of  some  of  them, 
they  \\  ill  ever  1"'  interesting  to  Englishmen,  as  indicating  the 
progri  -  of  their  forefathers  from  a  state  of  barbarism  into 
one  of  high  ei\ ilisation. 

[The  Centra]    Committee   of  the    institute   have   the  gratification    to 
rledge  the  kind   a    istance  of  die  author  of  this  valuable  memoir, 
in  d<  frayin  portion  of  the  oo -<  of  the  accompanying  illustrations, 

prepared  under  hi    direction    bj  Mr.  [Jtting.] 


THE  MONASTERIES  OF  SHEOPSHIEE :  THEIR  ORIGIN  AND 
FOUNDERS.— LILLESHALL  ABBEY.1 

BY  THE  REV.  ROBERT  W.  EYTOX,  M.A. 

There  are  few  subjects  of  that  class  and  period,  whereunto 
the  foundation  of  Lilleshall  Abbey  belongs,  which  can  be 
more  exactly  described  both  as  regards  dates  and  circum- 
stances. Much  of  this  has  been  ably  done  already,2  and  the 
object  of  the  present  narrative  is  mainly  to  supply  a  few 
additions  to,  and  to  suggest  some  trifling  corrections  in, 
former  accounts. 

Richard  de  Belmeis,  first  Bishop  of  that  name,  who  held 
the  See  of  London,  died  January  16,  1127.  He  had  been 
for  a  great  portion  of  his  life  the  representative  or  Viceroy 
of  Henry  I.  in  Shropshire.  He  died  seized  of  a  temporal 
estate  in  that  county,  which  included  the  manor  of  Tong, 
also  of  several  churches,  and  of  the  deanery  or  chief  pre- 
bendal  interest  in  the  church  of  St.  Alkmund,  Shrewsbury. 
The  last  he  held  immediately  of  the  king. 

At  his  death  he  left  two  nephews,  sons  of  his  brother 
Walter.  The  elder  of  these,  Philip,  was  his  temporal  heir, 
and  so  became  at  once  lord  of  Tong.  The  younger,  Richard, 
was  not  yet  of  age,  but  was  already  destined  for  the  Church. 

In  the  years  1138  and  1139,  or  about  that  time,  Philip  de 
Belmeis  seems  to  have  been  interested  in  the  prosperity  of 
Buildwas  Abbey,  a  Savigniac  house  recently  founded  in 
Shropshire,  by  Roger  de  Clinton,  Bishop  of  Chester.  The 
manner  in  which  he  encouraged  that  establishment,  and  his 
own  personal  admission  into  the  fraternity  of  Savigny  pre- 
clude all  idea  of  his  having  a  contemporary  admiration  for 
any  other  religious  order. 

Before  many  years  had  passed — specifically  before  the 
year  1145,  Philip  de  Belmeis  was  of  another  mind.     The 

1  Communicated  to  the  Historical   Sec-  -   History    of  Shrewsbury    (Owen   and 

tion,   at  the  Meeting  of  the  Institute  ill        Blakeway),  ii.  '_'     .  a. 
Shrewsbury. 

VOL.    XII.  II    n 


230  THE    MONASTERIES   OP    SHROPSHIRE. 

introduction  of  regular,  as  distinct  from  secular  canons,  into 
Knuiand.  belongs  to  lin  earliri-  period  than  the  reign  of 
Henry  [.,  and  according  to  one  account,  the  elder  Richard 
de  Belmeis  had  been  instrumental,  about  a.i>.  1108,  to  their 
first  settlement  in  this  country.3  During  the  next  thirty 
i,  many  colleges  of  secular  canons  were  changed  into 
regulars,  and  many  houses  of  the  latter  class  were  newly 
founded. 

In  the  Lateran  Council  of  1139,  all  regular  canons 
throughout  the  dominions  of  St.  Peter  were  subjected  to  the 
rule  of  St.  Augustine  ;  but  there  was  a  sect  of  this  order 
which  had  long  previously  professed  an  improvement  on  its 
fundamental  ordinances,  and  which  from  its  first  house 
having  been  dedicated  to  St.  Nicholas  of  Arras,  and  situated 
near  that  city,  was  called  Arroasian.  A  number  of  these 
latter  canons  are  said  to  have  been  introduced  into  England 
in  I  1  40,  under  the  auspices  of  Alexander  the  Magnificent, 
Bishop  of  Lincoln.  They  were  placed  at  Dorchester  in 
Oxfordshire,  once  the  episcopal  seat  of  Alexander's  prede- 
cessors, and  where  probablya  college  of  secular  canons  made 
way  for  these  Arroasians. 

Within  five,  probably  within  three,  years  of  this  date,  the 
Dorchester  canons  were  ready  to  increase  their  influence  by 
emigration.  Some  of  them  found  their  way  into  Shropshire, 
where  Philip  de  Belmeis  was  their  first  patron.  By  a  charter, 
addressed  to  Roger,  Bishop  of  Chester,  he  gave  them  a  tract 
of  land  in  his  manor  of  Tong,  dow  known  as  the  Lizard 
Grange,  and  other  advantages,  which,  be  it  observed,  must 
have  somewhat  qualified  the  value  of  his  previous  favours  to 
Buildwas.  Verbally,  his  charter  conveys  "  land  to  found  a 
Church  in  honour  of  St.  Mary  (given)  to  Canons  of  the 
Order  of  Arroasia,  who  had  come  from  the  Church  of  St. 
Peter  at  Dorchester,  and  are  Berving  God  and  St.  Mary 
there"  (thai  is,  in  the  locality  now  given  to  them),  "regu- 
larly," (that  i-.  according  to  the  Rule  of  Regular  Canons). 

This  humble  introduction  under  the  patronage  of  a. 
Shropshire  knight,  was  a  prelude  to  greater  fortunes;  but 
before  1  pass  to  the  uexl  event  which  befel  these  Arroasian 
canons,  I  musl  resume  my  account  of  Richard,  younger 
nephew  of  Richard  de  Belmeis,  Bishop  of  London,     \\ Tien 

•  i  a4  Chri  t<  bur<  h,  witb  d  Aldgato,  London. 


LILLESHALL    A.BBEY.  231 

tlic  latter  had  been  dead  about  seven  months,  that  is,  in 
August,  1127,4  King  Henry  I.  is  known  to  have  been  waiting 
on  the  coast  of  Hampshire  for  a  favourable  opportunity  of 
crossing  the  Channel.  Doubtless  to  the  same  period  belongs 
a  charter  dated  at  Portsmouth,  whereby  the  king  grants  to 
Richard  de  Bclmcis,  nephew  of  the  deceased  Bishop,  all  the 
"  Churches,  Lands,  and  things "  which  having  in  the  first 
instance  been  held  by  Godebald  and  Robert  his  son,  had 
since  been  held  by  the  Bishop,  of  the  King. 

There  is  every  presumption  that  we  rightly  indicate  the 
gift  thus  conveyed,  if  wre  say  that  it  consisted  of  the  pre- 
bendal  estates  of  Lilleshall,  Atcham,  Uckington,  and  Preston 
Gobalds,  with  the  Churches  thereon,  and  that  the  whole 
constituted  a  preponderating  interest  in  the  Collegiate 
Church  of  St.  Alkmund,  Shrewsbury. 

Richard  de  Belmeis,  whom  we  will  only  call  Chief 
Prebendary  of  St.  Alkmunds,  was  at  this  time  hardly  of  age. 
He  wras  nevertheless  a  dignitary  of  St.  Paul's,  London,  and 
had  actually  been  appointed  Archdeacon  of  Middlesex  by  his 
uncle  several  years  before.  His  extreme  youth,  however, 
had  induced  an  arrangement  wdierebyone  Hugh,  a  Chaplain, 
had  custody  of  the  archdeaconry,  to  hold  as  it  were  in 
commendam,  till  Belmeis  should  attain  a  fitting  age.  This 
period  arrived  during  the  episcopacy  of  Gilbert  the  Universal 
(January,  1128,  August,  1134)  ;  but  the  archdeacon  in 
possession  forgot  or  evaded  his  oath  ;  and  his  refusal  to 
resign  his  trust  was  countenanced  by  Bishop  Gilbert.  The 
death  of  the  latter  prelate  was  followed  by  a  long  vacancy  in 
the  See  of  London.  In  1138,  Richard  de  Belmeis  went  to 
Rome  as  a  representative  of  the  Chapter  of  St.  Paul's  in  its 
opposition  to  the  election  of  Anselm  to  that  bishopric.  The 
appeal  succeeded,  and  Belmeis  then  brought  forward  his 
own  personal  grievance  in  regard  to  the  archdeaconry  of 
Middlesex.  This  matter  the  Pope  (Innocent  II.)  referred 
back  to  the  decision  of  two  English  bishops  (Hereford 
and  Lincoln),  who  before  the  end  of  the  year  gave  sentence 
in  favour  of  Belmeis.  In  apparent  connexion  with  his 
induction  to  this  office,  Belmeis  was  ordained  deacon  in 
December,  1138,  by  Henry,  Bishop  of  Winchester,  at  com- 

1  Monnsticon,  vi.  262,  Num.   II.     Mr.        but   Simeon  of   Durham's  Chronology  ol 

Blakeway    (Hist,  Shrewsbury,    II.    264,        the   period   (which    Mr.  B.    followed)   is 
note  3)  dates  this  charter  in  August,  1  128,         erroneous  by  a  year. 


THE    MONASTERIES   OF    SHROPSHIRE. 

mand  of  the  papal  legate,    Alberic,  who  was  then  visiting 
England 

in  July  1141,  for  that  undoubtedly  is  tlic  date  of  the 
document  referredso,  I  find  Archdeacon  Richard  deBelmeis 
in  the  court  of  the  empress  at  Oxford,  and  attesting  her 
charter  to  the  Shropshire  Abbey  of  Haughmond.5  It  was 
the  era  of  her  pride  and  triumph,  for  Stephen  was  then  her 
prisoner.  Anion--  her  other  attendants,  were  David,  King 
of  Scotland,  Robert  de  Sigillo,  recently  appointed  to  the  long 
vacant  see  of  London,  Alexander,  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  Regi- 
nald, earl  of  Cornwall,  William  and  Walter  Pitz-Alan,  and 
Alan  de  Dunstanville, — the  four  last  all  associated  with 
Shropshire  history. 

The  release  of  Stephen  towards  the  close  of  this  same 
year,  again  set  the  kingdom  in  a  blaze.  Political  parties 
were  once  more  confounded,  and  many  men  re-adjusted 
their  allegiance  as  interest  or  passion  might  direct.  Amidst 
all  this  turmoil  and  distrust,  it  is  marvellous  to  observe  the 
impulse  which  was  given  to  religious  institutions.  Stephen 
and  the  Empress  vied  in  their  patronage  of  the  Church,  not 
befriending  different  orders  in  opposition  to  each  other,  but 
more  commonly  lavishing  their  jealous  favours  od  the  same/' 
Meantime,  there  were  nun  whose  conduct,  favourably  inter- 
preted, would  indicate  that  they  belonged  to  no  political 
party,  and  of  whom  the  worsl  thai  can  be  said  is,  that  they 
adhered  to  each  party  in  turn,  according  as  it  might  suit 
their  designs  \  designs,  1  mean,  not  of  rapine  or  bloodshed, 
but  of  peace  and  benevolence.  These  men  pursued  their 
ends  without  molestation,  uav,  often  with  double  encourage- 
tnent. 

Among  them  was  Richard,  Archdeacon  of  Middlesex, 
who,  whether  at  the  suggestion  of  his  brother  Philip,  or  in 
sympathy  with  the  bishop  of  Lincoln,  selected  the  Arroasian 
order  for  his  munificent  favour.  His  first  Btep,  taken,  I 
doubi  Dotj  in  l  I  I  I.  was  to  transfer  them  from  the  Lizard 
to  Donington  Wood,  a  pari  of  his  prebendal  estate  of 
Lilleshall,  nol  -\\  miles  distanl  from  their  first  abode.  This 
he  did,  doubtless,  under  a  full  assurance  of  thai  consent, 
V  mporal  as  well  as  ecclesiastical,  which  followed  his  act. 

Harl  ta  ure   %•  rtal  ooniea  oi  i  »eh  other     The 

■  I  irten  of  Stephen  policy  of  ili<-  rivals  In  thii  reepeel  being 

•ad   tin  usually  found   in  onci  made  known,  of  course  the  chartered 

|inir»-  .  Mi.  j  bodi<    syailed  themselves  largely  of  it 


LILLESHALL    ABBEY.  233 

We  know  that  in  the  spring  of  1145,  Stephen  was  occu- 
pied in  the  eastern  counties,  specifically  in  Norfolk  and 
Suffolk  ;  we  know  that  at  the  same  time,  Imarus,  Bishop  of 
Tusculum,  was  in  England  as  legate  of  Pope  Lucius  II.,  who 
died  during  his  deputy's  embassy,  viz.  on  Feb.  2(J,  1145. 

This,  then,  is  the  proximate  date  of  a  charter  7  whereby 
king  Stephen,  then  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  "at  the  prayer  of 
Archdeacon  Richard,  grants  and  concedes  to  the  Canons 
Regular,  of  Duninton,  the  prebend  which  the  said  Richard 
had  in  the  church  of  St.  Alchmund  at  Salopesbcry,  and  all 
his  demesne  and  things,  and  moreover,  all  the  other  prebends 
of  the  aforesaid  church,  whenever  they  should  fall  vacant."  8 
The  first  witness  of  this  charter  was  Imarus,  Bishop  of  Tus- 
culum, legate,  the  second  Robert  (de  Betun),  Bishop  of 
Hereford. 

It  is  obvious  to  me  that  the  consent  of  the  diocesan  Bishop 
(Roger  de  Clinton)  to  this  enormous  transfer  of  Church 
estates  was  as  yet  wanting,  and  I  know  not  that  it  will  be 
extravagant  to  associate  his  hesitation  with  a  very  natural 
feeling  of  jealousy  in  behalf  of  his  own  foundation  of  Build- 
was,  which  had  already  been  brought  into  a  kind  of  rivalry 
by  Philip  de  Belmeis'  adoption  of  the  Arroasian  canons  in 
preference  to  the  Savigniac  monks.  Still  suggesting,  rather 
than  asserting,  I  venture  to  point  out  how  Eugenius  III. 
succeeded  to  the  papal  chair  in  March  1145  ;  how  Alexander, 
Bishop  of  Lincoln,  the  great  patron  of  the  Arroasians,  was 
in  especial  favour  with  that  pontiff ;  how  he  visited  him  at 
Rome  in  1145-6,  and  again  at  Auxerre  in  1147  ;  and  how, 
within  those  intervals,  Roger  Bishop  of  Chester  had  the 
Pope's  order  to  confirm  Richard  de  Belmeis'  endowment  of 
the  I)onino;ton  canons. — 

We  know  the  latter  fact,  not  from  any  existing  charter  of 
Bishop  Clinton,  but  from  a  succeeding  and  further  confirma- 
tory charter  of  Theobald,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  which 
is  preserved  and  records  the  circumstance.9 

Theobald's  charter,  even  if  written  in  his  exile,  was  appa- 

"  Lilleshall  Chartulary,   in   possession  9  The  original  deed,  with  a  perfect  flea! 

of  the  Duke  of  Sutherland,  p.  48.  of  the  Arebbishop,  is  among  the  Duke  of 

8  Or  "  be  surrendered  "  by  the  existing  Sutherland's    Muniments    at    Trentham. 

prebendaries;  for  I  take  it  that  the  read-  A   copy  thereof   (given   Afonasricon,  vi., 

ing   of  the  original,  was  "  quando    dila-  263,    Num.  VII.)   is  from  fo.  46    of  the 

bantur."     Perhaps,  however,    (whenever  Lillesball  Chartulary. 
they  should  lapse)  was  the  expression  used. 


2:ii  THE   MONASTERIES   OF   SHROPSHIRE. 

rently  written  before  he  knew  of  the  death  of  Roger  de 
Clinton,  and  therefore  in  or  before  1148.  It  indicates  one 
if  not  two  changes  which  had  taken  place  since  Stephen's 
confirmation.  It  speaks  of  Belmeis'  gift  as  intended  for  the 
building  of  an  abbey  in  the  Wood  of  LiUeshull.  Thither, 
therefore,  had  the  canons  at  length  removed,  viz.  to  a  site 
three  miles  distant  from  Donington  Wood.  There  they 
remained.  Lilleshall  Abbey  was  therefore  commenced 
between  the  years  1144  and  1148.  Archbishop  Theobald 
also  calls  Richard  de  Belmeis,  Dean  of  St.  Alkmunds,  and 
describes  his  particular  prebend  to  be  that  of  LiUeshull  and 
Hetingeham  (Atcham). 

If  Belmeis  had  only  recently  become  Dean  of  St.  Alkmunds, 
and  probably  such  was  the  case,1  it  was  obviously  that  he 
might  have  every  facility  for  converting  the  secular  into  the 
regular  establishment,  a  business  which  we  know  to  have 
been  substantively  and  eventually  completed.  Thus,  whether 
in  Belmeis1  time,  or  later,  all  the  prebendal  estates  of  St. 
Alkmund's  became  the  property  of  the  canons  of  Lilleshall. 

The  next  charter  which  I  should  notice,  is  the  confirma- 
tion of  the  empress  Matilda  to  Lilleshall  Abbey.-'  This 
interesting  document  seems  to  me  to  have  passed  very  soon 
after  she  quitted  England,  viz.  in  1 148,  but  1  must  speak  of 
it  with  caution,  as  its  nearly  obliterated  condition  makes 
some  of  the  few  words  which  I  fancy  myself  to  have  deci- 
phered  \'-rv  problematical. — 

Matilda,  the  empress  daughter  of  king  Henry,  addresses 
William  Fitz-Alan  and  Walter  (perhaps  his  brother)  and  all 
her  faithful  in  Shropshire  with  greeting.  She  receives 
William.  Abbot  of  LylleshuU  and  the  canons,  who  are  there 
serving  God  for  the  souls  of  her  father  Henry  and  her 
mother  Matilda,  and  for  the  welfare  of  herself  and  hers, 
under  her  tutelage  and  protection.  Wherefore,  her  will  and 
mandate  was,  thai  the  aforesaid  William  and  his  canons 
should  hold  all  their  things  freely  and  quietly:  \i/.  the 
Church  of  St.  Alcmund,  of  Salop,  with  its  appurtenances  and 
franchises  asalready  confirmed  to  them  by  episcopal  autho- 
rity. The  witnesses  seem  to  be,  II.  (Hugh)  Archbishop  ol 
ujJoceline,  Bishop  of  Sarum;  Philip,  Bishop  of  Baieux ; 

1  The   1 1 r> 1 1 1 •    r.f  the  Dean   of  St,  A  IK-      Stephens,  was  Adam.     Monasticon,  rol 
miind'*, at  the  cl ■■■■    ol   Henry  l.'a  reign,       »ii.  750,  No.  nvi. 

■    ■       commencement  oi  I   II    hall  Cbartulary,  p,  14. 


LILLESHALL   ABBEY.  235 

Richard,  her  chancellor ;  Robert  de  Curcy ;  William  do 
Ansgervill.     The  deed  (I  think)  is  dated  at  Faleise. 

We  must  now  say  a  word  as  to  the  confirmation  of  Walter 
Durdent,  Bishop  of  Coventry  (consecrated  2  Oct.  1149), 
which  seems  to  me  to  have  passed  soon  after  his  succession, 
and  before  September,  1152,3  when  Richard  de  Bclmeis  was 
elevated  to  the  see  of  London.  The  latter  person  is  men- 
tioned in  Durdent's  charter  only  as  Dean  of  St.  Alkmund's. 
His  conversion  of  the  secular  prebends  is  spoken  of  as  a  thing 
done.  The  building  of  the  Abbey  of  St.  Mary,  in  the  wood 
at  Lilleshull,  has  commenced.  The  previous  confirmations  of 
king  Stephen,  pope  Eugenius,  archbishop  Theobald,  and 
bishop  Clinton,  are  all  alluded  to.4 

Next  follows  the  Charter  of  Henry  duke  of  Normandy, 
sought  and  obtained  by  the  prudent  canons  of  Lilleshall 
while  that  prince  was  still  an  exile.  It  merely  confirms  the 
Church  of  St.  Alkmund's  with  all  the  privileges  which  it 
enjoyed  in  time  of  Henry  I.  It  is  attested  by  Arnulf,  bishop 
of  Liseux,  (Humphrey)  de  Bohun.  Walcheline  Maminot, 
William  fitz  Hamon,  Warm  fitz  Gerald,  Richard  fitz  Halde- 
brond,  and  Manasser  Biset.  It  is  dated  at  Argentan,  in 
Normandy,  and  passed  probably  in  1151.5 

The  same  prince's  charter,  after  he  ascended  the  throne, 
is  a  document  of  some  historical  interest.  He  confirms  all 
things,  quoting  the  previous  charter  and  grant  of  his  "  Lady 
the  Empress,"  a  mode  of  designating  his  mother,  which  I 
have  not  elsewhere  met  with.  The  deed  is  attested  by 
R.  (Robert)  6  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  R.  (Richard)  Bishop  of 
London,  Thomas  the  Chancellor,  Manasser  Biset  Dapifer, 
Warin  fitz  Gerald  Chamberlain,  Robert  de  Dunstanville  and 
Joceline  de  Baliol/  It  is  also  dated  at  Alrewas  "in  exercitu," 
a  circumstance  which,  with  the  witnesses'  names,  proves  the 

3  There  is  a  doubt  about  this.  One  of  In  the  autumn  of  that  year  bo  became  also 
the  witnesses  is  Geoffry  Abbot,  of  Com-  Earl  of  Anjou  by  Ins  said  Father's  death  ; 
bermere,  and  William,  first  Abbot  of  and  in  1152  he  acquired  further  titles  by 
Combermere,  is  said  to  have  been  living  his  marriage  with  Eleanor  of  Poitou.  In 
in  1153,  viz.,  when  "  Pelton  Abley  was  the  deed  before  u«,  he  simply  styles  bi  in- 
founded."  There  is,  however,  a  strong  self  Duke  of  Normandy,  but  he  is  known 
presumption  that  the  foundation  of  Pelton  to  have  used  his  other  titles  before  his 
was  earlier  than  1153.  It  80,  the  objec-  accession  to  the  throne  of  England.  The 
tion  to  dating  Walter  Durdent's  confirm-  presumption  therefore  is  that  he  used 
ation  earlier  than  1153,  is  invalid.  them  as  they  accrued.     (Vide  Lilleshall 

1  MonaBticon,  \i.  263,  No.  Lv.  Chartulary,  p.  14  ) 

5  The  date  is  assigned  on  these  grounds.  6  yne    uame    /,;;,/,,,■,/    nas   been    used 

Henry  became  Duke  of  Normandy  early  here  by  error  of  the  transcriber. 

in  1151,  by  cession  of  bis  father  Geoffrey.  '  Lilleshall  Chartulary,  p.  44. 


286  THE    MONASTERIES   OF   SHROPSHIRE. 

deed  to  have  passed  in  the  first  year  of  Henry's  reign  (1 155)  ; 
hut  whether  the  king  took  Alrewas  (Staffordshire)  in  his 
line  of  march  when  going  to  or  returning  from  York  in 
February,  or  when  going  to  or  returning  from  Shropshire  in 
July,  seems  uncertain.8 

A  contemporary  precept  of  the  same  king  gives  the  ahhot 
and  canons  of  Lilleshall  a  new  privilege,  viz.,  an  exemption 
from  "  toll  and  passage,"  under  a  penalty  of  10/.  recoverable 
from  any  one  who  should  charge  them  with  such  dues. 

It  would  1'"  beside  my  present  purpose  to  attempt  even  a 
Bummary  of  the  various  grants  and  privileges  which  were 
bestowed  on  Lilleshall  Abbey  within  the  first  century  after 
its  foundation.  Neither  will  I  enumerate  the  bulls  of  popes, 
or  the  charters  of  kings,  archbishops,  and  bishops,  which  con- 
firmed and  recorded  these  successive  benefactions. 

As.  however,  I  profess  to  give  full  particulars  of  the 
Foundation  of  Lilleshall,  it  seems  fitting  to  relate  whatever 
mi. iv  is  known  of  its  founder,8  Richard  de  Belmeis. 

Notwithstanding  all  his  ecclesiastical  dignities,  he  was  not 
ordained  priest  till  September  20, 1152,  when  his  previous 
election  to  the  Sec  of  London  rendered  that  preliminary  to 
his  consecration  imperative.  His  consecration  followed  at 
Canterbury,  on  Sunday.  September  28,  L152,  Archbishop 
Theobald  officiating,  and  nearly  every  English  Bishop 
attending. — 

Henry  of  Winchester,  the  only  notable  absentee,  sent  a, 
in — .-I-.-  to  the  synod  exeusing  his  own  non-attendance,  but 
expressing  in  high  terms  his  assent  to  Belmeis'  promotion. 
Elegance  of  person,  polished  manners,  industrious  activity, 
and  scientific  accomplishment,  are  all  attributed  to  the  new 
bishop  by  his  great  panegyrist,  who  predicts  that  the  tree 
now  to  be  planted  in  God's  temple  will,  with  divine  help, 
flourish  and  be  fruitful.  Such  was  the  pious  tone  assumed 
bj  Henry  of  Blois,  who,  though  do1  asyel  sated  with  ambition 
and  statecraft,  gave  after-evidence  that  he  sometimes  spoke 
both  solemnly  and  sincerely. 

Richard  de  Belmeis,  Bishop  of  London,  Beems  to  have  been 
a  part)  to  tin'  conventions  which,  in  I  L53,  gave  peace  t<>  the 

-  Antiquities  of  Shropshire,  by  the  Rev.  which    Philip    de    Belmeii  had   in    tin' 

I:    \\    i.  ton,  vol.  i.  p  matter.     For  an  account  of  him,  see  An 

■  '    iIm- i.  in founder  would  be  tiquitiet  of  Shropshire,  voL  ii.  pp. 

i  ace  to  thi     linn 


LILLESHALL    ABBEY.  237 

distracted  nation  by  settling  the  succession  on  Henry  Duke 
of  Normandy. 

On  December  19,  1154,  lie  attended  the  coronation  of  that 
prince  at  Westminster.  I  find  him  occasionally  but  not 
often  at  court  in  1155  ;  and  Prince  Henry,  who  was  born  at 
London  on  February  28,  was  baptised  by  Bishop  Belmeis. 

The  next  year  the  king  was  in  Normandy,  but  a  court 
held  at  Colchester  May  24,  1157,  was  attended  by  Belmeis. 
Not  again  at  any  later  period  do  I  hear  of  him  in  public  or 
in  attendance  on  the  king.  He  died  on  the  fourth  of  May, 
1162,  after  suffering  for  many  years  from  some  disorder 
which,  as  one  of  the  chroniclers  informs  us,  deprived  him  of 
speech.1  His  uncle,  the  former  Bishop  of  London,  was,  as 
we  know,  attacked  by  paralysis  many  years  before  his  death, 
and  the  nephew's  malady  was  not  improbably  of  a  similar 
nature.  His  age  at  his  death  must  have  been  considerably 
less  than  sixty. 

No  record  remains  of  his  having  done  anything  for  the  fabric 
of  the  Church  of  St.  Paul's,  the  Cathedral  of  his  See.  His  whole 
cares  of  this  kind  were  probably  devoted  to  the  completion  of 
that  Augustine  Abbey  of  which  we  have  been  speaking.  It 
was  associated  with  the  neighbouring  heritage  of  his  kinsmen 
and  with  the  memories  of  his  own  early  advancement  : — it 
was  situated  also  in  the  county  which  had  nursed  the  greater 
genius  and  fortunes  of  his  illustrious  uncle. 

1  Job.  Hagustald.  col.  278. 


VOL.  XII  II 


NOTICE   OF   A   REMARKABLE   SEPULCHRAL    BRASS   OF   FLE- 
MISH   DESIGN,   IN    THE   CHURCH   OF  WENSLEY,  YORKSHIRE. 

UY  THE  Ki:v.  JAMES  KAINK.  .TUX.,  PRINCIPAL  OF  NEVILLE  IIAI.I. 
Ni:\V(  ASTLK-ON-TYNE. 

In  the  clioir  of  the  church  of  Wensley  in  the  North  Riding 
of  the  County  of  York  there  is  a  splendid  brass,  which  has 
long  attracted  the  admiration  of  archaeologists.  It  represents 
an  ecclesiastic  with  a  chalice  and  the  host  laid  upon  his 
breast.  The  priestly  vestments  are  most  beautifully  executed, 
and  the  whole  figure  is  so  carefully  designed  and  admirably 
wrought  as  to  deserve  a  high  place  among  our  clerical 
-es.1  It  is  probably  the  production  of  some  Flemish 
artist,  and  it  has  been  supposed  to  commemorate  a  rector  of 
the  church  during  the  XlVth  century.  The  name  of  the 
ecclesiastic  who  is  thus  represented  has  been  long  forgotten, 
as  the  fillet  of  brass  which  ran  round  the  edge  of  the  stone, 
and  which  contained  the  inscription,  has  been  removed  or 
destroyed.  At  the  head  of  the  figure  there  has  been  let 
into  the  marble  stone  a  small  square  tablet  of  brass,  bearing 
the  following  inscription  : — 

"Oswaldus  Dykes  jaceo  hie;  Rector  hujus  ccclesia1  \\ 
annos,  reddidi  animam  j  Decemb.  1607. 

"Non  tnoriar  sed  rivara  el  narrabo  opera  Domini." 

Thifi  tablel  detracts  Bomewhal  from  the  effect  of  the 
stately  figure  which  lies  beneath  it,  but  we  have  to  thank 
Oswald  Dykee  for  the  name  of  his  predecessor,  into  whose 
resting-place  he  so  unceremoniously  intruded.  In  his  will, 
dated  on  the  Beventh  of  November  L607,  and  proved  .-it 
Jfork  en  the  2nd  of  February  following,  he  desires  "to  be 
buried  in  the  quier  of  Wenslow,  under  the  stone  where  Sir 
Symond  Wenslow  was  buried,  yfyl  please  God  soe  to  provide 
the  -.'ime.  havinge  this  superscription,  Non  moriar  sed  uiinam 

Tbori   i     :i   i.-ii  ■•    « ii  - 1 . i \  1 1 1 lc  <>f  this      Mutation  in  Waller1!  Sepulchral  Bn 
ii  Or   win:,     i'    iii  toryol  Rich        ii   oecurt  ilao   in   Mi-    Boutell'i    Monu- 
,  and  :i  more  accural    repn        mental  Brawea  and  Slab*,  p.  20, 


SEPULCHRAL    BRASS   AT    WEXSLEY,  YORKSHIRE.  239 

ut  narrabfi  opera  Domini."  This  inscription  differs  slightly 
from  that  which  occurs  upon  the  tablet.  The  clerk  evidently 
made  a  mistake  when  he  was  transcribing  the  will.  This 
document  gives  us  the  name  of  the  rector  whom  the  brass 
commemorates — Sir  Simon  de  Wenslegh.  Before  however 
I  turn  to  him,  a  few  brief  notices  of  Oswald  Dykes  may  be 
;  i  ]  >]  iropriately  introduced. 

Oswald  Dykes,  Rector  of  Wensley,  was,  I  believe,  a 
younger  son  of  Thomas  Dykes,  Esq.,  of  the  parish  of  Burgh- 
on-Sands,  in  Cumberland,  by  Anne,  daughter  of  John  Layton, 
Esq.,  of  Dalemain.  His  will  contains  some  interesting  bequests, 
and  I  give  some  extracts  from  it. 

"  To  the  parishe  of  Plumland  in  Cumberland,  where  I  was 
borne,  5l.,  at  the  discretion  of  the  parson  and  of  William 
Orfeur,  Esq.,  my  cozen.  To  Sir  John  Dalston  my  weightiest 
ringe  of  gould,  and  to  my  Ladye  his  wife  an  unyon.2  To 
every  poore  house  in  Laborn,  Wenslowe  and  Preston,  12d. 
To  my  brother  Robert  Dykes  my  best  satten  doublet.  I  give 
my  librarie  of  bookes  unto  my  brother  Edward  Dykes  parson 
of  Distington.  To  my  Ladie  Bellingham  a  booke  called 
Grenehams  second  tombe.  My  wife,  Mrs.  Emme  Dykes, 
executrix.  To  my  neece,  Mr.  Leonard  Dyke's  his  wife,  of 
Wardall,  my  bell  salt  gilted  over  with  gold.3  To  my 
countreman  Edward  Gibson  a  booke  called  Mallarette  upon 
Sainte  Mathewe.  To  my  sonne  Daniell  Hodgson  that  is 
now  at  Stoad  in  Germany  my  goodly  foale  with  the  starne 
in  the  head.  To  Rachell  Hodgson  my  virginalls."  Dykes 
was  presented  to  the  rectory  of  Wensley  by  lord  Scrope, 
June  5,  1587. 

It  was  by  no  means  unusual  to  appropriate  earlier  grave- 
stones and  to  disturb  the  remains  which  they  covered.  The 
great  number  that  sought  interment  in  the  churches  rendered 
this  appropriation  necessary.  Altar  tombs  and  stone  coffins 
appear  to  have  been  used  again  without  the  slightest  scruple, 
and  in  many  cases  we  may  still  observe  two  or  three  inscrip- 

-  Probably  a  fine  pearl,  unio  ;  the  term  resembling  a  bell,  and  terminating  in  a 

i- so  used   by  Shakepeare,  Hamlet,  V.,  2.  perforated    ball,    was    exhibited    by   the 

See  Nares.     It  lias  been  suggested,  how-  Rev.   F.    Raines,  in  the  Museum   of  the 

ever,  that  it  may  signify  a  betrothal  ring,  Institute,  at    the    York    Meeting,   1846. 

a  gimme! ;  Fr.  allia/nce,  sometimes  formed  (Museum  Catalogue,  York  volume,  p.  16.) 

of    a  thread  or  wire   of    ^'"M    interlined  A  similar  salt  is  described,  Gent.    .Ma^r. 

with  one  of  silver.  vol.  xxiii.   N.S  ,  p.  136. 

3  A  double  salt  of  remarkable   form, 


2-iO  SEPULCHRAL  BRASS 

tions  of  different  dates  upon  the  same  stone.  The  incumbent 
might,  of  course,  select  the  place  for  his  own  interment,  and 
he  occasionally  made  a  curious  selection.  In  1585,  Thomas 
Taylor,  Rector  of  Langton  upon  Swaile,  desired  "  to  be 
buried  in  oonder  an  owld  tombe  or  monyment  within  the 
chaunsell  of  Lanketon,"  bequeathing  "  to  Thos.  Rychmounde, 
or  to  eanye  other  in  his  absence  for  openynge  and  cnclosynge 
of  my  tombe,  of  there  owne  proper  costes  and  charges,  xs." 
The  tomb,  here  referred  to,  is  probably  that  of  an  ecclesiastic 
in  the  north  wall  of  the  church,  of  which  Dr.  Whitaker  gives 
an  engraving.  I  may  here  mention  the  burial  place  of 
another  llichmondshire,  incumbent,  as  recorded  in  his  parish 
register, 

"  Thomas  Tothall,  rector  of  Romaldkirkc,  departed  this 
life  the  26th  of  December,  1664,  about  half  an  houre  past 
nine  of  the  clock  att  night  and  was  interred  the  28  day  of 
December,  in  the  chancell  under  the  marble  stone  which 
adjoinesto  the  north  side  of  Parson  Livelie  his  tombe."  This 
rector  was  the  son  of  Christopher  Tothall,  notary  public,  who 
was  buried  in  the  same  church,  as  he  desired,  "  in  linncn, 
without  chiste  or  cophin,"  on  the  31st  of  March,  1628, 
"sub  marmore  juxta  marmor  vel  tumulum  Domini  Johannis 
Lewelyne  defuncti."    I  now  turn  to  Sir  Simon  de  Wenslagh. 

Sir  Simon  de  Wenslagh  was  a  man  of  eminence  in  character 
and  position.  He  was  probably  a  member  of  the  ancient 
family  of  Wenslagh,4  which  was  of  some  influence  and  con- 
sideration in  Yorkshire.  The  Wenslaghs  were  connected 
with  the  great  Baronial  House  of  Scrope,  and  it  was  probably 
to  that  illustrious  family  that  the  Rector  of  Wensley  was 
indebted  for  his  christian  name,  Simon.  The  first  notice  we 
have  of  Sir  Simon  de  Wenslagh  is  in  the  year  L352.  On 
the  14th  of  September  in  that  year,  Henry  de  Bellerby  puts 
Simon  de  Wenslawo.  clerk,  together  with  John  de  Huthwate, 
clerk,  and  Philip  do  Pulford,  chaplain,  in  trust  for  the  whole 
of  his  manor  of  Walburn,8  This  manor  the  trustees  release 
to  Bellerby  and  his  wife  fifteen  days  afterwards.  Soon  after 
this,  Sir  Simon  was  preferred   bv   Richard  Lord  Scrope  of 

1  The  family  of  Wenslagh  bore  for  their  tin-   Bame   place   in   1895.     A  Simon  <1" 

ami-,  Vert,  four  escallops  in  c               ;  Wen  lagh  was  incumbent  of  Co  wlam-upon- 

•■f  eacfa  being  turned  toward*  the  the  Wold,  and  died,  circa,  I  H5.     He  was 

i  •>:  John  'I'-  Wenslagh,  probably  nephew,  or  some  kinsman  <>f  tin1 

with'      •■  wi  Hunt,  r  at  W.'illiimi    in    l.'Cil.         rrrtor  of   Wi-nsley, 

as  another  at  ■  See  note  A. 


AT  WENSLEY,  YORKSHIRE.  241 

Bolton  to  the  valuable  and  important  rectory  of  Wensley.6 
Bolton,  the  residence  of  the  Scropes,  was  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  Wensley,  and  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  Sir  Simon 
became  now  very  closely  connected  with  that  distinguished 
family.  Almost  all  the  available  legal  knowledge  of  those 
times  was  centred  in  the  ecclesiastics,  and  the  lords  of  Bolton 
would  gladly  enrol  among  their  clients  one  who,  in  addition 
to  his  own  local  influence,  was  so  well  qualified  by  his 
ability  to  advance  their  interests.  We  soon  find  Sir  Simon 
again  undertaking  the  trusteeship  of  the  Walburn  estates. 
On  the  8th  of  June,  1361,  Henry  de  Bellerby  and  Alice  his 
wife  put  Simon  parson  of  Wenslaw,  John  de  Wawton,  and 
others,  in  trust  for  the  lordship  of  Walburn,  and  their  estates 
in  Bolton-on-Swale,  Leeming,  Scurveton  (Jiodie  Scruton)  and 
Crakehall.  The  subsequent  release  is  missing.  Eight  years 
afterwards,  for  the  third  time,  we  find  the  Rector  of  Wensley 
put  in  trust  for  the  same  estates.  On  the  21st  of  September, 
1368,  Henry  de  Bellerby  grants  all  his  lands  in  Walburn, 
Bellerby,  Bolton-on-Swale,  Great  Langton,  Leeming  and 
Exilby,  together  with  the  lordship  of  Walburn,  to  Simon, 
parson  of  Wenslaw,  John  de  Huthwat,  parson  of  Danby 
Wiske,  and  Philip  de  Fulford,  chaplain.  This  trust  was 
released  by  Wenslaw  and  his  co-trustees  to  Bellerby  shortly 
afterwards.  We  now  lose  sight  of  Sir  Simon  for  a  consider- 
able period.  The  next  and  the  last  time  that  he  occurs  is 
in  the  year  1386,  when  he  appears  at  York  as  a  witness  on 
behalf  of  his  patron  lord  Scrope,  in  the  celebrated  controversy 
with  Sir  Richard  Grosvenor,  who  had  usurped  the  ancient 
bearing  of  the  Scropes,  azure,  a  bend  or.  Sir  Simon  had  now 
an  excellent  opportunity  for  repaying  the  kindness  of  his 
patron,  and  his  statements  are  so  singularly  curious  and 
important,  that  I  shall  give  them  at  length.  His  testimony 
was  evidently  considered  extremely  valuable,  and  it  occupies 
a  prominent  position  among  the  depositions 7  which  were  then 
received.     It  runs  as  follows  : — ■ 

"  Sir  Simon,  parson  of  the  church  of  Wynsselowe,  of  the 
age  of  sixty  years  and  upwards,  said,  certainly  that  the  arms 
azure,  a  bend  or,  appertained  to  Sir  Richard  Scrope,  for  that 

G  Dr.    Whitaker  siys,  that  Sir  Simon  "  I  must  refer  my  readers  to  the  Scrope 

was  presented    to  this  living  on  the  29th       and  Grosvenor  Roll,  edited  by  Sir  Harris 
of  September,  1361.     This  date  is  incor-       Nicolas,  to  which  I  am  greatly  indebted, 
rect,  but   I  am  unable  to  give  the  exact 
time  of  his  appointment. 


242  SEPULCHRAL   BRASS 

they  were  in  his  church  of  Wynsselowe,8  in  certain  glass 
windows  of  that  church,  of  which  Sir  Richard  was  patron; 
and  on  the  wesl  gable  window  of  the  said  church  wore  the 
entire  arms  of  Sir  Richard  Scrope  in  a  glass  window,  the 
setting  up  of  which  anus  was  beyond  the  memory  of  man. 
The  said  arms  were  also  in  divers  other  parts  of  the  said 
church,  and  in  his  chancel  in  a  glass  window,  and  in  the  east 
gable  also  were  the  said  arms  placed  amongst  the  arms  of 
Lords,  such  as  the  King,  the  Karl  of  Northumberland, 
the  Lord  of  Neville,  the  Karl  of  Warren.  He  also  said  that 
there  was  a  tomh  in  his  cemetery  of  Simon'-'  Scrope,  as 
might  be  seen  by  the  inscription  on  the  tomb,  who  was 
buried  in  the  ancient  fashion  in  a  stone  chest,  with  the 
inscription,  Cy  gist  Simond  le  Scrope,  without  date.  And 
after  Simon  Scrope  lieth  one  Henry  Scrope,  son  of  the  said 
Simon,  in  the  same  manner  as  his  father,  next  the  side  of 
his  father,  in  the  same  cemetery.  And  after  him  lieth 
William,  son  of  the  said  Henry  Scrope,  who  lieth  in  the 
manner  aforesaid  beneath  the  stone,  and  there  is  graven 
thereon,   Ycy  gist    William  Is  Sa 'ope,  without  date,  for  the 

bad  weathe^  wind,  and  BnOW,  and  rain,  had  BO  defaced  it, 
that  no  man  could  make  out  the  remainder  of  the  writing, 
so  old  and  defaced  was  it.  Several  others  of  his  lineage  and 
name  were  buried  there,  one  after  the  other,  under  Large 
square  stones,  which  being  so  massive  were  sunk  into  the 
earth,  so  thai  uo  more  of  the  stone  than  the  summit  of  it 
could  be  Been  ;  and  many  other  of  their  sons  and  daughters 
were  buried  under  greal  9tones.  Prom  William  came  Henry 
Scrope,1  knight,  who  Lieth  in  the  U)beyofSt.  Agatha, armed 
in  the  arm-,  azure,  a  bend  or,  which  Sir  Henry  was  founder 
of  the  said  abbey  ;  and  Sir  William8  Scrope,  elder  brother  of 
Sir  Richard  thai  now  is,  lieth  in  the  Bame  abbey,3  with  the 
arms  depicted,  bul  nol  painted.  The  said  Sir  Simon  placed 
before  tin'  Commissioners  an  alb  with  flaps,  upon  which  were 
embroidered  the  arms  of  the  Scropes  entire,  the  making  of 
which  arms  and  the  name  of  the  donor  were  beyond  the 

1  The  ehnrch  of  Wenaley  contain     otne  oi  the  monumenta  in  the  cemetery  which 

a  morials  ol  the  Scropes  and  Sir  Simon  mentions  ere  now  observable 
i  he  only  iroi  '  See  note  It. 

r-  in  the  window!  in  Dr.  \sint  '  See  not  C. 

wer<    Hi"  w  "I  Scrope  sod  •  note  I ' 

i  he    church    m  i      con  idi  rably  I  i. 

ll'  in  \  \  1 1.    None 


AT    WENSLEY,  YORKSHIRE.  243 

memory  of  man.  He  added  that  the  patronage  of  his  church 
of  Wynsselowe  had  always  been  vested  in  Sir  Richard 
Scrope  and  his  ancestors  bearing  the  name  of  Scrope,  beyond 
the  memory  of  man ;  and  that  the  arms  azure,  a  bend  or, 
had  always  been  reputed  to  belong  to  him  and  his  ancestors, 
and  he  never  heard  to  the  contrary  ;  he  had  never  heard 
that  the  arms  had  been  challenged,  or  of  Sir  Richard 
Grosvenor,  or  any  of  his  ancestors." 

After  this  deposition,  we  hear  no  more  of  Sir  Simon.  He 
was  above  sixty  years  of  age  in  1386,  when  he  gave  his 
evidence,  and  he  probably  died  before  the  new  century 
began.  He  is  not  mentioned  in  the  will  of  his  patron,  lord 
Scrope,4  which  was  made  in  the  year  1400.  That  illustrious 
nobleman  was  a  great  benefactor  to  Wensley,  and  we  can 
hardly  suppose  that  he  would  have  omitted  the  name  of  the 
aged  rector,  if  he  had  been  then  alive. 

JAMES  RAINE,  JUN. 


NOTES. 

a.  Walburn  Hall,  near  Richmond  in  Yorkshire,  was  the  ancient  estate  of 
the  family  of  Bellerby.  Margaret,  daughter  and  heir  of  Henry  de  Bellerby, 
married  Peter  Greathead,  whose  daughter  and  heir  carried  the  estate  into 
the  family  of  Sedgwick.  The  heiress  of  the  Sedgwicks  married  into  the 
house  of  Lascelles  of  Brackenbergh.  The  estate  afterwards  came  by  purchase 
into  the  family  of  Hutton,  and  it  is  at  present  in  the  possession  of  Timothy 
Hutton,  Esq.,  of  Marske  Hall,  who  has  carefully  restored  the  building. 
The  present  hall  was  built  during  the  reign  of  Elizabeth,  but  some  of  the 
walls  and  other  traces  of  the  ancient  mansion  of  the  Bellerbys  are  still 
remaining.  There  used  to  be  some  fine  old  panelling  and  stained  glass  in 
the  hall,  but  it  is  no  longer  to  be  found.  Walburn  Hall  was  garrisoned  for 
Charles  I.  during  the  great  rebellion  by  some  companies  of  the  Richmond- 
shire  train-bands,  who  were  supplied  with  provisions  by  Matthew 
Hutton,  Esq.,  of  Marske.  The  little  parish  church  of  Downeholme  con- 
tains no  memorials  of  the  owners  of  Walburn  save  a  rude  shield  bearing  the 
arms  of  Bellerby,  or,  a  chevron  gules,  between  3  bells  argent. 

B.  Simon  le  Scrope  of  Flotmanby  was  of  full  age  in  1205.  He  was 
living  in  1225,  and,  on  his  death,  was  buried  at  Wensley.  By  Ingolian.  his 
wife,  he  had  Henry  le  Scrope,  his  son  and  heir,  who  was  of  full  age  in  1205. 
lie  married  Julian,  daughter  of  Roger  Bruue  of  Thornton,  by  whom  he  had 
a  son,  William  le  Scrope,  who  was  interred  at  Wensley,  near  his  father. 

C.  Henry  Scrope,  Knight  Banneret,  Lord  of  Croft,  co.  Ebor,  27  Edw.  I. 
Judge  of  the  Common  Pleas,  1308.  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench, 
1317.     Chief  Justice  of  the   Common  Pleas,  1327.     Chief  Justice  of  the 

1  See  note  F. 


2  1  1  BEPULCHEAL    BEASS    AT    \YK  Nsi.KY.  FOEKSHIEE. 

King's  Bench,  1330.  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer,  1333.  He  died, 
Sept.  7,  133b,  and  was  buried  in  the  abbey  of  St.  Agatha,  where,  as  the 
Abbot  trlls  as,  in  his  evidence  in  the  Scrape  and  Grosvenor  controversy, 
"  Under  the  choir  and  higher  up  in  a  part  of  their  church  above  the  choir 
under  raised  Btones,  and  upon  the  stone,  is  the  representation  of  a  knight 
painted  with  the  arms  azure,  a  bind  or,  who  was  called  in  his  life-time 
[enry  Scrope,  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Baid  abbey." 
i'.  Sir  William  Scrope  was  born  in  1320.  Ho  Berved  in  the  wars  of 
Scotland  and  Brittany,  and  died.  November  17,  1''!  1,  of  a  wound  received 
at  Morlaix.  lie  was  buried  at  Easby,  "  sculptured  on  a  high  tomb, armed, 
and  the  arms  engraven  on  a  shield  represented  upon  him  without  colours." 

e.  The  beautiful  abbey  of  St.  Agatha,  near  Richmond,  was  supported, 
reat  extent,  by  the  piety  and  munificence  of  the  Scropes.  The  abbot, 
;  pears  aa  a  witness  in  the  Scrope  and  Grosvenor  controversy,  after 
describing  the  tombs  of  the  founder  and  his  family,  tells  us,  that  there 
W(  re  many  others  of  the  family  buried  there,  "  under  flat  stones  with  their 
effigies  sculptured  thereon,  and  their  shields  represented  with  their  arms, 
and  mi  one  side  of  the  shield  a  naked  sword  ;  and  their  arms  were  through- 
out the  church  of  St.  Agatha  in  glass  windows,  on  tablets  before  altars,  on 
vestments,  chambers,  glass  windows  of  chambers,  in  their  refectory,  and  on 
a  corporal  case  of  silk,  the  making  of  which  and  the  donor  of  it  were 
beyond  memory.  He  refers  to  the  Chronicle  of  Bridlington  as  his  authority 
for  the  Scropes  using  the  arms,  and  says  that  the  family  was  so  ancient  as 
to  Burpass  the  memorj  of  man."  A  weather-beaten  shield,  with  their  well- 
known  bearing,  on  the  porch  of  the  parish  church,  is  now  the  only  me- 
morial of  the  Scropee  at  Easby.  Jt  is  extremely  probable  that  the  chapel 
of  the  Familj  within  the  monastery  will  ere  long  he  opened  out  by  the  owner 
of  the  estate. 

i.   Richard,  first  Lord  Scrope  of  Bolton,  a  most  distinguished  soldier  and 

man,  and    one   of  the   greatest  men    of  his  day.      A   full   account   of 

ploite  ami  services  will  be  found  in  the  Scrope  and  Grosvenor  Roll ; 
to  which  must  be  appended  bis  interesting  will,  which  has  been  given 
in  the  Testaments  Bboracensia,  Vol.  I.  p.  cc,  published  by  the  Surtees 

In    that  document  the  testator  leaves   402.  to  repair  the  bridge  at 

Wen  ley,  and   be   bequeaths  tin;  remainder  of  his  vast  estate  to  his  Alms 

liOU.-e-  and   (  lollege  at     \Yen-by. 


THE  CHURCH  OF  ST.  MARY  THE  GREAT,  CAMBRIDGE. 

BY  THE  REV.   EDMUND  VENABLES,  M.A.' 

There  is  perhaps  no  object  so  completely  identified  with 
the  idea  of  Cambridge  in  the  mind  of  every  member  of  this 
University,  as  the  Church  of  Great  St.  Mary.  Conspicuous 
from  its  situation  in  the  very  centre  of  the  town,  and  from 
being  by  many  degrees  the  largest  and  most  stately  of  its  parish 
churches,  there  is  no  other  building  which  has  for  so  long  a 
period  been  so  intimately  connected  with  the  public  life  of 
the  University.  It  is  within  its  walls,  or  those  of  the  churches 
which  occupied  the  same  site,  that  the  University  has  for 
centuries  been  accustomed  to  assemble  in  its  corporate  capa- 
city, to  hear  sermons,  and  perform  all  the  more  solemn  reli- 
gious ceremonials  ;  and  it  was  here  that,  until  the  erection  of 
the  Senate  House,  the  Commencements  were  kept,  the  speeches 
recited,  the  theological  disputations  held,  and  much  public 
business  transacted  which  has  now  happily  obtained  a  dis- 
tinct and  more  appropriate  location.  It  seemed,  therefore, 
only  fitting  that  at  the  Cambridge  Meeting  of  the  Archaeolo- 
gical Institute  some  attempt  should  be  made  to  illustrate  the 
history  of  this,  the  oldest,  and,  in  many  points  of  view,  the 
most  interesting  of  our  University  buildings ;  more  especially 
at  a  time  when  the  extensive  alterations  which  have  taken 
place  in  its  immediate  vicinity,  render  some  large  and  well- 
considered  work  of  renovation  almost  an  object  of  necessity, 
and  an  opportunity  is  thereby  presented  of  removing  the 
awkward  and  unsightly  excrescences  by  which  this  noble 
edifice  has  too  long  been  deformed,  and  restoring  to  the  inte- 
rior that  air  of  space  and  grandeur  which  it  originally  pos- 
sessed, but  which,  in  its  present  encumbered  state,  can  hardly 
be  appreciated.  My  purpose  has  not  been  so  much  to 
illustrate  the  architecture,  as  the  history  of  the  church,  and 
to  present  a  record  of  the  more  interesting  events  which  have 
from  time  to  time  been  transacted  within  it,  and  of  those 

1  Communicated  to   the    Architectural  Section  at  the   Meeting  of  the  Institute  in 
Cambridge,  July  C,  1854. 

VOL.    III.  K    K 


246     Tin:    CHURCH   OF   ST.    MAUY    THE    CHEAT.    CAMBRIDGE. 

successive  alterations  in  its  services,  and  furniture,  which  so 
accurately  index  the  mutations  in  the  national  creed,  and  the 
varying  tone  of  feeling  of  the  governing  body  in  the  Church, 
and  University. 

Tlir  original  foundation  of  St.  Mary's  is  wrapt  in  the  same 
irity  with  that  of  most  of  our  parish  churches.  The  first 
notice  I  have  been  able  to  discover  of  it,  is  of  its  being  "  much 
with  fire,"  July  !>,  1290.2  This  injury  was  attributed 
to  the  Jews,  those  scapegoats  of  the  middle  ages,  who  were 
in  consequence  commanded  to  leave  the  town,  where  they 
had  a  large  synagogue.  A  considerable  time  seems  to  have 
elapsed  before  the  damage  was  fully  repaired,  for,  in  1315, 
Alan  de  Wellis,  burgess  of  the  town,  bequeathed  "  a  mark 
to  the  building  of  St.  Mary's  Church/'3  From  Bishop 
s  Register  we  learn  that  orders  for  the  consecration 
of  the  high  altar  were  sent,  May  17,  1346,  but  from  some 
unknown  cause  the  ceremony  Beems  not  to  have  taken  place 
till  March  L5,  L351.  About  this  time  the  advowson  was 
given  by  I'M  ward  III.  to  his  new  foundation  of  Kind's 
Hall,  from  which  it  has  descended  to  its  present  possessors, 
Trinity  College.  As  the  chief  church  of  the  town  it  is 
probable  thai  it  was  from  the  first  the  place  where  the 
University  a--  mbled  lor  religious  purposes,  and  that  it  thus 
gradually  acquired  the  character  of  the  University  Church, 
Other  churches,  however,  shared  tlii<  dignity  with  it.  In  the 
fifteenth  and  sixteenth  centuries,  while  >st.  Mary's  was  slowly 
advancing  to  completion,  the  University  met  in  St.  Benet's 
Church,  or  that  of  the  Austin  Friars,  "which  stood  on  die  site 
of  die  ul d  Botanical  Garden.4  The  church  of  the  Franciscans, 
which  m 1  "ii  Sidney  Sussex  fouling  green,  was  also  fre- 
quently used  lor  public  exercises,  and  as  late  as  1507,  the 
Commencemenl  was  held  there.  It  is  nol  generally  known 
thai  ill1.  University  narrowly  missed  obtaining,  in  tins  last- 
named  church,  tli. -it  which  has  for  so  Long  a  tune  been  desired 
Ij\-  her  possession  of  a  church  free  from  all  parochial  claims, 
which  die  mi-Ill  regard  ;i-  exclusively  her  own,  and  use 
without  question  or  dispute.     This  was  at  the  Dissolution  of 

-  Fa]]        1 1    •  0,11,1,.  p,  77      Bi  a         use  of  the  parish  bell.     In  the  Unireraity 

account*  «>■  find  "  \  i>.  I  198,  pro  emenda- 
lione  /•    <  impane  Sci   Benedict!, 

time  the  Univi  Pro  una  oorda  campane  magui 

■   -■    Beneti       Sci    Benedicti    iiijd."      The  last  payment 
1  annuaJlj  fox  th<       for  th<  u  i  "t  the  lull  w>    mi 


THE    CHURCH    OF   ST.    MARY    THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE.     247 

Monasteries,  when  the  University  applied  to  Henry  VIII.  for 
a  gift  of  the  church  which  they  had  already  found  so  suitable 
to  their  requirements ;  but  the  monarch  turned  a  deaf  ear 
to  their  request,  and  gave  the  sacred  edifice  to  Trinity  College, 
(which  he  had  recently  founded  by  the  amalgamation  of 
several  smaller  halls  and  hostels,)  whose  members,  actuated 
by  a  very  different  spirit  from  that  which  now  distinguishes 
that  noble  foundation,  immediately  pulled  it  down,  and 
employed  the  best  of  the  materials  in  erecting  their  own 
buildings.5  But,  to  return  to  the  subject  of  the  present  paper : 
within  two  centuries  of  its  repair  after  the  fire,  little  more 
than  one  after  the  consecration  of  its  Altar,  it  was  found  neces- 
sary, either  from  its  ruinous  condition,  or  from  the  church 
being  inadequate  in  size  and  beauty  to  the  requirements  and 
taste  of  the  University,  to  rebuild  the  whole,  and  the  first 
stone  of  the  present  building  was  laid  May  16,  1478,  "at  forty- 
five  minutes  past  six  p.m."  6  "  All  church  wrork,"  says  Fuller, 
"  is  slow  ;  the  mention  of  St.  Mary's  mindeth  me  of  church 
work  indeed,  so  long  was  it  from  the  founding  to  the  finishing 
thereof."  And  well  might  he  say  so  ;  for,  as  he  further 
records,  notwithstanding  the  great  exertions  made  by  the 
University  to  obtain  contributions  to  the  building,  and  the 
liberal  sums  voted  by  them  from  their  own  chest,  forty-one 
years  elapsed  before  the  fabric  of  the  church  was  finished,  and 
a  hundred  and  thirty  before  the  top  stone  of  the  tower  was 
laid,  and  the  edifice  completed.  The  same  historian  informs 
us  that  "there  was  expended  in  the  structure  of  the  church 
alone,  7951.  2s.  Id.,  all  bestowed  by  charitable  people  for  that 
purpose." 7  The  largest  benefactor  wras  Dr.  Thomas  Barrow, 
Archdeacon  of  Colchester,  Fellow  of  King's  Hall,  and  Chan- 
cellor of  the  House  to  Richard  III.,  who  gave  no  less  than 
240/.  ;  nearly  one-third  of  the  entire  sum  ;  the  next  largest 
sum,  70/.,  was  contributed  by  Bishop  Alcock  of  Ely.  King 
Henry  VII.  also,  when  visiting  his  mother's  recent  foundation 
of  Christ's  College,  was  persuaded  to  assist  in  the  work,  giving 
100  marks  (661.  13s.  id.)  in  money,  "  a  fair  sum  in  that  age," 
says  Fuller,  "for  so  thrifty  a  prince,"  besides  an  hundred 
oaks  towards  the  framing  of  the  roof,  which  was  set  up  in 
1506.8  The  Lady  Margaret  herself  gave  20/.  Of  the  sums 
given  by  and  through  the  University  between  the  years  1  1  78 

5  Essex.  MSS.  A'lilit.  Brit,  Mus.   Acker-  s  In  commemoration  of  his  munificence 
man,  Mia osm  of  Cambridge,  ii.  261.  a  yearly  obit  waa  kept  by  the  University 

6  Caii  Hist.  Acad.  p.  89.  for  which  a  pall  of  great  splendour  was 
"  Hist.  Univ.  Camb.  p.  ISO.  provided. 


24S  THE  CHURCH  OF  ST.  MARY  THE  GREAT,  CAMBRIDGE. 

and  1519,  a  record  exists  among  App.  Parker's  MSS.  in  the 
library  of  C.C.C.9  The  whole  amount  is  555/.  2*.  Id.  The 
Bums  are  very  small  for  the  first  nine  years,  when  they  sud- 
denly rise  to  upwards  of  9(>/.,  and  nearly  60/.  in  the  year 
following  (1488).  After  this  the  contributions  sink  again, 
till  1503,  in  which,  and  the  six  ensuing  years,  nearly  three 
hundred  pounds  were  supplied  by  the  University.  Thesmall- 
ness  of  the  collections  for  so  many  years  was  not  the  conse- 
quence of  any  want  of  zeal  on  the  part  of  the  University, 
who,  in  141*3,  went  so  far  as  to  send  out  the  Proctors  on  hired 
horses,  to  collect  for  the  Church,  with  begging  letters  written 
by  the  Vicar  of  Trumpington,  who  received  6s.  &d.  for  his 
trouble.  Their  journey,  however,  which  lasted  three  weeks, 
proved  a  sad  failure,  for  the  whole  sum  furnished  by  the 
University  this  year,  from  every  source,  amounted  to  no  more 
than  5/.  2s.  2\d.  ;  and  wTe  are  not  surprised  that  the  experi- 
ment does  not  appear  to  have  been  repeated.1  The  general 
superintendence  of  the  building  seems  to  have  been  com- 
mitted to  the  parish,  who  appear  to  have  been  the  willing 
recipients  of  the  bounty  of  others,  while  they  contributed 
little  or  nothing  themselves  towards  the  work,  which  was 
creeping  on  in  the  midst  of  many  difficulties  and  discourage- 
ments, and  was  at  last  completed  in  L519,  with  the  exception 
of  the  tower,  for  which  it  had  to  wait  nearly  another  century. 
As  the  body  of  the  church  drew  to  a  conclusion,  we  find 
notices  of  the  glazing  of  the  windows.  Henry  Vese}r,  apo- 
thecary, by  his  will  dated  April  15.  1503,  orders  that  "imme- 
diately after  the  south  yle  is  new  made  mye  executors  do 
glase  one  of  the  windows  with  the  lyfof  S.  Edward  the  King 
and  Confe8SOr.w  In  1518  the  parish  books  contain  "pro 
l'aliro  vitriario  pro  fenestris  \i  ,"  and  the  nexl  year,"1519, 
paid  to  James  Nycolson,  the  glasier,  for  windows  in  Seynt 
Mary's,  vii.  lib."  Nicholson  wasoneofthe  glaziers  employed 
in  the  executing  the  windows  of  King's  College  Chapel,  from 
the  gorgeous  tints  of  winch  we  may  form  some  idea  of  what 
we  have  losl   in  the  total  destruction  of  the  glass  winch  once 

■  Printed  in  Dr.  Lamb'   u  Documents,"  rigintidiebus  \x\" 
p.  7.     See  Baker  MSS  The  vicar  of  Trumpington  oftbaf  day 

Proctor*!    Account*,  1498.     "Winn  seems  from  the  University  a tuntstohave 

they  went  with  letters  for  S.  Maries  pro  !»•'■"  generally  employed  i"  write  letters 

senptione    literarum   Vicario  de    Tram-  f'<>r  lii^  learned  neighbours,  eg.,  "  L499. 

,  vC.  mij1."  yicar.de  Trampiton  pro  Uteris  ad   mat 

"Exp  pro  itinera  Procura-  rem  regis  delatis  w1."  "pro  scriptione 

toram  ram  Uteris  pro  fabrica,   ESeel     B,  aliaram  >j '  "  u  1500,  pro  scriptione  trinm 

tribni  equis  la   Itinare   pro  literarum  16d." 


THE    CHURCH    OP    ST.    MARY   THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE.     249 

adorned  St.  Mary's.  The  building  of  King's  College  Chapel 
was  being  carried  on  at  the  same  time  with  St.  Mary's,  and  it 
is  seen  by  the  entries  in  the  churchwarden's  books  that  the 
same  workmen  were  employed  on  the  fabric  of  each  edifice, 
as  well  as  on  their  windows. 

The  church  being  now  completed,  very  nearly  in  the  form 
in  which  we  at  present  see  it,  with  the  exception  of  the 
tower,  which  was  not  finished  for  nearly  a  century,  steps 
were  taken  to  provide  it  with  the  furniture  required  by  the 
existing  ritual.  Nothing  was  then  considered  more  essential 
to  the  completeness  of  a  church  than  a  gorgeous  Rood  Loft.2 
Parishes  vied  with  one  another  in  the  rich  and  elaborate 
character  of  the  structures  which  had  by  degrees  usurped 
the  place  of  the  primitive  cancelli,  and  though  few  have  been 
allowed  to  survive  the  iconoclastic  zeal  of  the  Reformation, 
or  the  ignorance  of  later  (so-called)  church  restorers  and  beau- 
tifiers,  those  that  remain  enable  us  to  appreciate  the  taste  and 
skill  which  were  employed  in  their  erection,  and  the  lavish 
expenditure  which  they  must  have  involved.  No  doubt 
every  effort  was  made  to  furnish  the  University  Church  in  this 
respect  with  the  utmost  splendour  ;  and  the  original  inden- 
ture for  its  erection,  which  has  been  fortunately  preserved  to 
us,  proves  that  St.  Mary's  Rood  Loft  was  one  of  no  common 
magnificence.     This  document  is  as  follows  : 3 — 

"  Thys  Indenture  made  ye  last  day  of  June  in  the  xij  yere  of  ye  reign 
of  our  soueraigne  lord  Kyng  Henry  viij,  bytwen  Petir  Cheke  4  gentilman 
and  Rob1,  Smith,  wex-chaundeler  chirche  wardyns  and  kepers  of  ye  goods 
and  catells  of  yesd  p'ishe  chirche  of  Seyn*  Marye  next  the  Markett  of  Cam- 
brigge,  Mr-  Wm-  Butt  Doctor  of  physike,  Mr-  Henry  Hallched,  Richard 
Clerk,  Rob1,  Hobbys  &c.  with  other  raor  parochianers  of  ye  sd  parisshe  un 
that  oon  parte,  And  John  Nunn  of  Drynkeston  and  Roger  Belle  of  Ashfild 
in  ye  countie  of  Suffolk,  kervers,  on  that  other  parte,  Wittnessyth  that  the 
sd  John  Nune  and  Roger  Belle  covenaunt  and  graunte  and  also  bynden 
them,  ther  heyres,  and  executors  by  theise  presents,  that  they  schall  make 
and  cause  to  be  made  a  new  Roodde  lofte  mete  and  convenyent  for  je  sd 
Chirche  of  Seyn4  Marye  stretchynge  in  lengthe  throughoute  the  same  chirche, 

2  There  was  among  the  Church  furni-  4  This  was  probably  the  father  of  the 

ture  in  1506,  "  A  clothe  for  the  rood-lofte  famous  Sir  John  Cheke,  immortalised  by 

Bteyned  with  Moses."  Milton  (Sonnet  xi)  as  the  reviver  of  the 

8  This  indenture  was  found  by  the  late  study  of   Greek   in    the    University,   and 

industrious  Mr.  Bowtell  in  the  parish  chest,  tutor  of  king  Edward  V. 

tied  up   with  others  and   labelled  '•  these  He  was  one  of  the  esquire  bedells  of 

deeds  appear    to   be   useless."      Happily  the  University,  and  died  1 5"29,  bequeath- 

he  took  a  transcript  of  it,  which  is  to  be  iug  "his  soil  to  Almyty  God,  and  to  our 

found  in  his  MSS.  in  Downing  College.  On  Lady  St.  Mary,  and  to  all  th'  hole  com. 

searching  the  chest,  the  original  cannot  pany  of  heven,  and  hys  body  to  be  buried 

now  be  found.  in  St.  Mary  Chyrche  before  Sent  Poll." 


250     THE    CHURCH    OF    ST.    MARY    THE    GREAT.    CAMBRIDGE. 

and  the  lies  tlierof,  correspondent  to  B  dure  made  in  a  walle  un  yc  Soutlio 
of  v  sJ  Chirche.  all  y8  Howsyngs,  Crests,  Voults,  Orbs,  Lyntells, 
Vorcers,  Crownes,  Archebotyns,  and  Bacs'  for  y  small  Bowsyngs  and  all  yc 
,  fynyalls,  and  gabeletts  therof,  schall  be  of  good  Substancyall  and 
hable  wavnescote  :  And  all  yl  pryncypal]  BaCS  and  Crownes  for  ye  great  how- 
Byngs  therof  and  v  Archebotyns  therunto  belongyng,  schal  be  of  good  and 
hable  oke  withoute  sappe,  ri  1 1  c,  wyndestrukk,  or  other  deformatiff  hurtefull. 

•■  And  v  briste  of  ye  Beyd  new  Roodde  Lofte  schal  be  after  and  accordyng 
iriste  of  ye  Roodelofte  within  ye  p'isshe  Chirche  of  Tripplow  in  all 
maner  honsyngs,  fynyalls,  gabeletts,  formes,  fygures,  and  rankcnesse  of 
Werke  as  good  or  better  in  ev"ry  poynte. 

"  And  \ ■''  briste  of  ye  sayde  new  Roodelofte  schal  be  in  depnesse  viij  foots, 
and  v  soler6  therof  schal  ho  in  bredith  viij  foots  with  surhe  yomags  7&b  Bchal 
be  advysed  and  appoynted  by  y*  parochyners  of  yc  said  p'isshe  of  Seynt 
Maryes  And  the  Trenitie,  after  yc  Roodelofte  of  ye  perclose  of  yc  qnyer  with 
a  double  dore,  y  percloses  of  ycij  chappells  eyther  of  ym  with  a  Bingledore. 
The  bakkesyde  of  y1'  Bayd  Roodelofte  to  be  also  lyke  to  ye  bakkesyde  of  ye 
Roodelofte  of  Gassely  or  bettor,  wyth  a8poulpete  into  the  niydds  of  ye 
quyer.      And  all  and  ev'ry  of  these  premysses  schal  be  after  and  accordyng 

to  the  Trenitie,  the  Vonltc,  the  dores,  yc  percloses and  y  works 

of  v    R lelofte  of  ye  Chirche  of  Gassely  in  ye  countye  of  Suffolke,  as  good 

or  better  in  ev'ry  poynte,  and  to  agree  and  accord  for  ye'' of  ye 

Bayde  Cbirche  of  Seynt  dfary  after  y°  best  workmanBchippe  and  proporcon 

in  eu'ry  poynte.      And  all  ye  Tymber  of  the  same    Roodelofte  schal  ho  lull 

med  tymher.     And   all  ye   Yomags  therof  schal  be  of  good  pyketurs, 

-.and  'Vicenamyes  without  Ryfts,  Crakks,  or  other  deformatyvys. 

The  pillours  therof  schal  be  of  full  seisoned  oke. 

"  The  honsyngs,  entayles,  lyntells,  fynyalls,  and  gabeletts,  schal  bo 
Waynschott,  And  also  schal  set  up  a  Berne  whempon  yc  Roode  schall  Btonde 
lyke  unto  yc  Berne  within  yc  sayde  Roode  of  Gassely  as  good  or  hotter  as 
1  heme  of  Gassely,  met  and  convenyeni  for  y1  -aid  Chirche  of  Seynt 
Marye.  And  also  schall  make  a  Candyllbeme  mete  and  convenyeni  for 
our  Ladye  Chappell  within  y°  aayd  Chirche  of  Seynt  Mary.  All  theise 
premysses  after  and  accordyng  to  the  best werkmanschipp and  proporcon  as 
good  a-  the  patrons  afore  rehersed  he,  or  hotter  in  eu'ry  poynte.  to  be 
babied  and  juged  in  fcyme  convenyeni  after  y'  be  made  and  BfynisBhed  by 

•  Professor  Willis, u  Architectural  No-  pinnacles,  and   the  ornamented  canopies 

menclature  of  the  Middle  Agi  of    the   niches,  the    former   word   never 

•■mii-  as  "the  elementary   partaof  being  applied  in  the  middle  ogee, in  us 

tabernacle  and  canopy  work  of  the  rich   I  present  restricted  sense,  t"   the  bnnch  of 

ur  m  thai  which  crowna  foliage  at  the  top  of  a  pinnacle  or  canopy, 

tin-  monuments,  stalls,  and  altars  "f  iliis  which  now  usurps  the  name. 

.  ■     //  |  .;i  led   also  The  Boor  <>i  the  Loft  or  gallery  con- 

.-in- 1    I.  ad    i"r    tab<  rnacli  i   or  tuning  the  Rood, 

nichi  1 b  kttlementa,  ;  [ma 

or  other  ornamental  finishing  ;  net-  Pulpit, 

I    for    blank    panelling;  '  [n  the  copy  of  this  Indenture  in  Bow- 

for  the  upper  portion  "f  windows;  tail's  MS-.,  this  blank  is  filled  up  with  the 

word  Rume,markod  however  as  doubtful :  1 

•  li.  %  i'ii-  .       are,  probably,  am  unable  to  guess  what  the  true  res 

nl  in  -  ■-.  oh  canopies  ;  on  A-  '  "  1 

ii     Hying  buttn     as  ;  bact  for  the  "Whena   the  paine  of  death  he  tasted  had 
in, a1                  m     \\  ■   i  .  .    .  -ii  Aii'l  but  ball  scene  ln-^  <>  [ly  in  nomte.' 

in    ii.-      mal  •  r  niches  ;  Queen,  V. iv.  11. 

while,  lastly,  1 1  ■  *  ai  i  the 


THE    CIIIKCII    OF    ST.  MARY    THE    GREAT,  CAMBRIDGE.       251 

two  indifferent  persones,  wherof  oon  9chal  be  chose  by  ye  foresaide  chirche- 
wardens  and  paroehianers  of  Seynt  Mary  p'isshe  :  tliodir  by  yc  sayde  Jobn 
Nunn  and  Roger  Bell.  And  ye  saide  John  Nunne  and  R.  Bell  covenaunt 
and  graunte  by  these  presents  that  they  schall  clerly  and  holly  ffynysshe  all 
and  eu'ry  of  ye  sayde  premysses  accordyng  as  ys  afore  rehersed,  byfore  ye 
ffest  of  pentycost,  whiche  Bchal  be  in  yc  yere  of  our  lord  god  in1  Dc  .\.\ij. 
For  whyche  premysses  so  to  be  accomplysshed  and  don,  the  sayde  Chirche- 
wardens  and  paroehianers  afore-named  by  th'  assent  and  consent  of  all  ye 
paroehianers  of  ye  said  parisshe,  covenaunt,  and  graunte,  and  also  bynde 
them,  and  ther  Executors,  by  these  presents,  to  pay  therfore  and  cause  to 
be  payed  unto  the  sayde  J.  Nunne  and  Roger  to  ther  Executurs  and 
assigneB  lxxxxj1  iij8-  viijd-  sterling,  wherof  ye  saide  J.  Nunne  and  Roger 
knowlegge  thcmselffs  well  and  truly  to  be  content  and  payed  and  therof 
dothe  utterly  acquyt  and  discharge  ye  saide  Chirchewardens  and  parochyaners 
ther  Executors  and  Assignes  by  theise  presents. 

"And  xl.  sterling  resydue  of  yc  saycd  suiume  schal  be  payed  unto  ye 
sayde  J.  Nunne  and  Roger  to  their  hers  Executors  and  Assignes,  in  maner 
and  forme  folowyng  ;  That  ys  to  Wytte  atte  ye  fest  of  yc  Natyvyte  of  Seynt 
John  Baptist  nextcoumyng,  after  yc  date  herof,  xx1-  sterling,  And  atte  suche 
tyme  as  the  sayde  J.  Nunne  and  Roger  have  clerly  and  holly  fynysshed  all 
ye  premysses  other  xx1-  sterling  in  full  payment  and  contentacon  of  thefore- 
sa yd  sume  of  Lxxxxij1-  iij8-  viiijd'  To  ye  which  couenaunt  payments  graunts 
and  articles  aforesaid  and  eury  of  them  or  eyther  parte  of  the  foresaid 
partyes  well  and  truly  to  be  obserued  performed  and  kept,  eyther  of  ye  sayde 
parties  bynde  them  to  tliodir  ther  hers  and  Executors  in  ye  sume  of  an  cL 
sterling  by  these  presents. 

"  Into  Witnesse  wherof  ye  parties  aforesayde  to  theise  Indenturs  Inter- 
changably  haue  putte  ther  Sealls.     Goven  the  day  and  yer  abovesaid. 

"  per  me  ROGERUM  BELLE, 
"per  me  JOHN  N~UNE." 

The  works  of  the  Rood  Loft  seem  to  have  been  continued 
during  part  of  three  years,  and  to  have  been  brought  to  a 
conclusion  in  1523,  when  the  images  of  the  Blessed  Virgin 
and  St.  John  on  either  side  of  the  Rood  were  dedicated.2 
Further  decorative  works,  however,  were  carried  on  for  some 
years  longer,  and  in  1525  we  find  it  noted  in  the  parish 
books  that  the  executors  "  of  Mr.  John  Erliche  owe  for  a 
Legace  by  hym  made  to  the  said  chirche  over  and  by  sides,  60s. 
already  paid,  for  the  guylding  of  the  Triniti  in  the  Rode  Loft." 

In  1519,  the  body  of  the  church  was  seated  by  general 
subscription  ;  71.  17s.  5d.  was  raised,  and  30s.  was  paid  to 
William  "Why  to  "  for  the  full  contentacyon  of  the  paryssche 
parte  of  the  payment."  A  few  years  later  a  very  early 
instance  of  the  practice  of  letting   seats  is  met  with  in  the 

-  Parish  Books.     u  It.  for  holowyng  ofyc  Ymagcsce  of  Mari  and  Jhon  viijd." 


252       THE    CHURCH    OF    ST.  MA1IY    THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE. 

parish  books — "recd  of  the  Materasse  maker  in  the  Petycuri 
for  the  Lncumbe  of  a  seate  xvijd."  In  153S,  the  side  chapel 
was  erected  and  seats  made  in  it  ".•it  ye  charge  of  xx.wiip 
iiiij'."  and  two  new  seats  were  made  in  the  body  of  the 
church,  for  the  "bord  and  tymber"  of  which  13s.  Ad.  was 
paid.  One  of  these  was  a  permanent  erection,  being 
••  under  pinned  with  stone  and  mortar."  The  heads  of  houses 
and  University  officers  were  probably  seated  at  this  time, 
as  they  certainly  were  subsequently  till  the  erection  of  the 
Doctors'  gallery,  in  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  in  stalls 
on  cither  side  of  the  Chancel.  Here  too  the  representatives 
of  the  monastic  orders  of  Cambridge  had  their  place,  when 
mon  adclerum,  or  any  other  special  occasion  drew  them 
from  their  own  churches.3 

The  tower,  though  of  no  great  height  (131  feet),  nor 
boasting  of  any  remarkable  beauty  or  stateliness,  was  the 
work  of  nearly  a  century.  It  was  carried  on  with  spiritless, 
halting  progress  j  tin-  necessary  funds  being  raised  with  the 
utmosl  difficulty,  in  spite  of  the  most  persevering  endea- 
vours en  the  pari  of  the  University  and  Town  to  free  them- 
selves from  tin'  disgrace  of  having  begun  to  build  and  ii"t 
being  able  to  finish.  Subscriptions  were  entered  into  in  the 
colleges,  collections  were  made  from  year  to  year  at  the 
Commencements,  legacies  were  hunted  after,  and  in  some 
obtained,  and  letters  couched  in  terms  of  the  most 
humble  supplication  were  despatched  to  various  rich  and 
noble  members  of  the  University :  but  the  sums  that  were 
derived  from  every  source  were  far  from  commensurate  with 
the  plans  and  expectations  of  the  promoters  of  the  work, 
and  when  al  length,  in  1608,  it  was  declared  finished,  and 
the  topmosl  stone  was  laid  by  Robert  Grumbold,  the  master 
workman,  it  was  only  by  a  kind  of  compromise,  as  ii  was 
still  destitute  of  the  spire,  with  which  we  learn  from  docu- 
i f , ■  ntary  evidence  it  bad  been  intended  to  crown  the  whole. 

Bi  lore  the  building  of  the  tower/  the  bells  were  in  a  tern 
porary  bell  lodge  in  the  churchyard,  which,  the  parish  books 
inform  us,  was,  in  1505,  taken  down,  the  materials  sold,  and 

p   ]:.   ■  i,.  [fi08.    "When  there  in  -h  It  toij  pieces  ol  tymber  for  the  bang, 

n  if!  cl<  ram,  the  whyte  ehanons  in  ing  ol  the  bells,  iiij*'  vij,L 

onthi    outh  and  the  monkeys  It  to  the  smith  in  the  peticurj    For  the 

in  ti j  ..n  the  Dortb  syde."  Iron  woi  ke  oi  the  b<  11  c.  ij*. 

•  c.  ii.  1505    •■  it   to  s  mason  to  make  It  for  400  ol  legg  forth  itepelL" 

to  I      •  ■■'     i  i       liJJ*. 


THE    CHURCH    OF   ST.  MARY    THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE.  253 

the  bells  hung  in  wheat  was  by  courtesy  called  "the  steeple,"'' 
though  it  had  not  quite  reached  the  elevation  of  the  church, 
and  was  covered  with  a  roof  of  sedge.  The  parish  books 
show  that  the  work  was  slowly  going  on  from  this  date,  and 
was,  in  1536,  sufficiently  advanced  for  the  great  west  window, 
a  truly  noble  specimen  of  perpendicular  architecture,  to 
be  glazed.  The  entry  in  the  following  year,  "  payd  to  two 
men  for  half  a  day  werk  to  bord  y°  stepill  to  keep  oute  byrds 
vjfl?.,"  proves  how  incomplete  the  tower  still  was,  in  which 
state  it  remained  till  1544,  when  fourpence  was  paid  to  one 
"  Father  Rotheram  for  vewing  the  steeple."  The  result  of 
this  survey  appears  in  the  entries  of  the  following  year,  when 
stone  and  slate  were  brought  in  considerable  quantities  from 
the  now  dissolved  monasteries,6  and  several  additional  feet  of 
height  were  added.  The  west  portal  of  cinquecento  design, 
which,  though  possessing  no  beauty,  and  out  of  keeping  with  the 
architecture  around  it,  has,  not  unregretted,  lately  given  place 
to  a  beautiful  design  of  Mr.  Scott's,  was  completed  Jan.  20, 
1576.  Lady  Burghley  and  others  contributed  money  to  it, 
and  Sir  W.  Mildmay,  the  founder  of  Emmanuel  College, 
twenty  tons  of  freestone.  It  cost  113/.  4s.  2c/.: 7  an  enormous 
sum  considering  the  altered  value  of  money.  The  clock 
which  surmounts  it  was  the  gift  of  Mr.  John  Hatcher. 
It  cost  him  33/.  6s.  Sd.,  and  in  1584  he  bequeathed  a  sum  of 
40-9.  annually  to  keep  it  in  repair.  This  same  benefactor,  in 
1576,  caused  "  a  newe  dore  to  be  made  on  the  south  side  of 
S.  Marie's  church  into  the  hier  chappie." 

Dr.Perne,  Master  of  Peter  House,  the  Vicar  of  Bray  of  Cam- 
bridge, from  whose  convenient  changes  of  opinion  in  confor- 
mity with  those  of  the  governing  body  in  church  and  state, 
the  wits  of  the  day  coined  a  new  verb,  pemares — was  at  this 
time  the  most  active  promoter  of  the  completion  of  St.  Mary's 
tower.  It  was  under  his  superintendence  that  the  western 
portal  was  erected,  and  either  by  him,  or  at  his  instance, 
letters  were   written  to  Whitgift,  then  Bishop  of  Worcester, 

5  "1517.  For  takyn  down  of  the  segge  "  It.  of  W",  Meere  for  ye  stone  at  ye 

and  tymbre  of  the  stepyll  xvjd.  Black  Friers  xls. 

1518.   For  timber  for  the  stepyll,  xiiij  fur  caryage  of  20    lodes   of  slate 

fotte.  from  the  late  Austen  Fryars  iij"  iv'1. 

1529.     To     iij    laborers    for    h  uieing  for  4  pecys  of  great  tymber  con- 

keepe  hearing   up    stonys   to   the    steple  teyning  64  feet,  x*  viij '. 

either  of  them  v  dayes  workc  v8."  for  two  lodes  of  lyme  from  the  late 

1532.  For  makyn  of  studdys  to  hold  up  White  Fryers  iv1.     ?   Baker's  MSS.  xxiv. 

ihe  steeple  roofcxiijd.  s  Fuller's  Hist.  Univ.  Camb.  p.  258. 

VOL.    XTI.  1,    L 


254      Till:    CHURCH    OF    ST.  MARY    THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE. 

Scambler,  Bishop  of  Peterboro',  Bentham,  Bisliop  of  Lichfield, 
to  Serjeant  Bendlows,  and  others.  Betting  forth  the  poverty 
of  the  University,  and  earnestly  petitioning  for  liberal  bene- 
factions. These  Letters,  copied  by  Cole  from  the  Public 
Orator's  Book,'-'  are  curious  examples  of  begging  letters  two 
centuries  ago.  Writing  to  the  Bishop  of  Peterborough,  he 
laments  that  the  tower  "  nunc  humo  serpit,  atque  in  obscuro 
delitescit,  unde  nee  ipsavideri,  neque  campanae  in  ea  collocates 
pulsari,  neduin  audiri  possint/'  and  begs  that  he  will  con- 
tribute to  the  raising  of  it  at  least  to  a  suilicient  heiirht  for 
the  ringing  of  the  bells.  To  Serjeant  Bendlows  lie  speaks  of 
the  wish  of  the  University  to  raise  the  steeple  above  the 
roof,  which  "in  summa  aerarii  nostri  paupertate  nunquam 
aggredi  sumus  ausi."  At  his  death,  Dr.  Perne  bequeathed  10/. 
towards  the  work,  which  was  then  approaching  completion. 
We  have  already  referred  to  documentary  evidence  of  a 
apa  for  completing  the  tower  with  a  spire.  The  following 
is  the  record  alluded  to  ;  it  is  from  the  Cottonian  Collection 
( Faustina,  c.  iii.)  : — 

"  The  square  tower  of  St.  Maries  to  be  bulded  24  foote  higher:  the 
Spire  or  Broclie  wil  be  SO  foote  hie  at  the  leaste  good  Btone  (free  Btoue  or 
asheler)  at  Thorney  Abbey,1  belonging  to  Sir  William  Russell  Knight  — 
water  Berveth  very  well  to  bring  it  hither  from  thence,  in  winter  time  whiles 
the  waters  be  Lie  ;  newe  Stone,  from  a  j»laee  called  Kind's  Clitic  belonging 
tn  Sir  Walter  Mildmaye,  by  water  from  Gooneworth  ferric,  5  miles  from 
the  auarie  the  parishioners  to  make  a  Here  for  the  hells  —to  new  east  tin* 
Bermon  bell — to  have  a  chime  to  go  on  those  five  hells  everie  fourth  hower 
and  to  have  tlic  greate  Bell  Ronge  to  the  Sermon." 

To  this  design  the  following  entry  in  the  parish  honks 
probably  refers  — 

"  1592.   It.  to  a  paynter  for  drawing  of  a  platforme  of  S.  Maries 

Steple  upon  velam  parchment  for  mj  Lorde  Axchbysshop  of 

(  aunterburie.  .\  \  i  ij'  " 

It  wi-  fated,  however,  thai  there  Bhould  be  no  rivalry  in 
this  respect  between  the  two  Universities,  and  thetowerwas 
continued  on  the  present  plan,  which,  though  not  devoid  of 
dignity,  is  a  striking  contrasl  to  the  exquisite  grace  and 
beauty  of  the  steeple  of  St.  Mary's,  Oxford. 

In    L 593,  the  parish,  wearied  out    with  perpetual  delays, 

.-mil  ashamed  of  the  still  unfinished  condition  ot  theirchurch, 

the  matter  into  their  own  hands,  and  "agreed  to  finish 

I..   •  i    ,,i  th&nki  i   Pari  h  Bool   ,1*94.  "  I  or  ,  Tonne  of 

to  the  work    are  round,       I  r< .   lone  which   came  from  Thornej 
100.  • '"  Martindall  of  Thorm  \,  for  2(1  Ton.*1 


THE    CHURCH    OF   ST.  MARY    THE    GREAT,    CAMBRIDGE.  255 

the  building  of  the  steeple  ;"  which,  in  three  years,  by  the 
aid  of  legacies  and  collections,-2  they  were  enabled  to  effect, 
so  far  that  the  bells,  which  had  been  hung  in  1595,  were,  in 
15.9G,  "all  range  oute,  and  never  afore."  Tabor,  who  was 
Esquire  Bedell  at  this  time,  relates  that — 

"The  steeple,  which  was  not  finished  when  I  came  to  Cambridge,  but  was 
covered  with  Thacke,  and  then  Mr.  Pooley  Apothecary  first,  and  after  him 
John  Warren  undertoohe  the  worke,  and  had  collections  in  the  several 
Colledges.  I  well  remember  in  Bennett  Coll.,  where  I  was  first  Pentioner, 
as  Pentioners  we  all  gave  at  the  first  collection  2s.  a  peece,  Fellows  10s.  a 
peece,  and  Schollers  of  the  house  IScl.  a  peece,  Fellow  Commoners  5s.  a 
peece,  or  more  as  their  Tutors  thought  fitting.  And  so  a  second  collection 
when  that  would  not  serve  :  and  these  two  contributions,  with  money 
usually  gathered  of  strangers  at  Commencements,  could  not  be  lesse  than 
about  £800  or  £1000." 

Twelve  years  later,  1608,  the  tower  was  finally  completed, 
an  event  which  was  unhappily  signalised  by  the  death  of 
John  Warren,  the  superintendent  and  active  promoter  of  the 
work.  A  melancholy  occurrence,  commemorated  by  the  fol- 
lowing curious  epitaph  within  the  church  : — 

A  speaking  stone 
Reason  may  chaunce  to  blame  ; 

But  did  it  knowe 
Those  ashes  here  doe  lie 

Which  brought  the  Stones 
That  hid  the  Steeple's  shame, 

It  would  affirm 
There  were  no  Reason  why, 

Stones  should  not  speake 
Before  theyr  Builder  die. 

For  here  John  Warren 
Sleeps  among  the  dead, 

Who  with  the  Church 
His  own  Life  finished. 
Anno  Domini  1G08.     Dec.  17. 

The  master  workman,  at  the  time  of  the  completion  of  the 
tower,  was  Robert  Grumbold.  He  was  the  builder  of  the 
river  front  of  Clare  Hall,  the  parapet  of  which  is  decorated 
with  stone  balls,  similar  to  those  which,  till  within  the  last 
few  years,  surmounted  the  turrets  of  St.  Mary's.  Their 
removal  was  an  act  of  very  questionable  propriety,  for,  like 
the  western  portal,  though  far  from  beautiful  in  themselves, 
they  were  interesting  as  records  of  the  taste  of  the  period, 
and  as  the  last  link  in  the  long  chain  of  architectural  evidence 
connecting  the  fifteenth  and  seventeenth  centuries,  afforded 
by  this  building. 

[To  be  continued.') 

3  Mrs.  Magdalen    Purvey,  of  Lincoln-       1792. 12s.  7A;  that  expended,  2191.  ', 

shire,  bequeathed  1°3Z.  6&.  !!</.     The  whole       We  can  not  learn  whether  the  difference 
sum   received  by   Mr.  John   Tooley  was       was  made  up  to  him. 


EXAMPLES  OF  MEDIAEVAL  SEALS.    SEALS  PRESERVED  AT 
WISBT  IN  GOTTLAND. 

BY  THE  REV.  FREDERICS  BPUBRELL,  MA. 

DURING  a  visit  to  Sweden  in  1849,  impressions  of  sonic 
seals  preserved  at  Wisby,  a  seaport  town,  capital  of  the  island 
ofGottland  in  the  Baltic,  were  obtained  by  me  and  brought  to 
England.  At  a  subsequent  time,  these  seals  being  con- 
Bidered  as  possessing  more  than  ordinary  interest,  I  procured  a 
more  perfect  set  of  impressions  through  the  kindness  of 
G.  J.  R.  Gordon,  Esq.,  H.B.M.  Secretary  of  Legation  at 
Stockholm,  and  Herre  Eneqvist,  the  Rev.  Dean  of  Endre, 
Custos  of  the  Museum  formed  in  the  Gymnasium  at  Wisby. 
The  seals  described  in  the  following  notices  arc  seven  in 
number,  six  of  large  dimensions,  and  one  of  much  smaller 
size.  Representations  of  the  entire  series  are  here  given  of 
the  same  size  as  the  originals.1 

No.  1 .  The  seal  of  the  Germans  in  Wisby  of  the  guild  of  St.  Canute. 
A  round  seal  2\  inches  in  diameter,  and  cut  in  very  deep  intaglio.  Within 
a  border  is  this  inscription  in  Lombardic  letters  : 

S':TffVTHVmaOR':in:WISBI-De>  6VILDA-  SOT-XARVTI 

Sigillum  Teuthonicorum  in  Wisbi  de  Gnilda  Sancti  Kanuti.  The  Inner 
margin  of  the  area  of  the  seal  is  elegantly  cusped,  each  cusp  terminating 
in  a  fleur-de-lys.  The  device  is  a  st sated  figure  of  a  king,  2  inches  long, 
which  undoubtedly  represents  Saint  Canute,  although  do  nimbus  appears 
around  hU  head.1  In  the  right  band  be  holds  a  sceptre  tipped  with  a 
fleur-de-lys,  with  the  left  hand  he  holds  an  orb  surmounted  by  a  cross, 
He  i-     eated  on  a  throne  or  faldistoriutn,  of  which  the  sides  or  arms 

1  [t  must  be  observed  that  of  the  large  had  made  predatory  incursions  into  Eng- 

i  last  of  the  set  of  impressions  landfoi  ,  Canute,  a tfSweynel. 

i  hi  by  Herre  Eneqvisl  are  numbered  'i  Kins  oi    Denmark,    finally  subdned    the 

and  7,  whilst  No.  5  is  omitted)  as  also  in  whole  country  in  a.o.  1013.    Boon  after- 

terac ipanying  th<  seals.    I  have  wards  Canute  succeeded  his  father  as  King 

been  unable  to  ascertain  whether  this  is  of   D larkand  England,  and  in  1028  of 

to  some  ovei  ight,  or  whether  ties  Norway  also,  and  was  esteemed  one  ol  tl>" 

to  .1    eal   ofthisserii  ■  braves!    snd   mosl    powerful   warriors  of 

l  h'lun  '  at  lost  or  now  inacci  i  thai  age.     In  the  latter  pari  <>i  lii.s  life,  be 

Imili  churches  snd  monai  b  riei .  and  made 

iming  that  Saint  Canute  was  &  a  pilgr to  R ■:  for  which   piety, 

:      :     ■  npj  i    closely  con  after  his  death  in  1036,  he  waa  canonii  i  d 

.   with   England     after  the   Danes  by  the  church  of  Rome, 


EXAMPLES    OF    MEDIEVAL    SEALS.  257 

terminate  in  two  lions'  heads,  as  if  two  demi-lions  were  conjoined  to  form 
the  throne,  and  each  holds  in  the  mouth  a  sprig  of  oak  leaves.     A  cloth 


embroidered  or  quilted  in  lozenges  with  a  centre  spot,  covers  the  animal?, 
the  two  fore-paws  of  each  lion  forming  the  support. 

The  date  of  this  interesting  seal  may  probably  be  the  beginning  of  the 
Xlllth  century. 

The  inscription  upon  it  tells  as  much  as  is  known  of  what  its  use  was, 
and  who  possessed  it ;  all  that  can  be  said  about  the  employment  of  it  is 
this. — That  being  the  seal  of  the  guild  or  corporation  of  German 
merchants  dwelling  at  Wisby,  it  was  used  in  sealing  the  charters,  treaties, 
«fcc,  which  this  guild  had  to  make,  either  as  members  of  that  great 
mercantile  confederacy,  the  Hanseatic  league,  in  their  general  commerce, 
or  perhaps  in  sharing  in  the  municipal  concerns  of  Wisby. 

How  the  Germans  were  interested  in  Wisby  will  be  alluded  to  presently 
in  noticing  another  seal  of  the  series,  and  the  history  of  their  connection  with 
that  town  will  be  sketched  briefly. 

No.  2.  The  seal  of  the  brothers  of  the  convivium  of  Saint  Lawrence. 
A  pointed  oval  seal,  3|  inches  long  by  2f  broad,  not  cut  in  such  deep  relief 
as  No.  1,  and  of  inferior  workmanship.       It  bears  this  inscription  : 

+S':FRATRVM:Da :  a  oiivivio:  sairunrRanan 

Sigillum  Fratrum  de  Convivio  Sancti  Laurencii.  Within  the  border  is  an 
upright  full-faced  figure  representing  St.  Lawrence.  The  Saint  has  a 
nimbus  round  his  head,  which  is  clean  shaven,  except  the  ordinary  tonsure. 
He  is  dressed  in  the  deacon's  dalmatic  over  an  alb,  and  at  the  neck  is  the 
usual  embroidered  amice.  His  right  arm  holds  up  the  gridiron,  emblem 
and  instrument  of  his  martyrdom  ;  the  left  band  holds  a  closed  book. 

This  seal  is  also  of  the  Xlllth  century,  though  perhaps  later  than 
No.  1. 

The  inscription  appears  to  confirm  the  idea  suggested   by    the    shape 


258  EXAMPLES    OF    MEIMT.YAL    SEALS. 

usually  employed  For  ecclesiastical  Beals,  that  this  is  not  a  secular  seal, 

bot  was  used  by  the  brothers  of  the  Convent  of  ;5t.  Lawrence,  it"  the  term 


"///   may  he  assumed  to    denote  some  kind  of   conventual   esta- 
blishment. 

N'i.  3.  The    eal  of  the  brother! 1  of  Saint  Nicholas  in  Gottland.     A 

seal  -'  inches  in  diameter,  cut  in  bold  relief,  ami  of  good,  hut  careless 
workmanship.     It  bears  thi    in  cription  : 

"S'.  aONFRXTSRNITATIS  Sai:'NiaiiOLAY:IN:G0TLflNDIA* 
Sigillum  confraternitatis  Sancti  Nicholaj  in  Gotlandia.  Within  the  horder 
i-  1 1 , » -  full-faced  figure  of  a  Beated  bishop.  Round  the  head  is  an  oval 
nimbus  ;  I  pointed  mitre,  ami  bis  faoe  is  cleanshaven  ;  be  wears 

an    alb    having    an    embroidered    apparel  at    tin-   feet.       Over   tin'   alb 

he  wean  a  chasuble,  over  it  i-  laid  tin1  orphrey  in  the  shaj f  a  pall  ; 

and  round  bis  broad  neck  i-  tli"  amioe  embroidered  «iih  trefoils  ;  tin-  righl 
hand  is  held  up  with  the  firsl  two  lingers  extended,  tin1  usual  gesture  of 
benediction:  in  tin'  lefl   In-  holda  a   pa  toral  stall". 

I  In'  [(  .'  I    tool  or  bench  having  no  I. ark,  ami  in  the  place  of 

•   b<    d  .  i'   embling  the  head  of  a  fawn  or  kid,  facing  inwards  ; 

•  '■nis  to  he  a  solid  erection  of  m   lonry,  hollowed  at  the  sides  by 

!<•  cut  in  :  all  ili«'  blank  oi  1 1      eal  ia  marked  by  a  diaper  of 

to  form  lozengi   .  bul  irregularly.     Though  at  first  sight  ii 

t  be  (       ■  ■  •  tb  cal    eal,  from  the  reprei  entation  of 


EXAMPLES   OF    MEIXLE7AL   SEALS.  S:50 

a  bishop  on  it,  yet,  the  shape  being  round,  the  inference  that  may  be 
drawn  is  that  this  is  a  secular  seal  ;  and  that  the  "  confraternitas,"  or 
brotherhood,  was  not  a  religious  body  like  a  conventual  establishment  of 
monks,  but  a  society  whose  members  lived  not  only  in  Wisby,  but  were 


scattered,  as  the  inscription  shows,  "  in  Gotlandia,"  that  is,  throughout  the 
whole  island  of  Gottland.  What  this  society  of  St.  Nicholas  actually  was, 
there  is  nothing  left  to  show  ;  it  might  be  merely  a  guild  of  merchants,  or 
a  mixed  general  institution  like  the  modern  free-masons.  We  can  only 
conclude  that  it  was  a  secular  body  which  took  the  figure  of  Bishop  Nicholas 
as  the  emblem  for  their  seal,  and  called  their  society  by  his  name. 

The  date  of  this  seal  is  probably  of  the  early  part  of  the  XlVth  century. 

No.  4.  The  seal  of  the  Germans  frequenting  Gottland. — A  round  seal, 
2^  inches  in  diameter.      (See  cut,  next  page.)    It  bears  this  inscription  : 

*SIGILr  TIl&VTFlONICOl,  OTTL2£DIA*rRaQV€XlTailTIVM 

SigillumTheuthonicorumGutlandiam  frequentantium.  The  whole  of  the  circle 
within  is  taken  up  by  three  stems  springing  from  twisted  roots  ;  the  centre 
stem  bears  at  the  top  a  fleur-de-lys.3  This  seal  is  unquestionably  secular, 
its  date  seems  to  be  the  end  of  the  Xlllth  century,  and  it  was  used,  as  the 
inscription  shows,  by  the  Germans  frequenting  Gottland.  Whether  these 
"  frequenters  "  were  a  resident  corporate  guild,  or  whether  they  were 
travelling  merchants,  can  now  only  be  imagined  ;  this  seems  to  have  been 
the  official  seal  of  a  recognised  body,  whether  of  a  corporate  guild  or  not, 
and  it  must  be  concluded  that  this  enriched  form  of  the  fleur-de-lys,  whether 

3  On  the  Secretum  of  Stephen  de  Lis,  haps  the  fleur-de-lys  of  these  Germans 
Prior  of  Lewis,  is  the  figure  of  a  lily,  frequenting  Gottland  was  emblematical  of 
plainly  the    emblem  of    his   name.  Per-       tlieir  trade,  office,  or  character  (!) 


200 


EXAMPLES    OF    M  F.Dl.KVAL    SEALS. 


considered  as  a  merchant's  mark  or  not,  was  as  valid  an  emblem  for  sealing 
as  the  figure  of  a  saint  or  king. 


No.  5.  The   seal   of  the  Convivse   of  St.  James  of  Wisby.     A    pointed 
oval  seal  2j  inches  long  by  2  inches  wide.     It  bears  the  inscription  : 

+s\-  aonvrvjLR'*:  sar.EuaoBi  d<i  visby 

Ri prill nm  Convivarum  Sancti  Jacobi  de  Visby.     It  will  be  observed  that  the 


fir  t  letter  of  the  word   de  is  capriciou  ly  formed  bo  as  to  have  the  appear- 
ance of  an  K.     Within  ia  the  standing  figure  of  St.  .lames ;  his  bead  is  ou1 


EXAMPLES   OF   MEDLEVAL   SEALS.  261 

of  all  proportion,  being  too  large  for  the  rest  of  the  body,  while  the  lower 
parts  are  also  far  too  small,  except  the  feet  ;  the  head  appears  to  be 
tonsured,  with  the  hair  long  and  flowing  behind  the  ears,  which  are  thus 
placed  unduly  forward  ;  the  mouth  is  open,  and  surrounded  by  moustache 
and  beard  ;  the  dress  is  a  gaberdine,  or  simple  frock,  and  round  his  broad 
neck  hangs  a  cord  supporting  a  bag  or  palmer's  scrip,  on  which  is  a  large 
escallop  shell  ;  with  the  right  hand  he  holds  a  staff  ornamented  with  a 
knob  at  the  top,  and  with  a  ferule  and  a  point  at  the  bottom  ;  in  the 
left  hand  he  holds  a  closed  book.  The  imperfections  of  this  seal, 
together  with  the  character  of  the  letters,  combine  to  give  rather  an 
earlier  date  to  it,  it  may  be  of  the  early  part  of  the  XHIth  century. 

Possibly  these  Convivas  were  only  members  of  a  Guild  ;  but  the  pointed- 
oval,  or  ecclesiastical  shape  of  this  seal,  together  with  the  cross  placed  at 
the  beginning  of  the  inscription,  and  the  emblem  of  the  saint,  tend  some- 
what to  suggest  that  the  society  for  whom  it  was  made  were  Coenobites,  or 
monastics.  By  this  light,  therefore,  thrown  upon  the  meaning  of  the  word 
"  convivarum,"  these  "eonvivse"  may  have  been  persons  of  some 
ecclesiastical  character,  who  lived  together  under  a  common  roof,  and  were 
bound  by  certain  rules  and  habits.  Yet,  since  from  the  name  they  do  not 
seem  to  have  been  either  nominally  monks  or  friars,  or  bound  by  any  strict 
rule  of  fraternity,  possibly  they  were  guests  who  lived  together,  wan- 
dering ecclesiastics.  The  idea  conveyed  by  the  pilgrim's  dress  of  St. 
James  leads  further  to  the  notion  that  they  also  had  adopted  the  palmer's 
garb  :  and  since  few  in  those  days  were  accustomed  to  assume  that  mark  of 
distinction  without  having  first  made  the  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Land, 
it  is  not  impossible  that  these  Convivae,  who  lived  in  times  so  connected 
with  the  Crusades,  were  really  palmers,  who  had  returned  from  their  wan- 
derings, and  lived  as  a  corporate  body  in  Wisby. 

No.  6.— The  seal  of  the  Mayor  of  the  Guild  of  All  Saints  in  Wisby. 
A  round  seal,  3  inches  in  diameter,  and  by  no  means  less  interesting  than 
those  previously  described,  on  account  of  its  late  and  somewhat  richer 
style  of  workmanship.  It  is  cut  in  deep  relief,  every  portion  of  the  surface 
being  employed,  unlike  those  preceding,  in  which  the  spaces  between  the 
border  and  the  figure  are  blank  ;  and  it  conveys  the  notion  of  resemblance 
to  a  Flemish  brass,  in  which  country  indeed  it  may  have  been  executed. 
Within  the  border  is  this  inscription, 

@5I6ID^(n©a7AIORIS:6ILDa:0(DT2IVCn:SATl(ITORVW:ITll(r[SBr 

Sigillum  majoris  gildse  omnium  sanctorum  in  Wisby.  The  principal  object  is  a 
sitting  figure.  A  round  nimbus  marked  with  the  cross  commonly  given  to  re- 
presentations of  Christ,  points  out  at  once  that  this  figure  is  Jesus,  and  helps 
to  explain  the  subject  of  the  seal  as  representing  the  Saviour  sitting  in  heaven 
receiving  the  saints  with  a  blessing,  and  being  attended  by  angels.  The 
face  is  oval  and  thin,  compared  with  the  broad  full  faces  of  St.  Laurence 
and  St.  James.  The  hair  is  long,  and  hangs  in  curls  on  the  shoulders. 
The  right  hand  is  held  up,  with  the  first  two  fingers  extended  in  the  atti- 
tude of  blessing;  the  other  is  held  lower,  with  all  fingers  spread  out.  The 
seat  is  very  small.  On  each  side  of  the  Saviour  are  three  kneeling  figures 
in  long  robes,  with  the  hands  uplifted  in  the  attitude  of  supplication.  There 
is  no  distinction  indicating  sex,  all  have  bare  faces,  long  hair  twisted 
round  the   ear,   according  to   the  fashiou  of  the  XlVth  century,  and  in 

VOL.  XII.  il    M 


EXAMPLES   OF    MEDIEVAL    SEALS. 


i  and   shape,  the  garment  is  the  Bame  for  all  ;  two  figures  of  the  six 
have  a  broad  hand  of  embroidery  round  their   dross,    and  another    has  the 


whole  dress  spotted  with  a  quatre-foil  or  flower.  Above  the  Saviour's 
hands  there  is  an  angel  swinging  a  censer  on  each  side. 

Thus  this  seal  is  superior  in  elaborate  deeoratioii  to  the  preceding  ;  the 
general  characteristics  of  the  workmanship  seem  to  indicate  it  to  he  of  a 
later  date,  probably  made  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  XlVth  century. 

Notwithstanding  the  holy  character  of  the  emblem,  the  inscription  and 
circular  shape  Beem  sufficiently  to  Bhow  that  this  is  a  .-ocular  seal,  used  by 
the  Mayor  of  the  Guild,  or,  as  the  inscription  has  1  > v  Borne  been  explained, 
by  th(  Gr<  .''■  r  Guild,  of  All  Saints  in  VVisby. 


if  the  order  of 
receding,  hut  its 
tally  interesting. 


No    7.     The  seal    of   brother  Gerard  of   Gottland, 
preachers.     This   Beal  is    verj  much   smaller  than   the 
1  nd  subsequent  wanderings  have   made  it  i 

i    pointed   oval,  1  |   inch  long,  and   j  of  an   inch  wide,   of  somewhat 
stiff  design  and  workmanship.     Around  the  edge  is  this  inscription: 

+S,PRISGaRARARDIDa:GOTLADIA  ORDIS  PDIT 

Sigtllum  fratris  Gerarardi  de  Gotlandia  ordinis  predicatorum.  Within  is  a 
crowned  female  standing,  holding  b  child,  and  a  tnonli  is  kneeling,  praying 
to  them.  There  can  be  no  doubt  thai  this  group  represents  brother  Gerard 
and  the  Virgin  Alary  with  the  Infant  Saviour.  With  the  right  hand  she 
holds  a  ball,  with  the  lefi  hand  she  holds  the  Infant  Jesus,  while  he  is 
up  to  her  face,  and  with  hi    lefl  hand  behold    b  cro     on  her  bosom. 

(in  the  \  o  "in '    right  ha  ml  kneels  brother  Gerard,  with  the  ten  sun',  a  I I 

and  lo  .  hi   hand    are  uprai  ed  in  the  attitude  of  prayer.     Over  his 


EXAMPLES    OF    MEDIAEVAL    SEALS. 


2G3 


head  is  a  star   of  six  points,  and  there  is  a  similar  star  helow  the  ground 

on  which  the  figures  rest. 

The  date  of  this  seal  appears  to  he  the  early  part  of 

the  XlVth  century.     Its  shape  and  inscription  point  out 

plainly  that  it  was  the  personal  seal  of  an  ecclesiastic, 

and,  although   he  calls   himself  only    "  frater,"  since 

it  was  not  the  custom  for  each  ordinary  monk  in  a  con- 
vent to  have  his  own  peculiar  seal,  and  indeed  for  none 

hut  the  head  or  some  official  of  the  hody,  this  must  be 

concluded   to   have  been   the  private    seal   of  brother 

Gerard  of  Gottland,  who  may  have  been  chief  of  the 
order  of  Preachers  (or  Dominican  monks)  in  that 
country. 

At  what  time  or  in  whose  hands  it  left  Gottland  is 
not  known,  but  the  mode  of  its  restoration  a  few  years  ago  is  too  curious 
to  be  omitted.  The  seal  is  of  silver,  the  shape  not  fully  described. 
In  1825  a  Wisby  ship-master  having  taken  a  ship- load  of  copper  from 
Alexandria  to  sell  at  Athru,  in  Candia,  he  there  received  in  payment, 
together  with  all  sorts  of  coin  and  curious  things,  this  seal :  and  after 
keeping  it  for  nearly  twenty  years,  he  presented  it,  in  1844,  to  the  museum 
in  Wisby. 

To  trace  the  progress  of  this  seal  during  500  years,  and  from  such 
remote  and  disconnected  islands  as  Gottland  and  Candia,  is  now  of  course 
impracticable  ;  but  in  the  words  of  that  kind  friend  who  has  so  materially 
assisted  in  procuring  this  and  the  other  seals  (H.B.M.  Charge  d' Affaires  at 
Stockholm),  we  may  fancy,  perhaps,  brother  Gerard  voyaging  to  Rome 
and  dying  there  or  on  board  his  ship,  or  being  obliged  to  part  with  his 
silver  signet  for  want  of  money.  By  some  accident  it  may  thus  have  reached 
Candia.  But,  certainly,  the  coincidence  which  after  such  a  lapse  of  time 
brought  it  back  to  Gottland  adds  to  its  interest  and  value. 

The  first  observation  resulting  from  this  minute  examina- 
tion of  these  seals  is  this — there  is  a  curious  degree  of 
similarity  in  all  the  large  seals,  which  seems  to  show  they 
were  made  within  a  certain  country,  as  well  as  century  of 
time.  Germany  seems  to  be  that  country,  and  the  Xlllth 
century  that  date.  Some  one  or  two  differ,  and  they  are 
evidently  slightly  later  than  the  rest ;  but,  as  a  series, 
they  are  of  a  coeval  period,  and  an  unique  series  for  the 
variety  of  kindred  subjects  displayed  upon  them. 

The  next  observation  is  the  absence  of  heraldic  bearings, 
which  is  a  remarkable  feature,  and  more  curious  because 
several  of  these  seals  seem  indubitably  to  be  of  German 
manufacture,  and  amongst  the  Germans  there  was  a  great 
regard  to  heraldic  insignia.  Perhaps  the  reason  was  this, 
these  guilds  were  formed  of  persons  who  did  not  possess 
the  privilege  of  using  arms  as  individuals,  and  yet  con- 
sidering themselves  too  important  to  use,  as  corporate 
bodies,  the    mere    merchants'  marks,  they  employed  these 


•VI  EXAMPLES   OF    MEDLBVAL    SEALS. 

emblems.  From  this  entire  absence  of  heraldic  devices  the 
inference  also  may  perhaps  be  drawn,  that  noble  families 
had  no  connection  with  the  societies  to  which  these  seals 
belonged. 

To  proceed  now  with  the  history  of  these  seals,  mention 
must  first  be  made  of  the  few  facts  that  are  known  respect- 
ing them.  It  is  satisfactory  to  know  they  are  all  now 
preserved  amongst  the  numismatic  collections  of  the  Royal 
Gymnasium  (or  Museum)  at  Wwby,  being  considered  to  be- 
to  the  Record-office  of  the  Cathedral  Consistory  there. 
They  were  all  found  in  Gottland,  and  collected  a  few  years 
ago  from  different  places,  having  been  rescued  from  different 
mean  uses,  to  which,  for  a  long  time,  they  had  been  exposed. 
One  was  found  in  a  peasant's  house,  where  it  had  been  used 
as  .-i  -lamp  for  gingerbread  cakes  ;  others,  there  is  reason  to 
think,  had  been  employed  for  a  like  purpose,  or  for  butter 
stamps  :  and  while  we  may  smile  at  this  ignoble  use  of  these 
seals,  we  Bhall  feel  glad  that  the  practical  purpose  to  which 
they  were  applied  by  the  Swedish  peasants  has  been  the  means 
of  preserving  these  interesting  seals  of  comparatively  un- 
known institutions  and  people,  whilst  cupidity  too  commonly 
destroys  any  metal  treasures  soon  after  their  discovery. 
Tic  shape  of  the  seals  easily  suggested  this  domestic  use  of 
them  by  the  peasants,  for  they  are  raised  on  the  back  in  the 
usual  form  of  mediaeval  seals,  with  a  handle  for  the  fingers 
to  grasp  when  making  an  impression.  There  is  no  inscription 
On  the  back.  l>ut  in  the  handle  of  each  is  a  hole  large  enough 
to  have  passed  through  it  a  chain  or  strong  cord.  The 
material    of  which   some   of  them    are  made    is   stated  to  bo 

••  metal,"  by  which  the  Swedes  generally  mean  brass,  and 
one  or  two  are  described  as  bronze  ;  the  probability  is,  they 
are  made  of  thai  hard  mixed  metal,  of  winch  the  seals 
found  in  England  are  made,  and  which  was  generally  used 
during  the  mediae  al  age. 

After  stating  thai  none  of  these  seals  have  been  used 
officially  for  a  longtime,  "several  hundred  years,"  as  it  is 
Baid  al  Wwby,  and  having  mentioned  all  thai  is  known  of 
their  later  history,  it  may  uow  be  well  to  consider,  verj 
briefly,  w  hat  has  been  recorded  about  them,  and  bo  glean 
the  circumstances  of  their  early  history  as  far  as  they  can 
athered. 

Ik  in-  BSneqvi  b,  the  Curator  of  the  \VM>\  Museum,  in  his 
I' to  i  -i   reference   to  a  Swedish  hook.  "Gothlandska 


EXAMPLES   OF    MEPLEVAL   SEALS.  265 

Samlingar "  (Gothland  Collections)  by  George  Wallin,  in 
which,  at  Parti.,  page  116,  and  fig.  iii.,  he  states,  that  with 
the  exception  of  No.  6,  the  preceding  five  (large)  seals  are 
all  figured,  and  that  the  accompanying  text  "  gives  all  the 
information  that  any  one  possesses  respecting  them."  Not 
being  able  to  find  this  book  in  the  British  Museum,  or  any 
library  within  my  reach,  the  foregoing  observations  have  not 
been  confirmed  or  gathered  from  it :  yet,  inferring  from 
another  sentence  in  the  letter,  "  We  have  no  historical  in- 
formation whence  these  seals  have  come,"  that  this  book 
referred  to  would  not  enlighten  us  much,  its  absence  therefore 
is  not  felt.4  "  As  regards  No.  6,"  Herre  Eneqvist  continues, 
"  about  which  Wallin  gives  us  no  information,  this  seal  has 
probably  belonged  to  the  Guild  which  was  attached  to  the  first 
or  oldest  church  here  in  Wisby,  by  a  person  of  the  name  of 
Bolair  of  Akubeck,  and  which  was  dedicated  to  All  Saints,  as  is 
mentioned  in  the  short  history  attached  to  the  edition  of  Goth- 
land's Civil  Law  by  Hadorph,5  and  latterly  again  by  Schlyter."6 

In  another  sentence,  Herre  Eneqvist  says,  "  It  is  probable 
that  after  the  churches  (of  Wisby)  were  ruined,  and  the  Guild- 
halls also,  they  all,  finally,  were  united  with  the  only  church 
preserved,  viz.  :  St.  Mary's  church,  and  (the  seals,  &c.)  were 
preserved  in  the  archives  of  its  chapter."  He  also  says, 
"  No.  4  appears,  in  fact,  to  have  been  used  in  commercial, 
perhaps  even  in  diplomatic  affairs.  All  the  others,  viz.  St. 
Canute's,  for  the  Germans  dwelling  in  Wisby,  St.  Lawrence's, 
St.  Nicholas',  St.  James',  and  All  Saints'  have  been  in  fact  the 
seals  of  different  Guilds." 

It  should  be  mentioned  that  some  who  have  examined  these 


4  Mr.  A.  Ni-sbitt  having  informed  me  that  it  represents  the  same  seal.     No.  2 

of  a  book  which  he  thought  might  throw  is  a  seal  as  large  as  those  oi  my  series, 

some  light  upon  the  history  of  these  seals,  the  Lombardic    inscription  is  "  Sigillum 

after  writing  this  paper  I  turned  to  it,  and  Theuthonicor'  in  Gotlandia   manencinm,-' 

found   it   valuable   in   affording  one  more  and  the  device  a  stem  of  fleur-de-lys  with 

B  .il   to   the   scries,  and  in  confirming  the  two  branches  on  each  Bide  but  of  a  dif- 

dates  I    had   assigned.      At    the   end   of  fer<  nt  character  to  No.    1  ;    this,    there. 

G.  F.  Sartorius'"  Urkundlichc  Gesehichte  fore,    is    the    seal   of    another    guild    of 

des    Ursprunges   der  Deutschen   Hanse,  "Germans  remaining  in  Gottland  ;"  the 

von  J.    M.    Lappenberg,"  is  a  plate  with  explanation   adds  that  No.  1  is  the  seal  of 

two  round  seals  engraved.     No.  1  is  re-  a  deed  made  in  November  1280  (confirm- 

presented  attached    to    a   deed,   but    the  ing  my  idea  of  the  date),  and    No.  2  of 

impression  is  very  broken,  and   only  two  a  deed  dated  ]2H7. 

words  of    the    inscription    left,    "  Sigill'  Job.  Hadorpbius"  Collection  of  Schon- 

Teuthonico',"  the  device,  however,  plainly  ish  Laws,"  Stockholm,  l<i7ii. 
consists    of  stems   ot    fleur-de-lys;    and  G  C.   J.   Schlyter   "Juridiske    Afhan- 

though  this  engraving  is  smaller,  the  de-  lingar."     Upsala,  L8S6.     Neither  of  these 

vice  and  words  being  identical  with  No.  4  Swedish  hooks  i tains  plates,  and  I  have 

of  my  series,  there  can    be  little    doubt  not  had  opportunity  to  examine  them. 


EXAMPLES   OF    MEDIEVAL   SEALS. 

seals  concur  witb  Ilerre  Erieqvist  in  the  belief  tliat  none  of 
them  are  ecclesiastical  But,  ha\  bag  quoted  all  the  information 
sent  from  Wisby,  it  is  to  be  hoped  presumption  will  not  be 
imputed,  when  it  is  said  a  different  opinion  exists  in  my 
mind  as  to  the  character  of  the  seals.  This  difference  is 
mentioned,  because  the  other  point,  the  curious  union  of 
churches  and  guild-halls,  also  quoted,  might  not  improperly 
be  [uestioned  either  as  a  mistake,  or  that  we  must  under- 
stand the  ancient  guilds  in  Wisby  were  really  connected  with 
the  ancient  churches,  the  corporations  with  certain  parishes, 
and  so  the  same  saint  was  the  emblem  of  both.  It  is  certain 
there  were  churches  in  Wisby  of  the  same  names  as  the 
saints  on  these  seals,  and  undoubtedly  the  sacred  characters 
us  I  by  these  guilds  as  emblems  on  their  seals  seem  to  coun- 
'  ce  this  idea  of  union,  but  it  may  be  better  to  understand 
the  remark  in  the  latter  as  referring  to  the  churches  exclu- 
sively ;  viz.  that  on  their  destruction  in  1  dill,  the  parishes  were 
united,  and  one  church  was  a  centred  union  for  them.  Indeed, 
there  can  be  little  doubt  that  these  guilds  ofwhich  we  have  the 
-  for  waiving  further  discussion,  fourcertainly  are  secular 
of  guilds — were  corporate  bodies,  separate  and  distinct 
from  the  churches  and  each  other.     At   the  present  time  it 

i-  do!  known  that  any  guild-halls  ever  actually  existed  at 
Wisby  :  but  amongst  the  numerous  ruins  of  churches  and 
other  buildings  now  extant  there,  it  is  impossible  to  say 
whether  or  not  some  of  them  might  truly  have  been  the  halls 
of  guilds  of  which  these  were  the  Beals. 

Notwithstanding  the  doubt  then  of  the  buildings  belong- 
ing to  these  corporations,  these  secular  seals  are  plainly 
valuable  proofs  of  the  existence  of  native  and  foreign  mer- 
cantile bodies;  they  certainly  are  relics  of  some  of  the 
ancienl  guild-  of  Wisby,  and  if  the  only  vestiges  of  them  left, 
are  the  more  interesl  ing. 

The  oexl  and  las!  point  is,  What  was  the  immediate  cause 
of  thie  series  of  3eaU  !     For   want   of  recorded  information 
cting  it,  the  origin  of  these  seals  may  be  attempted 
from  inference. 

The  German  element  is  clearly  the  chief  feature  in  the 
t  and  without  doiiht  it  only  remains  to  brace  the  con 
ncction  of  thi  e  German  guild  witb  the  Swedish  town  of 
Wisby,  in  order  to  find  the  immediate  cause  of  the  seals  ; 
and  in  the  kindred  Germanic  character  of  the  guilds,  we 
arrive  at  the  probable  origin  of  these  Swedi  h  seals. 


EXAMPLES   OF    MEDIEVAL   SEALS.  207 

Wisby,  where  tlicse  seals  were  used,  is  the  only  town  in 
Gottland,  an  island  in  the  Baltic  Sea,  a  country  now  chiefly 
known  as  supplying  lime  to  the  otherwise  destitute  granite 
soil  of  Sweden.  The  ancient  marine  laws  of  Wisby  arc 
generally  known,  but  besides  these,  except  to  the  sports- 
man, the  tourist,  or  the  archaeologist,  the  attractions  of 
this  locality  are  little  known.  Yet  Wisby  is  an  ancient 
town,  and  had  early  intercourse  with  its  transmarine 
neighbours,  so  that  it  is  a  town  of  the  highest  historical  and 
antiquarian  interest.  "  The  feudal  walls  and  towers  still 
exist  almost  in  as  entire  a  state  as  they  were  in  the  Xlllth 
century  ;  "  and  ruins  and  records  prove  that  after  the  esta- 
blishment of  the  Ilanseatic  League,  Wisby  attained,  during 
theXIVth  and  XVth  centuries,  even  a  still  Greater  decree  of 
wealth  and  importance  than  it  possessed  as  a  powerful  mer- 
cantile city  in  the  Xth  and  Xlth  centuries.  That  Wisby 
was  not  too  obscure  a  place  to  have  so  many  guilds  of 
merchants  as  these  seals  indicate,  is  shown  by  the  fact  that 
throughout  Gottland,  which  is  about  eighty  miles  long  by 
thirty-three  at  the  widest,  there  are  now  about  100  churches, 
mostly  early  Xlllth  century  in  date,  and  still  in  good  preser- 
vation. In  Wisby  alone  there  are  the  remains  of  eighteen 
churches,  of  which  some  features  are  so  curious  that  it  is 
impossible  to  explain  them.  There  was  a  St.  Lawrence's  as 
well  as  St.  Nicholas'  church  ;  and  therefore  our  seals  might 
have  belonged  to  fmilds  of  these  names,  and  been  connected 
with  the  churches  in  some  way.  Romish  convents  and  large 
houses  also  are  numerous  there,  and  present  the  proofs  that 
Wisby  had  varied  and  extensive  mercantile  dealings  with 
places  equally  mercantile  and  civilised.  And  what  places 
could  these  be  but  the  llanse  towns  1  It  is  then  to  the 
influence  of  the  Hanseatic  League  that  the  origin  of  these 
seals  must  be  ascribed,  and  consequently  their  use  and 
validity  recognised  ;  for  Wisby  indeed  was  no  unimportant 
city  in  the  confederacy  of  the  Ilanseatic  League,  and  we 
can  understand  both  somewhat  of  WTisby's  extensive  com- 
merce from  the  character  of  the  seals  before  us,  and  the 
dignity  and  value  of  these  seals  from  their  Hanseatic  con- 
nection. Remembering,  therefore,  what  the  Hanseatic 
League  was,  we  understand  also  directly  why  these  seals 
of  the  Teutonics  or  Germans  represent  German  guilds  in 
Wisby,  and  indicate  so  close  a  connection  between  Germany 
and  Gottland.     "  The  Hanse  towns  (in  Germany  first)  were 


■:  18  EXAMPLES   OF    MEDUEVAL    BEALS, 

certain  commercial  cities  associated  for  the  protection 
of  commerce  ;  to  this  confederacy  acceded  certain  commer- 
cial cities  in  Holland.  England,  France.  Spain.  Italy,  (and 
Sweden  it  only  by  Wisby)  until  the  number  of  the  Hanse 
cities  amounted  to  seventy-two."  The  German  origin  of  the 
league  and  the  proximity  of  the  German  coast  by  the  Baltic, 
explain  to  us  therefore  at  once  how  easy  and  natural  a  thing 
ii  would  be  that  Wisby  should  have,  not  only  "Germans 
frequenting  CJottland."  a  body  of  sufficient  importance  as 
to  haw  a  corporate  seal  lor  their  guild,  hut  that  the  Germans 
should  have  a  permanent  guild  in  Wisby  known  by  the 
name  of  a  national  saint  St.  Canute. 

There  can  be  little  doubt  then  that  these  Wisby  seals  are 
of  Hanseatic  origin,  and  of  Hanseatic  use  ;  and  further,  that 
the  very  existence  of  these  seals  at  the  present  time  has 
been  influenced  by  that  league  ;  for  the  fact  of  their  preser- 
vation is  owing  probably  to  the  subsequent  obscurity  of  the 
Hanseatic  League  after  its  decline,  when  the  seals  were  dis- 
persed  because  uncalled  for  and  uncared  for. 

Doubtle8S  there  were  many  more  seals  of  other  guilds  and 
of  convents,  and  in  due  time  modern  research  may  discover 
them;  as  it  has  been  shown,  even  these  before  us  were  un- 
known to  exist  till  lately.  At  the  end  of  the  XlVth  cen- 
tury Wisby  was  taken  by  the  king  of  Denmark,  and  plun- 
dered of  enormous  wealth  in  merchandise  ;  it  thus  received 
a  fatal  blow  to  its  prosperity,  and  the  dispersion  of  the  seals 
may    have   then    commenced.      But    certainly    the    Hanseatic 

League,  although  for  centuries  it  had  commanded  the  respect 
and  defied  the  power  of  kings,  began  to  decline  about  the 
middle  of  the  XVth  century;  and  if  the  assumed  connection 
of  these  Wisby  seala  with  tic  Hanseatic  League  be  their  true 
history,  their  dispersion  occurred  probably  at  this  date. 

W'nli  the  league  Wisby  fell;  and  these  beautiful  seals 
from  Wisby     proofs  of  the  civilisation  of  mediaeval  Gottland 

valuable  indications  of  tlie  stati' of  art  amongst  the  mer- 
chant-traders of  that  time  vestiges  of  that  splendid 
confederacy,  the  Hanseatic  League,  were  lost  for  full  300 
and  only  preserved  from  being  cake-moulds  bj  the 
hand    ot  the  •■'  rchaei  ilog  ist, 

(The  Central  Committee  desire  to  acknowledge  the  kindm   a  of  the 
author  in  contributing  largeh  towards  the  cobI  of  the  woodcul    bj  which 
:  tomoir  is  ill  u  tratcd.) 


(Original  IDociinunis. 

INVENTORIES  OF  THE  CHURCH  GOODS  IN  THE  TOWN  OF 
SHREWSBURY  AT  THE  TIME  OF  THE  REFORMATION,  AND 
PROCEEDINGS  RESPECTING  THEM  IN  THE  REIGN  OF 
EDWARD  VI.    a.d.  1552-53. 

COMMUNICATED  BY  JOSEPH  HUNTER,  ESQ.,  VICE-PRESIDENT  OF  THE  SOCIETY 
OF  ANTIQUARIES,  AND  ASSISTANT  KEEPER  OF  THE  PUBLIC  RECORDS. 

The  Inventorie  of  the  goodes,  juels,  and  plate  of  the  parishe  cherch  of 
Saynt  Alkemundes  of  Salop,  made  the  xxiiij.th  day  of  August,  anno  domini 
mccccclij0*  et  Edwardi  VI.  sexto,  before  Sir  Addam  Mitton,  knyght,  and  the 
bailyfes  of  the  towne  of  Salop. 

In  primis,  oon  chalis  with  a  paton  parsell  gylt.  Item,  iij.  bels  of  oon 
accorde  (and  oon  sawntz  bell,  erased).  Item,  a  crosse  of  brasse,  and  a  pix 
of  copper,  a  senser  of  brasse  and  ij.  candelstikes  of  brasse.  Item,  iij.  cor- 
porace  cases,  and  on  pere  of  organs.  Item,  one  cope  of  clothe  of  gold. 
Item,  a  cope  and  a  vestment  of  purpull  velwett  (and  gold  together,  erased). 
Item,  on  cope  of  blcwe  vehvett  (and  one  coope  of  tawny  velwett,  erased). 
Item,  ij.  coopes  witly  colored  of  silke  and  golde.  Item,  iiij.  coopes  broken 
to  make  a  carpett  to  the  lordes  table.  Item,  one  vestment  with  ij.  tunicles 
of  blue  velwett.  Item,  oon  vestment  with  ij.  tunicles  of  tawny  velwett.  Item, 
oon  vestment  with  ij.  tunicles  of  wite  silke.  Item,  oon  vestment  with  ij, 
tunicles  reased  with  velwett.  Item,  iiij.  (viij.  erased)  vestmentes  of  sondrie 
colors.      Item,  ij.  alter  clothes  and  ij.  towls. 

Presented  by  Robert  Ilelyn,  Richard  Jukes,  cherchwardens,  Edward 
Sherer,  Humfrey  Arosmyght,  Robert  Hobbys,  and  Thomas  Addrton,  and 
George  Crane,  Clarke. 


Foriet  ORIEN.1 — The  Inventory  indented  of  all  the  goodes,  juelles,  belles, 
and  all  other  ornamentes  belongynge  to  the  paryshe  of  the  crosse  nere  the 
towne  of  Salope,  in  the  countye  of  Salopc,  taken  by  sir  Wyllyam  Hordeley, 
clerke,  vycare  there,  Humfrey  Butler,  Thomas  Lye,  wardens  of  the  said 
paryshe  churche,  Richard  Hatton,  John  Prynce,  Thomas  Ofeley,  Thomas 
Fraunce,  syxe  of  the  honest  men  and  inhabytantes  of  the  said  paryshe,  and 

i  Possibly  Foriet  oriens,  or  oriente  parte,  suburb,  now  known  as  the  Abbey  Fore- 

tbe"Est   Fored,"  as  this  parish  is  called  gate,  is  tlius    described. — "  Vicus   Bifo* 

in  the  indenture  which  is  given  hereafter.  rietta  vocatur,  quod  nos  lingua  Gallica, 

The  parish  church  of  Holy  Cross  had  pre-  antt   portatn   dicimus."     Dugd.  Mon.  Hi., 

viously  been    tlie     cluircli   of   the  Bene-  p.  .517.     On   the   ancient  seals  still   pre- 

dictine  Abbey,  situated  in   the  suburb  of  served   in   the  parish  chest,  it  is  termed 

Foregate  on  the  east  side  of  Shrewsbury.  "  Fforyate  monacliorum." 
In  the  history   of    the    foundation    this 

VOL.   XII.  N    n 


ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS. 

by  the  sa'ul  vycar  and  vj.  honest  men,  presented  and  delyvered  the  xvj.th 
daye  of  August  in  the  Byxte  yere  of  the  reigne  of  ower  soverane  Lorde  king 
Edward  the  Byxte,  by  the  grace  of  God  Kynge  of  England,  France  and 
Irelande,  defendour  of  the  faythe,  and  of  the  churche  of  Englande  and  also 
of  Irelande  in  erthe  the  supreme  hed. 

In  primis,  a  (chales,  erased)  chalyce  with  a  patent  parcell  gylte,  weyng 
xij.  ownces.  Item,  a  crosse  of  wood  and  covered  with  (sylver,  crated)  laten 
plate  and  gylte.  Item,  a pyxe  of  maslyn J  Item,  a  sensar  of  maslyn.  Item, 
a  payre  of  cruetes  of  pewter.  Item,  a  cope  of  whyte  damaske.  Item,  a 
restyment  of  grene  Batane  abrydges,"  and  an  albe  of  the  same.  Item,  a 
restyment  of  blewe  Bylke  brothered  with  guide,  and  a  albe.  Item,  a  vesty- 
ment  of  whyte  fostyane  with  a  albe.  Item,  a  restyment  of  red  Bylke  with  a 
blewe  crosse  brothered  with  gold.  Item,  a  veatyment  of  whyte  fostyane 
with  a  blake  crosse  of  velvett.  Item,  iij.  corporas  cases  of  Bylke  with  a 
halowed  clothe  for  the  same.  Item,  too  alter  clothes.  Item,  nun.'  paxe 
of  glasse.  hem,  iiij.  ringinge  belles,  with  a  bell  whiche  the  clocke  goethe 
upon.     Item,  too  sacrynge  belles. 

Item,  a  lytic  chappelle  which  they  use  to  bury  at,  beeyng  at  the  townes 
ende,  railed  Saynt  (ivies  chappell,  with  three1  small  belles  yii  hyt. 

Thomas  Ofeley. — 4<  llumfry  Butler. — Thomas  Alve. 

The  inventory  and  presentment  of  John  Skynnerand  Hughe  Bones,  with 
air  John  Greffeys,  Curat  of  Saynt  Julyans,  and  the  saved  Skynnerand  Benes 
beyng  churchewardens,  wyth  Rychard  Dawes,  John  Evance,  Thomas  Lloid, 

and  John  Bolywell,  parisl era  of  the  Bayed  churche,  of  all  the  goodes, 

juelles,  ornamentes,  belles  there  belongeng  to  the  Bayed  parishe  churche 

irdyng   as  the  charge   to   them    ■u'wu   by   the   kyngea   oomysyoners 

assyngened  [sic)  for  the  tyme;    anno  regni  regis   Edwardi   sexti  sexto, 

\  icessimo  quarto  Augusti. 

In  primis,  one  cope  of  (gold,  erased)  clothe  of  gold.  Item,  one  chalyce 
Belver  gelte,  weyng  x.  ownces.  Item,  iij.  belles  agreyng  in  one  accorde. 
[tern,  one  \  yeleti  coppe  of  Bilke.  Item,  too  chaunter  coppea  of  taune  Belke. 
Item,  a  coppe  of  redde  Belke  with  lyenea  of  golde.  Item,  a  green  coppe  of 
Belke.  Item,  a  coppe  of  blowe  and  redde  Belke.  Item,  a  restmenl  of 
ryeletf  Belke.  Item,  a  vestment  of  redde  Belke  with  lyones  of  golde.  Item, 
a  restment  of  redd  velvett.  [tern,  a  vestment  of  ray  Belke.  Item,  a  vest- 
ment of  selke  blowe  and  redde.  Item,  a  vestment  of  grene  sylke.  Item,  one 
p.  are  of  organes.  Item,  iij.  auturclothes.  Item.  iiij.  auturclothea  pented, 
Item,  one  towelle.     Item,  a  crosse  copur  and  gelte.     Item,  a  pyxe  copur 

and  g(  Ite.       Item,  iij.  CO!  pOl  J 

John  Qryfythys,  curat.     Thomas  Lloyd. 

This  presentment  made  rxiiij.  day  of  Anguste,  in  the  syxt  yer  of 
Bdwarde  the  syxt,  b\  Sur  Job    ....    clarke,  cura    .     .     .     .     <>t 

Mi  l  \  ii  wai  ■  kind  of  mixed  yellow  crosses   <>f   mastlyn,    brass,    latin,   base 

met  i     iuon  of  metal,    and    of   copper.     Nichols1    Hist, 

which  it  is  not  easj  to  define.     Aug.  Sax.  Leic.,  rol.    iii.     See    Gloss,   to    Robert 

in'  in  these  in  filmic   r,   Mastiyng.     la    I  100  an  eccle 

rentorii     it  appears  to   be  diatingui  hed  siastic    In  Yorkshire  bequeatha  "pelvim 

■  the  yellow  metal  termed  latten,  as  cum  lavacro  de  nu    yng."    Test   Bbor. 
also  in  ••■■■             .1    lists  of  church  goods  ttin  manufactured  at  Br 

in  rm  ntion     occui  i    i>i 


ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS.  271 

Saynt  Maris  within  the  towne  of  Salopc,  Wyllyam  Wyttycares,  William 
Yevans,  Thomas  Longley  ....  of  the  Bayde  churche,  of  all  suche 
godes,  juelles,  ornamentes,  and  belles  to  the  sayde  churche  accordyng  to 
the  ....  geven  by  the  kynges  eommysioncrs  asined  for  the  Fame, 
sir  Adam  Mitton,  Kynght  (sic),  Roger  Luter,  Ry chart  Wytticars,  baylcs  of 
the  towne  of  Salop. 

In  primis,  one  coope  of  clothe  of  gold.  Item,  a  chalis  parcell  gylt  with  a 
paten,  weyng  xij.  ounces.  Item,  another  chalis  parcell  gilt  with  a  paten,  in 
the  handes  of  sir  Edward  Byscou.  Item,  a  crose  of  coper  and  gylt.  Item, 
a  boxe  covered  with  red  velvet,  with  a  lytic  cupe  in  hit.  Item,  ij.  brasen 
candl  stikes.  Item,  a  sute  of  vestmentes  (with  a  cope,  erased)  of  blu  velvet 
brodrid  with  grapes  of  golde.  Item,  a  sute  of  vesmentes  (sic)  of  blu 
(velvet  saten,  erased)  sarenet.  Item,  a  sute  of  vesmentes  of  blake  wosted. 
Item,  a  sute  of  vesmentes  (sic)  of  whit  bustion  for  lente.  Item,  viij.  (sutes 
of,  erased)  coopcs  and  vestmentes  of  divars  sortes.  Item,  ij.  pere  of  vest- 
mentes, with  albes  and  all  therto  belongynge.  Item,  an  alter  clothe  befor 
the  alther  frynged  with  sylke  and  crule.  Item,  a  stoned  clothe  for  the 
sepulker.  Item,  a  paulc  quilted  with  sylke.  Item,  sixe  corporus  cacis  of 
divers  colors.  Item,  ij.  alter  clothes  and  ij.  toweles.  Item,  a  rynge  of 
belles  of  v.  with  that  that  the  cloke  strykes  on.  Item,  a  litle  saunce  bell. 
John  Butlerre.  —  Wjllyam  Wytakar.  —  Wyllyam 
Yevan. — Thomas  Langley. — Rye'  Rider. 


The  presentment  of  Edward  Stevyns,  clerke,  curat  of  the  parishe 
chu[rche  of  Saynt  Chads  in]4  the  towne  of  Salop,  Thomas  Hosyar, 
Rychard  Clerke,  Roger  Allen  and  Morgan  ....  wardens  of  the  sayd 
churche,  with  Ilumfrey  Onysloo,  Thomas  Sturrey,  Nycolas  [Purcell]  and 
Edward  Hosyar,  Esquiers,  paryshenors  of  the  sayd  paryshe,  of  all  suche 
goodes  [juelles]  ornamentes  and  bells  belongyn  to  the  sayd  churche, 
accordynge  to  the  char[ge  to  them]  gevyn  by  the  Kynges  commissioners 
assyned  for  the  same,  the  xvj.th  day  of  .  .  .  .  in  the  syxt  yere  of  the 
rayne  of  owr  sufl'eryn  lorde  kynge  Edward  the  Byxt,  before  sir  Adam 
Mytton,  Knyght,  Roger  Luter,  and  By  chard  Whytacres,  bayles  of  the 
town  of  Salop  for  that  yere. 

Item,  one  cope  of  clothe  of  golde.  (Item,  one  sute  of  vestmenttes 
with  one  cope  of  red  reysyd  velvett,  erased.)  Item,  one  sute  of  vest- 
mentes of  red  velvet  and  one  cope.  Item,  one  sute  of  vestmentes  of  blue 
velvet  and  one  cope.  Item,  a  sute  of  vestmentes  of  blue  velvett  with  cros- 
leettes,  and  ij.  chauntre  copes.  Item,  one  sute  of  vestmentes  of  grenc 
sylcke.  Item,  a  sute  of  vestmentes  of  sylcke,  for  sondayes.  Item  ij.  states 
of  vestmentes  of  whyte  af  lick  (sic)  gold.  Item,  a  sute  of  blacke  vest- 
mentes. Item,  a  whyte  vestment  for  lent.  Item,  a  sute  of  grene  vest- 
mentes, lackyng  the  subdeacons.  Item,  a  syngle  vestment  of  black 
worstyd.  Item,  a  vestment  of  violett  worstyd.  Item,  ij.  violett  copes 
callyd  chauntre  copes.  Item,  ij.  grene  copes  and  a  red  cope.  Item,  ij. 
grene  copes,  the  one  callyd  the  Monday  cope.  Item,  iiij.  whyte  copes  and 
a  cope  of  dornex.5     Item,  a  nother  grenc  cope.      Item,    ij.    cusshynges  of 

4  Several  defects  here  occur  in  the  MS.  Yj>re, — of  Dornyk   (rendered  in  French 

which  may  probably  be  supplied  as  above.  Twirnay)    of    ryselle    (Lylle).     See   .Mr. 

■'  A    tissue  manufactured  al    Tournay,  .J.   <;.   Nichols1   Glossary   to  the  Unton 

formerly  called  Dornyck.    Caxton,in  tin'  Inventories,  v.  Domex. 

Book   for  Travellers,  mentions  Cloth  of 


•ZrZ  ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS. 

red  velvett  and  grene  on  the  one  Byde,  and  the  other  Byde  red  damascke. 
Item,  ij.  pillowes  of  clothe  of  golde.  Item,  iij.  pyllowes  of  the  passion 
and  one  olde  pyllowe.  (Item,  a  front  of  green  velvet  for  the  hygh  awter. 
Item,  another  frount  party  red  velvett  and  black,  erased.]  Item,  a  sute 
of  vestmentes  called  the  nones  vestmenteB,  and  a  cope.  Item,  a  cope  of 
okle  red  velvett.  Item,  iiij.  brasen  candelstyckes.  Item,  ij.  paxes  of 
latb  n  of  Antvek  worck.  Item,  a  -  nsor  of  latten.  Item,  ij.  corporas 
Item,  iij.  towells  of  Bylcke  for  Corpus  Christi  day.  Item,  a  towell 
of  ray  Bylck.  Item,  a  towell  of  nydle  worcke.  Item,  viij.  diaper  towells. 
Item,  v.  flaxen  auetour  clothes.  Item,  x.  towells.  Item,  iiij.  halltl'  reyvyd  " 
diaper  towells.  Item  one  chalys,  weyng  xxxiij.  onces  and  iij.  quarters. 
Item,  another  chalys,  weyng  xiij.  onces  and  iij.  quarters.  (Item,  a  boa  of 
Bylver  with  a  cheyne,  iij.  onces  and  di,  erased.)  Item,  iij.  gret  bells. 
Item,  ij.  small  bells  eallyd  tbe  sauntes  bells.  Item,  one  gret  bell  that  tbe 
clocke   goethe  apon. 

Per  me,  Eumfrey  Onyslow. — Per  me,  Nicolaum  Purcell. — Per  me, 
Edwardum  Hosyer. — Thomas  Yrland. — Richard  Germyn. — John  Muke- 
worth. — Edward  Stevyns,  clerke. — Thomas  Hosyer.-   Rychard  Evared.7 

Indentures  for  the  sale  keeping  of  the  church  goods  which  the  king's 
commissioners  allowed  to  remain  in  use,  in  May,  7  Edward  VI.  1553. 

Thys  indenture  made  the  xxiij.  day  of  May,  anno  regni  Regis  Edwardi 
Bexti  vij.",  betwene  sir  Adam  Mytton,  Knyght,  John  Corbett  of  Lye, 
Bsquier,  and  Roger  Lewes,  commissyoners  by  vertue  off  the  rlynges 
majestes  letters  off  commyssyon  to  them  amongst  other  directed,  of  the 
rtie,  and  sir  John  Gryfres,,  Clerke,  ('mat  oil'  saynl  July  an  es  in  the 
of  Saloppe,  John  Skynner,  Hugh  Dene-,  wardens  of  the  Bame 
churche,  Rychard  Dawes,  gent,  John  Evanes,  gent,  John  Halywell,  -cut, 
parisheners  of  the  Baid  churche,  of  thother  partie,  wytnessyth  that  there  be 
remayneng  within  the  same  church  on  chalice  with  a  patten  weyng  twelve 
owences,  and  thre  bellys  in  one  corde,  whicbe  chales  with  the  patten  and 
belles  the  Bayed  commyssyoners  mi  tin-  Kynges  majestes  behalfe  straytly 
chargeth  ami  commandyth  them  Bavely  ami  surely  to  kepe  unsold  ne  other- 
wise imbessyllyd,  untyll  Buche  tyme  as  the  Kynges  majesties  plesure  be 
unto  them  further  Bignifyed  and  declared. 

By  me,  John  Gryfyths,  cl.     Per  me  Rychard  Dawys.     Hugh  Beynes. 

There  follow  in  like  form  another  Indenture  ami  three  -  Bills  indentid." 

The  indenture,   dated  1' 1   May,  in  the    ame  year,   was  made  between  the 

ame  commi  sioners  and  George  Crane,   Vicar  of  St.  A-lkemund's,  Salop, 

Robert  Helyn  and  Richard  Jukes,  churchwardens,  as  to  tin-  custody  of  one 

parcel  'jilt  with  a  paten,   weighing  ten   ounces,   and   three  bells. 

The  first  bill  indented,  dated  L'.'i  May,  7  Bdw.  VI.,  was  made  between  the 

tame  commissioners  and  ••  Sir  John  Buttrye,  clerk,  vicar  assistent  of  Saint 

Maryes  in  Salope,"  Edward  Clerke  and  Richard  Ryder,  wardens,  Thomas 

Longley  ami    William    Bvauns,    parisbionoi  .   as  t"  the  custody   of  one 

chalice  with  a   paten   weighing    12  ounces,  live   hill-  and  a  saunoo  bell, 

econd  bill,  dated  24  May,  7  Edw.  VI.,  was  made  between  the  same 

,|.|.1j.  .|  to  i  ■    \    mark  bare    occui  ,  probablj    the 

mutual.    'I'Im  Prompt.  Parv.      symbol  "i  "ne  of  the  pariahioners  who 
■    rendyn,  lacero.     Ely  f  us      could  aol  write  his  name. 


ORIGINAL    DOCUMENTS.  273 

commissioners  and  "  Sir  Wylliam  Hordley,  clerkc,  vycar  of  the  est  Fored, 
llumfrey  Butler  and  Thomas  Lee,  wardens  of  the  Est  Forhed,  Wyllyam 
Powner,  Thomas  France'  jiarischoners,"  as  to  the  custody  of  one  chalice 
with  paten  weighing  12  ounces,  four  hells  and  a  clock  hell  in  the  said 
parish,  and  three  little  hells  "  in  the  (parishe,  erased)  huriall  of  seynte 
Gyllys,  beynge  a  beryall."  The  third  bill,  dated  23  May,  7  Edw.  VI., 
was  made  between  the  same  commissioners  and  "Sir  Robert  Scherer 
clerke,  vicar  of  Meolle  brace,  RycardMedulycot,  Rychard  Scherer,  wardens 
of  the  parish  churche  of  Meolle,  Arthur  Macwort,  John  Scherer, 
pariscboners,"  as  to  the  custody  of  one  chalice  with  paten  weighing  five 
ounces,  and  three  small  hells.  Meol-Brace,  now  called  Bracemeol,  is  a 
vicarage  in  the  liberty  of  the  horough  of  Shrewsbury,  and  situate  about  a 
mile  south  of  the  town. 

The  following  notes  have  also  been  preserved,  comprising  information  of 
Church  goods,  supposed  to  be  detained  by  private  persons,  in  1571  : 

Villa  Salop. 

Certayne  pipes  of  leade  under  the  earthe,  conveying  water  to  the  Abbey 
of  St.  Peter  and  Paule  by  Shrowsburye,  as  well  within  the  Scite  of  the  seid 
Abbey  as  withoute,  moche  within  taken  up  by  one  William  Langeley,  by 
coloure  of  the  purchase  of  the  seid  Abbey.  Allso  a  cesterne  of  leade 
without  the  wall,  taken  up  by  the  seid  Langeley.8 

Thomas  Burnell,  Bailiff  of  Shrowesburye,  bathe  xlviij.  peces  of  Coapes 
and  vestimentes  perteyniug  to  St.  Chaddes. 

In  thandes  (sic)  of  William  Clerke,  of  Little  Berwicke,  a  Challice,  one 
coape,  one  little  bell. 

Thomas  Stirry,  hcire  of  Thomas  Stirrye,  late  of  Roshall,  gent., 
deceasyd,  standyth  chargeable  with  a  Challice  belonging  to  the  Country 
Paryshe  9  in  St.  Chaddes  in  Shrowsburye,  delyveryd  to  his  said  father  by 
Edward  Betton,  gent.,  and  Richard  Lancashere. 

Thomas  Bromall  holdeth  a  Tythe  concealed,  of  vij.  s.,  the  yere, 
sometyme  belonging  to  the  paryshe  of   St.  Alkomondes  in  Salop. 

Richard  Lee,  esquier,  rcceyved  xxj.  peces  of  Coapes  and  vestimentes  of 
Richarde  Thornes,  by  vertue  of  a  comission. 

Richard  Thornes  bathe  one  Challice  with  a  cover  of  silver  parcell  gilte, 
wayeng  xiij.  oz.,  also  vij.  peces  of  coapes  and  vestimentes  belonging  to  St. 
Maryes.  Also  he  concealeth  Obligacions  of  one  c.li.,  made  of  the  Jewells 
of  St.  Maryes  churche,  and  delyveryd  by  Obligacion  to  divers  men  of  the 
Paryshe  in  severall  sommes. 

William  Alowe  and  Richarde  Powell  detayne  obligacions  of  cxl.  li., 
made  of  the  Ornamentes  and  Jewells  of  the  Churche  of  St.  Chaddes,  and 
delyveryd  by  severall  Obligacions  to  divers  men  of  the  paryshe. 

Robert  Irelond  the  elder  and  Roger  Luter  detayne  the  Inventorye  of 
the  churche  goodes  of  St.  Chaddes. 

s  The  scite    of   the   abbey   had    been  9  This    was    probably    Bicton,    distant 

granted  by  Henry  VIII.  on  July  22, 1546,  about  three  miles  on  the  road  tu  Oswestry, 

to  Edward  Watson,  Esq.,  of  Northampton-  Edward  VI.  gave  the  tithes  of   Bictoo, 

shire,  and   Henry   Herdson,  a  tanner  of  b'rankwell,  and  other  places,  lately    be- 

London.      On    the     following    day    they  longing   to  the  collegiate    church   of   St. 

granted  it  to  William  Langley,  of  Salop,  Chad's,  towards  the  endowing  of  the  Frei 

tailor,  and  it  continued  in  his  family  till  School,  Shrewsbury.     At  the  present  time 

1702.  Browne  Willis  says  that  they  never  the  perpetual  curacies  of  Bicton  and  of 

prospered  after  they  had  dug  up  tin-  in-  Frankwell   are  in   the    patronage   of   the 

ternn  uts  in  the  church.  vicar  of  St.  Chad's. 


•*7  1  olMCIXAl,    DoCTMENTS. 

I  ►(  a  mber,  L571. 
Mr.  Fanshewe. —  I  praye  you  rocoavc  these  notes  above  wrytten,  and 
that  iki    limn   putt  in   information   for  them,  because  I  have  them  in  sute, 
and  that  I  maye  Lave  processe  for  them  at  suche  tyme  as  1  shall  call  for 
them. 

II  i:m;Y   MlDDELMORE. 

The  foregoing  documents  arc  preserved  amongst  the  records,  late  part  of 
the  Miscellanea  of  the  Queen's  Remembrancer,  now  in  the  custody  of  the 
Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  in  the  charge  of  Mr.  Hunter  at  Carlton  Ride.  It 
it  due  tn  Mr.  Hunter  that  they  have  been  brought  into  accessible  form,  and 
are  available  for  historical  inquiry.  We  are  indebted  to  his  kindness  for 
calling  our  attention  to  the  series  of  records  connected  with  the  Survey  of 
Church  (lends.  They  show  the  condition  of  parish  churches  shortly  after 
the  Reformation,  whilst  a  considerable  part  of  their  ancient  wealth  in  plate 
and  vestments  remained  unalienated.  The  portion  which  Mr.  Hunter  has 
enabled  us  to  lay  before  our  leaders,  will  amply  show  the  character  of  these 
documents  and  the  valuable  evidence  which  they  supply,  as  here  exemplified 
by  the  return-  relating  to  that  chief  of  English  towns,  in  which  the  Institute 
has  recently  found  so  cordial  a  welcome. 

On  April  2,  1552  (6  Edw.  VI.),  the  king  fell  sick,  as  recorded  in  Ids 
Journal.  <*n  April  21,  the  following  entry  occurs.  "  It  was  agreed  that 
Commissions  should  go  out  for  to  take  certificate  of  the  superfluous  Church 

Plate  to  Mine  iim\  and  to  see  bow-  it  hath  been  einbc/.eled." 

In   May,  1552,  the  issue  of  Commissions  to  persons  of  note  in  each 

countv,  city,  or  town,  appears  to  have  been  in  progress.  Their  names  are 
recorded  on  the  Patent  Roll,  6  Edw.  VI.  ;  the  list  is  given  in  the  Seventh 
Report  of  the  Deputy  Keeper  of  the  Public  Records,  appendix  ii..  p.  308, 
with  copies  of  two  commissions  found  on  the  Patent  Rolls,  and  an  extract 
from  one  of  the  originals  remaining  in  the  Exchequer,  dated  May  16, 
6  Edw.  VI.  These  instruments  show  the  objects  and  powers  of  the  com- 
missioners. A  catalogue,  topographically  arranged,  of  the  inventories  has 
been  subjoined  by  Mr.  Hunter,  who  has  given  a  supplement  to  this  catalogue 
in   the  Ninth  Report  of  the   Deputy   Keeper,  appendix   ii.,   p.  283,   with 

copies  of  the  commission  for  the  city  of  Lond dated  May  I  6,  (i  Edw.  V  I . ; 

traction  to  the  commissioners,  dated  June   1",  same  year,  and  their 
l'lilb  r  (Church  Hist.,  b.  vii.i  bad  printed  one  of  die  commissions, 

from  which  an  extract  will  be  found   in  Collier;  (Peel.    Biflt  part    II..  b.   i\., 

..)     The  Commissi in  for  Shrewsbury  were  Sir  Robert  Townsend, 

Sir  Adam  Mytton,  John  Corbett  of  Lee,  the  Bailiffs,  and  Richard  I  lord. 

The  Commissioners  proceeded  in  their  survey  during  the  remainder  of  the 
\.  ar.  After  an  interval  oi  eight  months,  a  fresh  oommia  ton  (dated  Jan.  16, 
<;  Edw,  VI.,  [552  '■'•>  issued  to  the  comptroller  of  the  household  and  other 
ive  the  returns,  to  ensure  that  they  were  dulj  1  at 
from  all  parts  of  the  kingdom  ;  also  with  power  to  appoint  deputies  to 
carry  away  things  deemed  unnecei  srj  for  orderly  performance  of  the 
public  •        (|i  linen  and  vestments,  distribution  was  in  some  oa  •     to 

be  made  to  the  poor,  after  r»   er  plici     and  altar  coverings  suitable 

to  each  church ;  part  was  directed  to  b<  sold,  1  emed  super- 

;  the  proceed   of  uch   ales  were  to  be  delivered  to  the  king's  trea  urer, 

the  i  to  the  ki  1  | f  the  jewel  bouse  in  the  Tower. 

contracted  in  the  orij  inal  record  are  here  printed  in  exit 


^roccetiings  at  tfje  /Meetings  of  tlje  Archaeological  Institute. 

Mat  4,  1855. 
The  Hon.  Richard  C.  Neville,  F.S.A.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Rev.  Charles  Graves,  D.D.,  Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Dublin, 
delivered  a  discourse  on  the  sculptured  grave-slab,  inscribed  with  Oghams 
on  both  its  edges,  found  in  a  cemetery  in  the  island  of  Bressay,  Shetland, 
and  exhibited  by  Dr.  Charlton  in  the  Museum  of  the  Institute,  at  the  meet- 
ing in  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Representations  of  this  remarkable  slab  have  been  given  in  the  Archreo- 
logia  JEliana,  vol.  iv.  p.  150. l  The  interpretation  of  the  Oghams  given  by 
Dr.  Graves  shows  that  the  slab  is  commemorative  of  the  daughter  of 
Nahdfdad,  whom  he  supposes  to  have  been  the  discoverer  of  Iceland,  about 
the  middle  of  the  ninth  century,  and  bears  the  name  of  his  grandson,  desig- 
nated as  Benre,  or  the  son  of  the  Druid.  This  interesting  memoir  will  be 
given  hereafter. 

Sir  James  Ramsay,  Bart.,  gave  a  notice  of  the  remarkable  discovery,  in 
1854,  of  some  large  beads  of  blue  porcelain,  at  a  considerable  depth,  in  a  bog 
in  the  forest  of  Alwyth.in  Perthshire,  on  the  estates  of  Sir  James,  who  brought 
the  beads  for  examination.  They  are  seventeen  in  number,  melon-shaped, 
and  are  coated  with  the  peculiar  bright  blue  glaze  commonly  seen  on  beads 
and  other  ancient  objects  amongst  Egyptian  antiquities.  There  were  also 
two  highly  polished  black  beads,  found  in  the  same  place  and  bearing  much 
resemblance  to  similar  reliques  found  in  Egypt.  Roman  vestiges  exist,  as 
Sir  James  observed,  in  the  part  of  Perthshire  where  this  discovery  took 
place  ;  and  the  supposition  appears  probable  that  the  beads  may  actually 
be  of  Egyptian  manufacture,  brought  to  Scotland  by  some  of  the  Roman 
legionaries. 

Mr.  Octavics  Morgan  gave  a  short  account  of  the  discovery  of  a 
remarkable  mosaic  pavement  at  Caerwent  (Venta  Silurum),  in  Monmouth- 
shire, in  1777.  He  produced  a  coloured  representation  of  this  tesselated 
floor,  accurately  taken  at  the  time  when  it  was  found,  and  preserved  at  Tre- 
degar. The  discovery  occurred  in  planting  an  orchard  within  the  walls  of 
the  Roman  station,  and  the  pavement  lay  about  2  feet  below  the  surface. 
Mr.  Lewis,  to  whom  the  site  belonged,  erected  a  building  over  it  to  ensure 
its  preservation;  but  the  pavement  is  now  wholly  destroyed,  the  roof  having 
unfortunately  become  decayed  about  forty  year-  since  and  fallen  in.  The 
floor  measured  about  21  feet  by  18  feet.  The  design  consisted  of  circular 
compartments,  about  3  feet  in  diameter,  surrounded  by  a  border  of  elegant 
decoration.  No  representation  of  this  pavement  appears  to  have  been  pub- 
lished, and  Mr.  Morgan  considered  it  to  be  deserving  of  notice,  as  displaying 

1  See  a  notice  of  this  slab  iu"  Notes  and  Queries,"  vol.  xi.,  p.  285. 


B76  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

certain  elements  of  ornamental  design  which  might  he  of  Celtic  character, 
and  arc  dissimilar  to  the  ordinary  Roman  types.  A  short  notice  of  the  dis- 
covery was  communicated  by  Mr.  11.  Penruddock  Wyndham  to  the  Society 
of  Antiquaries,  and  published  in  the  Archaeologia,  vol.  vii.  p.  410.  The 
position  of  the  pavement  is  indicated  in  Morrice  b  Survey  of  the 
station,  given  in  Coxe's  Monmouthshire,  vol.  i.  p,  25,  where  it  is  described 
a-  hastening  fast  to  decay.  Mr.  Morgan  observed,  that  he  proposed,  in  the 
of  the  present  year,  to  commence  excavations  at  Caerwent  and  to 
examine  the  -tincture  of  which  the  remains  had  formed  part. 

Mr.  II.  Barrod  communicated  the  following  particulars  regarding  a 
remarkable  deposit  of  reliques  of  bronze  found  about  a  month  previously  at 
Ball,  near  rlalesworth,  Suffolk.  Numerous  Roman  remains  have 
been  found  near  the  sp.it,  where  broken  pottery  of  Roman  fabrication  occurs 
in  abundance.  The  objects  brought  by  Mr.  Ilarrod  for  the  inspection  of 
the  Society  comprised  a  number  of  bronze  rings,  closely  resembling  in  fashion 
and  workmanship  those  found  on  Polden  Hill,  Somerset,  and  the  large  col- 
lection brought  to  light  at  Stanwick,  Yorkshire,  presented  to  the  British 
Museum  by  the  Duke  of  Northumberland.  They  are  elaborately  ornamented 
with  stippled  or  punctured  designs,  and  enriched  with  small  portions  of 
opaque  enamel  in  cavities  chased  on  the  surface.  They  had  been  deposited 
in  a  singular  box  or  vessel  of  bronze,  which  was  much  decayed.  Mr.  Barrod 
exhibited  part  of  a  thin  bronze  plate,  about  6  inches  in  diameter,  wrought 
with  a  cruciform  ornament,  and  an  animal  (a  lamb  ?)  in  the  centre  of  the 
Be  produced  also  a  Roman  lamp  of  bronze  with  a  crescent  on  its 
handle,  ami  a  defaced  coin,  found  close  to  the  deposit  almve  described.  Mr. 
Akerman  had  supposed  it  to  be  a  coin  of  Antonine  ;  Mr.  Neville,  however, 
thought  it  might  1 t'  Faustina,  and  he  observed  that  a  bronze  lamp,  orna- 
mented in  like  manner  with  a  crescent,  and  found  at  Thornborough,  Bucks, 
is  now  in  his  museum  at  Audley  End.  The  bronze  rings  appear  Buited  for 
furniture  or  harness  ;  the  largest  measure  about  3  by  _'  inches.  They 
w.re  found  in  draining  at  a  depth  of  ahout  2  feet.  They  have  subsequently 
been  purchased  for  the  British  Museum. 

A  memoir,  by  Mr.  W.  S.  Walford,  was  read,  in  explanation  of  a  docu 
ment  lately  found  amongst  the  Tower  Records,  being  a  petition  to  Edward  1 1. 
by  Walter  the  Marberer  of  London.     (Printed  in  this  volume,  p.  1  .">< .) 

Mr.  Nelson,  secretary  of  the  Institute  of  British  Architects,  communi- 
a   ie. lire  of  a    singular  discovery   at    St.  Peter's  Mancroft  Church, 
Norwich,  where,  during  restorations  carried  out  in   L852,  the  remains  of 
p         •      had  been  found   under  the  chancel   Boor,  having  earthen  jars 
imbedded  in  the  side  walls.     Thesi  I  ware  with  a  Blight  glaze 

on  the  upper  part,  were  laid  horizontally  ahout   I  feet  apart,  their  mouths 
being  Bush  with  the  face  of  the  wall  ;  they  measure  >s  inches  in  height, 

diameter  of    the  mouth  ahout  6  inches.       A   detailed  account   had    I n  suli- 

mitted  to  the  Institute  of  British  Architects  h\    Mr.  S.  W*.  Tracy,  under 
direction  the  restorations  had  been  executed  :  and  hia  drawings  illus- 
trative of  this  remarkable  construction,  the  intention  of  which  had  not  been 

i    plai I,  were  brought  bj  Mr.  Nelson,  with  one  of  the  earthen 

for  the  inspection  of  the  meeting.     Mr.  Nelson  Btated  that  a  similar 
imbedded  in  masonry  had  occurred  at  Fountains  \bboy, 

the    I'-Vel    of  the    floor,    in    Q    part    of  1 1 1  e   c  1 1 II  lc  1 1    u  1 1  ere  a   sc  lee  1 1  a  I  ipi  II 1 1  .  )|  I 

:  icted  at  the  ea  I  end  of  the  nave.     One  of  these  vo    •  il 
bad  ■    •     i      d  in  l>\  the  Earl  de  Grey  for  examination,  and  an 


TIIE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  277 

account  of  the  circumstances  connected  with  the  discovery  has  appeared  in 
the  Transactions  of  the  Institute  of  British  Architects.  Vestiges  of  a 
similar  passage  under  the  chancel-floor,  in  the  side-walls  of  which  several 
one-handled  jars,  or  pitchers,  were  found  imbedded,  had  heen  noticed  during 
the  repairs  of  St.  Nicholas'  church,  Ipswich  ;  and  a  passage  of  like  con- 
struction, hut  without  any  such  vessels  in  its  walls,  had  occurred  in  the 
chancel  at  St.  Peter's  church,  Sudbury. 

Mr.  Evelyn  P.  Shirley,  M.P.,  gave  the  following  account  of  the  crozier 
of  the  abbots  of  Fore,  co.  Westmeath,  in  the  possession  of  Richard  Nugent, 
Esq.,  son  of  Christopher  Edmund  Nugent,  Esq.,  late  of  Farren-Connell,  in  the 
county  of  Cavan.  The  crozier,  of  the  peculiar  Irish  form,  was,  through 
Mr.  Nugent's  kindness,  exhibited  by  Mr.  Shirley  on  this  occasion. 

"  The  Abbey  of  Fore.  Four,  or  Fourre,  in  Latin  Favoria,  in  Irish, 
Fohhar,  was  founded  for  Regular  Canons  of  St.  Augustine  about  the  begin- 
ning of  the  7th  century,  by  St.  Fechin,  who  died  a.d.  665,  on  the  20th  of 
January,  on  which  day  his  festival  has  been  always  observed.  This 
monastery  became  famous  as  a  seat  of  learning  and  religion  for  many  ages, 
and,  according  to  Usher,  was  called  '  Baile-na-lcabhar,'  or  the  '  Town  of 
Books,'  or  of  learning,  from  the  great  seminary  established  there.  Ulti- 
mately it  became  a  bishop's  see  ;  in  the  twelfth  century  it  was  united  to  the 
diocese  of  Meath.  In  1209,  Walter  de  Lacy,  Lord  of  Meath,  refounded 
the  Abbey  of  Fore  for  Benedictine  monks,  brought  over  by  him  from  the 
abbey  of  St.  Taurin,  at  Evreux  in  Normandy,  and  made  it  a  cell  to  that, 
since  which  time  this  house  has  been  called  the  Priory  of  St.  Fechin  and 
St.  Taurin.  William  Nugent,  the  last  prior  of  Fore,  gave  this  crozier  to 
his  kinsman  Oliver  Nugent,  of  Enagh,  third  son  of  Christopher  Nugent, 
Baron  of  Delvin,  to  whom  the  abbey  of  Fore  was  granted  by  Queen  Eliza- 
beth, in  1588.  From  this  William  it  has  descended  in  a  direct  line  to 
Richard  Nugent,  Esq.,  the  present  possessor." 

Sttttqutttc*  airtr  £CIorfc£  of  <3rt  evhtbttrtr. 

By  Mr.  Brackstoxe. — A  remarkable  axe-head  of  stone,  found  in  Stainton 
Dale,  near  Scarborough,  Yorkshire,  in  Januaiy  last,  by  a  farm  servant  who 
was  employed  in  cutting  a  drain.  It  was  sold  by  the  finder  to  Mr.  Long- 
bottom,  a  lapidary  at  Scarborough.  The  material  of  which  it  is  formed 
appears  to  be  a  porphyritic  greenstone,  with  white  specks,  probably  of 
quartz,  and  bearing  resemblance  to  some  rocks  occurring  in  North  Wales. 
This  stone  axe  measures  7|  in.  in  length.  It  is  perforated  to  receive  a 
haft,  and  partakes  of  the  characteristics  both  of  hammer  and  axe,  one  end 
beiug  obtusely  pointed,  the  other  is  shaped  to  a  sharp  edge,  cut  very  round, 
and  measures  5  in.  in  breadth.  Perforated  stone  axe-heads  are  rarely 
found  in  this  country,  and  none  appear  to  have  been  noticed  of  precisely 
the  same  type  as  that  exhibited  by  Mr.  Brackstone.  Several  examples  of 
these  ancient  weapons  are  given  by  Sir  Richard  Colt  Hoare.  discovered  in 
tumuli  in  Wilts.  A  remarkable  specimen,  found  in  South  Wales,  and  now 
in  the  possession  of  Mr.  G.  Grant  Francis,  has  been  figured  in  this  Journal, 
vol.  iii.,  11.67.-'  The  example,  bearing  most  resemblance  to  that  exhibited. 
is  figured,  Ulster  Journal  of  Archeology,  vol.  iii.  p.  - 

2  Other  examples  of  the  perforated  (t  Antiquities  of  Worcestershire/'  2nd  edit 
stone  axe-head  are  figured  in  Mr.  Allies1       pi.  1,  p.  150  :  two  found  in  the  north  of 

VOL.   XII.  ')    0 


:7s  PROCEEDINGS   AT   MEETINGS   OF 

By  Mr.  IIf.n'RT  Latham. — A  flint  celt  :  a  saucer,  or  patera,  of  dark 
ware,  and  a  bottle  of  black  ware,  both  apparently  of  Roman  fabrication, 
found  in  digging  eravelat  Wiggonholt.  Sussex,  near  the  bank  of  the  river 
Arun. 

By  -Mr.  R.  Gr.  F.  Minty. — A  bronze  cedt,  remarkable  for  its  preservation 
and  the  ornamentation,  of  rare  occurrence  on  objects  of  this  class  found  in 
England,  although  comparatively  common  in  Ireland.  It  was  found  at 
Liss,  near  Petersticld,  Hants.  In  general  form  and  dimensions  it  closely 
resembles  that  figured  in  Mr.  Dunoyer's  memoir  on  Celts,  in  this  Journal, 
vol.  iv.,  p.  328,  pi.  1,  fig.  31  ;  but  the  ornament  covering  part  of  each  face 
is  less  elaborate  in  the  celt  from  Liss,  and  consists  of  small  parallel  lines, 
not  engraved  by  a  cutting  tool,  but  apparently  produced  by  a  blunt  chisel 
and  the  aid  of  a  hammer.  The  sides  are  grooved  diagonally,  and  slightly 
overlap  the  blade.  There  is  no  trace  of  any  stop-ridge.  Length  G  in.  ; 
breadth  of  the  cutting  edge,  nearly  o\  in. 

Mr.  Minty  presented  to  the  Institute  a  perfect  specimen  of  the  flanged 
tiles  found  at  Froxfield,  Hants,  as  described  at  the  previous  meeting  (see 
p.  199,  ante).  They  are  of  the  kind  properly  used  for  roofing,  but  were 
found  placed  as  the  floor  of  a  small  Roman  building,  supposed  to  have  been 
a  bath  ;  and  they  measured  about  17  in.  by  131  at  one  end,  and  11|  at 
the  other.  A  small  part  of  the  flange  is  cut  away  at  both  ends,  to  facili- 
tate the  overlapping  of  the  tiles,  and  near  the  upper  margin  of  one  of  them 
is  a  perforation,  for  the  purpose  of  pinning  the  tiles  to  the  rafters. 

By  Mr.  \Yi:st\vood. — Representations  of  a  sculptured  fragment,  in  the 
possession  of  Mr.  Staniforth,  of  Sheffield,  which  appears  to  have  formed  the 
shaft  of  a  cross  of  the  Xlth  or  Xllth  century.  It  had  been  used  as  a 
"  hardening  trough"  at  a  blacksmith's  shop,  one  side  having  been  chiselled 
out  so  as  to  convey  the  notion  that  it  might  have  served  as  a  stone  coffin. 
This,  however,  Mr.  Westwood  is  decidedly  of  opinion  had  not  been  the 
original  intention;  the  part  now  standing  above  the  surface  of  the  ground 
(the  lower  end  being  deeply  imbedded  in  the  earth)  measures  51  in.  in 
height  ;  one  side  is  21  in.  in  width  at  the  base,  and  1  .V  at  top  ;  the  other 
two  sides  being  11  in.  wide.  The  widest  face  is  sculptured  with  a  foliated 
scroll  ornament,  like  that  on  the  cross  at  Eyam  ;  there  is  a  figure  of  an 
archer  kneeling  introduced  in  the  de  ign.  The  narrower  side--  also  have 
foliated  scrolls,  but  our  presents  an  example  of  an  interlaced  riband  pattern 
precisely  like  that  on  the  narrow  side  of  the  cross  at  Eyam.3  The  sculp- 
tured fragment  at  Sheffield  has  been  noticed  in  Rhodes'  Teak  Scenery. 
Mr.  Westwood  brought  also,  in  illustration  of  the  [rish  crozicr exhibited  by 
Mr.  Shirley,  representations  of  the  bighlj  ornamented  reliques  of  the  same 
d<  cription,  in  the  po  i  ion  of  the  Duke  ol  Devonshire,  supposed  to  have 
been  used  by  the  first  bishop  of  Lismore,  and  exhibited  by  his  grace's  Kind 
permi  -ion  at  the  meeting  of  the  In  titute  in  March,  L850.  (Journal, 
vol.  vii.,  p.  83.)     Al-o,  drawings  of  a  pa  toral  staff  belonging  to  Cardinal 

i  i  in  Bishop  Lyttelton'a  liahed  in    1882,  al  Copenhagen,  by  the 

tone  hatchets,  Archseo  Society   of   Antiquariea    <>i'  the    North  ; 

i  ii.,  |i.  118,  pi.  8  ;  and  various  Bind   I.,   plates   .'     i  ;   or  In  vVoi  aoe'i 

I  i  .       cotland  are  figured    by  "  Afbildinger,"  from  thi    Royal  Museum 

Dr.  Wilson,  in  hi    wPi  Innals/'  at  Copenhagen,  pp.  11, 12. 

pp.  135,  187.    Thi  type  fonnd  inSlainton  Se<   o  repn  entation  of  the  orosa  at 

D  among  I    the  an-  Eyam  in  Mr,  Bateman's  "  Antiquities  of 

n  intiq  di  Di  rbj  aire,"  p.  209, 

I       HI        thi      "  .        I    :     |  I    ill."     |  >lll  • 


TUB  ARCHAEOLOGICAL  INSTITUTE. 


:l'i  9 


Wiseman,  purchased  in  London  ;  of  that  of  the  ahhots  of  Clonmacnoise,  in 
the  Museum  of  the  Irish  Academy  ;  of  another  in  the  same  collection  ;  and 
of  the  head  of  an  Irish  crozier,  now  in  the  British  Museum.  Mr.  West- 
wood  remarked,  thai  from  the  manner  in  which  one  of  the  hosses  of  the 
staff  belonging  to  Cardinal  Wiseman  was  worn  smooth,  it  is  evident  that 
these  pastoral  insignia  in  Ireland  were  not  carried  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  bishop's  crozier  was  usually  borne.  The  Irish  cambuca  was  held  lower 
down,  the  upper  part  resting  on  the  shoulder. 

By  Mr.  Wat. — Representations  of  three  fibulce,  of  Roman  workmanship, 
in  the  possession  of  the  Rev.  R.  Gordon, 
of  Elsfield.  One  of  them,  found  at  Pains- 
wick,  Gloucestershire,  is  remarkable 
for  the  form  and  decoration  in  coloured 
enamels,  fixed  by  fusion  in  shallow 
cavities  on  the  surface,  in  similar  manner 
as  the  mediaeval  champlcvc  enamels  are 
executed.  (See  woodcuts,  orig.  size.) 
Examples  of  this  description  are  com- 
paratively rare  in  this  country.  An 
enamelled  fibula,  in  the  form  of  a  cock, 
enriched  with  red  and  green  colour,  was 
found  in  a  Roman  villa  on  Lancing  Down, 
Sussex.  (Figured  in  Gent.  Mag.,  vol. 
C.  ii.,  p.  17.)  Another,  in  the  form 
of  a  horse,  with  its  rider,  was  found  at 
Kirkby  Thore,  Westmorland,  and  is  now 
in  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology  in  Jennyn-strect.     It  is  figured  in  the 


Bronze  fibulx,  in  the  possession  of  the  Hcv.  R.  Gordon.    Original  size. 

Archseologia,  vol.  xxxi.,  p.  2S4.  The  two  other  brooches  in  Mr.  Gordon's 
collection  are  of  bronze,  of  elegant  form,  and  in  unusual  preservation.  They 
were  found  at  Druushill,  near  Elsrield,  Oxfordshire. 


2S0  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

By  the  Rev.  Walteb  Sneyd. — A  remarkable  piece  of  open  work,  in  horn, 
supposed  to  have-  been  used  to  decorate  the  binding  of  a  hook.  Date, 
XI lth  century.  It  had  heen  obtained  at  Cologne,  and  is  unique,  possibly, 
as  an  example  of  highly  enriched  work  in  horn,  at  that  early  period.  The 
ornament  consists  of  foliage  and  flowers  combined  with  a  pattern  occurring 
in  borders  of  illuminations  in  MSS.  of  the  Xlth  and  XI  lth  centuries. 

By  .Mr.  Alexander  Nesbitt. — A  rubbing  from  an  incised  slab,  which  is 
fixed  against  the  wall  in  the  south  transept  of  the  Cathedral  of  Carcassonne, 
in  the  south  of  France.  It  is  without  inscription,  but  is  believed  to  be  a 
rial  of  Simon  de  Montfort,  the  famous  leader  in  the  crusade  against 
the  Albigenses  ;  the  armorial  bearings  on  the  surcoat,  and  the  costume, 
appear  fully  to  warrant  its  being  ascribed  to  that  remarkable  person.  He 
was  killed  on  the  25th  June,  1218,  by  a  stone  from  a  mangonel,  while 
ing  Toulouse,  and  his  funeral  obsequies  were  performed  with  much 
pomp  at  Carcassonne,  but  bis  body  was  transported  to  the  priory  of  Hautcs 
Bruyeres,  near  his  ancestral  castle  of  Montfort,  and  there  interred.  A 
Bculptured  tomb  bearing  his  effigy  was,  it  appears,  placed  over  bis  remains 
in  the  burial-place  of  his  family,  where  were  to  be  seen  the  tombs  of  the 
famous  Bertrade,  and  of  Amaury,  Simon's  son  and  successor.  These  were 
destroyed,  probably,  in  1793,  and  no  traces  can  now  be  found.  The 
tradition  regarding  the  slab  at  Carcassonne  appears  to  be  confirmed  by 
the  bearings  upon  the  surcoat  which  will  he  seen  to  be  alternately  lions, 
ami  crosses  of  the  form  called  by  heralds  "  crosses  of  Toulouse."  The 
order  of  arrangement  is  now  somewhat  irregular,  in  part  owing  to  the  parts 
of  the  slab  having  heen  defaced  by  the  tread  of  feet,  when  (as  no  douht  it 
once  did)  it  formed  a  part  of  the  pavement.  The  lion  is  the  coat  of  the  De 
Mont  forts,  usually  given  as  "Gules,  a  lion  rampant  with  a  forked  tail; 
argent,  the  crosses  of  the  county  of  Toulouse,"  which  had  been  granted  to 
him  by  the  pope,  the  Council  of  Lateran,  and  the  King  of  France. 

By  the  Rev.  E.  Trollops. — A  rubbing  from  an  inscription  on  a  coffin- 
Blab,  lately  f\wj;  up  in  the   churchyard   at   Doddington,  near  Faversham, 

Kent.      The  dimensions  of  the  Blab,  which  i.-  of  Kentish    rag,  are — length, 

<i  ft.  (i  in. ;  width,  at   the  head,  33  in.,  at  the  loot,  21  in.     This  rhyming 
quatrain  forms  six  lino  on  the  upper  part  of  the  slab,  as  follows  : — 

>J<  ici  :  0181  :  KG1  BS  :  DE  :  srui1 

i  ESTE   PERE  :  [J0US  :  [RREZ  :  T 

ODZ   a    MESON  :  mi:  :  I  OUEKT  :  in: 
:  ORE  :   i  ODS  '.  PR1E  ! 

\'m:k  :   •  ::  :  i.i:  :  maii;  :  MO 

RTE  :    D0ILLET  :    PEN8EE  : 

whieh  may  he  thus  r<  ndercd — 

Here  lii     A   oea  under  this  i  (one : 
All  go  to  the  bou  te  where  I  am  gone  : 
I  Either  ba  ti  a,  frl  ar  : 

Think  of  the  poor  dead  maiden  here. 

.  ;    nothing  to  indicate  who  was  the  damsel  Agnes  here  interred. 

Mai  in  old  French  aometii  ■'  mother  (mater,  Roquefort  in  d.): 

i  ■, ,  r,  the  word  i    probably  the  Bame  which  [a  used  repeated!)  bj 

;.  Hum  ■ 


::ne,  in  France, 

BELIEVED    TO   HE   A    MEMORIAL  OF   SIMON    DE   MONTFORT,    SLAIN   AT  THE  SIEGE  OF  TOULOUSE, 

i  he  25,  1218. 

;      -ih  of  the  (isun:  S  feet  -I  inches.] 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  283 

Chaucer  and  the  older  writers  of  English  romance — "  May,"  A.  Sax.  Maeg, 
a  virgin,  a  maiden. 

June  1,  1855. 

The  Hon.  Richard  C.  Neville,  F.S.A.,  Vice-President,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Rev.  Jon.v  Rogers,  Canon  of  Exeter,  communicated,  through  Mr. 
C.  Tucker,  the  following  notice  of  an  inscribed  Roman  tablet,  in  imperfect 
condition,  found  in  the  wall  of  the  church  at  St.  Hilary,  Cornwall  : — ■ 

"  On  Good  Friday,  1853.  the  church  of  St.  Hilary  was  burnt  down  ;  the 
fire  having  been  caused  by  the  corroded  state  of  the  pipe  connected  with  the 
stove.  In  the  course  of  the  following  year,  on  digging  up  the  foundation, 
a  slab  of  granite,  about  7  ft.  long,  and  2  ft.  broad,  was  found,  with  an 
inscription  on  the  under  side.  It  had  been  used  as  a  foundation  stone  in 
the  north  wall  of  the  chancel.  The  letters  have  been  obliterated  in  many 
places  by  weathering  ;  it  is  therefore  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  restore 
the  inscription  with  certainty.  The  letters  which  may  be  deciphered 
appear  to  be  as  follows  :  — 


N  .  .  .  P  .  .  LS 
FLAT  .  .  VS  .  .  . 
CONSTANTINO 

PIO    AVGD3  .  . 

CAES  .... 

DUCI 

.  .  ONSTANTI  .  . 

PII 
ATG 
FILIO 


The  first  line  is  almost  wholly  obliterated,  and  the  letters  can  only  be  traced 
with  the  finger  by  a  person  accustomed  to  decipher  decayed  inscriptions  ; 
indeed,  many  of  our  granite  inscriptions  cannot  be  traced  by  the  eve  alone, 
the  aid  of  the  finger  being  indispensable.  The  last  letters  of  the  fourth 
and  following  lines  are  obliterated,  and  the  initial  C,  line  7,  is  chipped  away. 
The  second  character  in  the  sixth  line  (U?),  is  very  questionable.  It  may 
be  observed  that  the  letter  A,  in  every  instance,  has  no  transverse  stroke. 
An  account  of  the  discovery  was  given  in  the  Cornwall  Gazette  of  Nov.  25, 
1854,  with  an  imperfect  copy  of  the  inscription." 

Mr.  R.  Falkxer,  of  Devizes,  communicated  a  notice  of  some  remains, 
assigned  to  the  Roman  period,  and  found  near  the  remarkable  boundary, 
known  as  the  Wansdike,  in  Wiltshire.  About  two  years  since,  a  leaden 
coffin,  supposed  to  be  Roman,  had  been  found  at  Roundway,  in  the  same 
county.  (Arch.  Journal,  vol.  x.  p.  Gl.)  A  similar  deposit  has  recently  been 
brought  to  light  at  Headington  Wick,  midway  between  Devizes  and  Calne; 
its  interest  is  increased  by  the  proximity  of  the  site  of  the  discovery  to  the 
Wansdike,  and  to  the  Roman  station  Verlucio.  In  construction,  this  leaden 
cist  was  like  that  found  at  Roundway,  being  formed  of  sheet  lead  merely 
folded  up  and  fused  together,  apparently,  at  the  upper  corners,  without 
solder.     The  covering  was  decayed  as  was  also  the  bottom  of  the   coffin. 


884  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

but  the  sides  were  more  perfect,  and  the  stoutest  part  measured  ahout 
in.  in  thickness.  The  coffin  lay  X.  and  S.  about  1'  feet  under  the 
surface,  the  head  turned  a  few  degrees  towards  the  east,  as  had  been 
noticed  in  the  interment  at  Roundway.  The  lid,  which  was  only  placed 
loosely  on  the  cist,  and  the  margin  bent  down  over  it,  had  prevented  any 
earth  falling  in  ;  the  remains  found  within  were  portions  of  the  cranium 
ancLof  one  of  the  vertebrae.    I  if  the  cist  is  not  rectangular,  as  in  the 

QC6  formerly  noticed,  but  wider  at  the  head,  where  it  measures  17  inches 
in  width,  the  angles  being  rounded,  and  it  increases  in  breadth  to  20  inches 
at  the  shoulders;  at  the  feet  it  is  only  11  inches.  The  depth  of  the  cist  is 
9  inches.  Mr.  Falkncr  sent  also  a  drawing  of  the  lower  portion  of  a  cylix 
of  dark  ware  without  glaze,  ornamented  with  a  broad  band  of  huge  scales, 
and  a  line  of  impressed  markings.  (In  form  it  resembled  fig.  -l.'i,  Catalogue 
of  the  Museum  of  Economic  Geology,  p.  72.)  It  is  probably  of  the  Castor 
manufacture,  the  body  red,  the  surface  of  a  dark  colour.  It  was  found  in 
B  field  called  "Bowlers,"  at  Ileadington  Wick,  at  a  spot  where  there  are 
some  indications  of  buildings  having  existed,  possibly  in  Roman  times. 

Mr.  James  Taxes  gave  the  following  observations  on  the  Roman  moulds 
used  for  making  pottery  with  figures  in  relief,  (commonly  called  "  Samian') 
illustrated  by  a  cast  of  one  in  plaster-of-Paris  : — 

"  Moulds  for  making  pottery  with  figures  in  relief  have  been  found  near 
Wiesbaden,  among  other  Roman  remains,  and  are  preserved  in  the  museums 
at  Wiesbaden  and  Bonn.  There  are  some  imperfect  specimens  of  such 
moulds  in  the  British  Museum.  There  are  likewise  examples  of  these 
moulds  in  the  Cabinet  of  Antiquities  in  the  Imperial  Library  at  Paris,  and 
fragment-,  are  preservi  d  in  the  -Museum  of  tic-tile  wares  at  Sevres.5 

44  On  the  subject  of  the  fabrication  of  richly  ornamented  howls  of  earthen- 
by  Roman  or  Romano-British  potters,  I  know  no  better  account  than 
the  following,  which   occurs  in  Mr.  Roach  Smith's   Catalogue  of  his  own 
Museum,  p.  2  1. 

"  *  Those  (bowls)  which  are  embossed  have  been  formed  in  moulds,  but  in 
some  cases  the  ornaments  have  been  partly  stamped  subsequently.  There 
is  also  a  rare  variety  of  thi-  pottery  of  very  superior  execution,  the  orna- 
ments of  which  have  been  separately  moulded  and  then  applied  to  the  vases. 
See  An  lajologia,  vol.  wvii.;  Journal  of  the  British  Archaeological  Associa- 
tion, vol.  iv.j  and  I  'oil.  ictanea  Antiqua,  vol.  i.' 

"The  moulds  found  mar  Wiesbaden  appeared  to  me  bo  curious  and 
ting,  on  account  of  the  information  which  they  give  respecting  the 
art  of  pottery  a  practised  in  ancient  times,  that  I  obtained  a  facsimile  In 
plaster  of  that  which  i  pre  erved  al  Bonn.  It  i  the  Bame  which  is  men- 
tioned at  p.  L37ofProfe  or  Overbeck's  Catalogue  of  the  Museum  of  Anti- 
quities in  that  city.  In  this  mould  we  observe  a  representation  of  Beven 
semi-circular  arches  supported  on  columni .  I  ml.  r  each  arch  is  the  figure 
of  a  boj  or  a  beep,  and  the  figure  of  a  bird  appears  in  three  of  the  Bpandrils 
bes.  The  border  of  the  ve  el  above  the  arches  is  formed 
by  a  rep.  tition  of  one  of  the  usual  ornaments  derived  from  the  Greek  tonic 
architecture.     On  compari  Sgun     upon   this  moiild.it  will  be  per- 

ceived that  they  were  all  formed  bj  impre  ing  upon  the  sofl  olaj  typi  oi 
tic  boy,  the  bev  p,  the  bird,  and  the  architectural  ornaments :  for  thej  are 
mam!,  tly  repetitions  of  the  same  figure  .  and  it  is.  a  very  interesting 

i   Brangnlart]  Tr  il    di    Arts  C&amiqui  ,  tom<  I.  p.  428;  Atlas,  p).  xxx 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  285 

circumstance  that  an  original  type  for  impressing  the  same  ornament  is 
preserved  in  the  British  Museum. 

"  I  hope  I  shall  not  be  thought  to  have  wandered  too  far  from  the  imme- 
diate object  of  this  communication,  if  I  offer  a  conjecture  on  the  source  of 
the  material  used  for  making  the  beautiful  bowls  which  were  fashioned  in 
these  moulds.  The  substance  of  the  so-called  Samian  ware  is  so  fine  and 
homogeneous,  that  the  question  has  often  been  suggested,  whence  did  the 
ancients  obtain  clay  for  making  their  pottery  ?  The  solution  of  the  ques- 
tion may,  I  think,  be  found  by  referring  to  the  method  now  used  in  this 
country  to  obtain  clay  for  the  fine  earthenware  made  in  Staffordshire  and 
Worcestershire.  It  is  obtained  from  the  decomposed  granite  of  Cornwall. 
By  agitating  the  granite  in  large  vessels  filled  with  water,  which  overflows 
at  the  top,  the  finer  particles  are  carried  off,  and  at  length  sink  to  the 
bottom  of  the  water.  The  deposit  is  then  dried,  packed  in  barrels,  and 
sent  to  the  potteries  for  use.  Let  us  suppose  the  ancients  to  have  used  a 
similar  process  with  common  red  clay,  or  brick-earth.  Bricks,  tiles,  and 
pipes  would  he  made  from  it  without  further  preparation.  The  very  same 
earth,  after  going  through  the  process  I  have  mentioned,  would  furnish  the 
material  for  the  finest  ornamental  bowls  and  vases." 

Mr.  E.  W.  Godwin  communicated  a  detailed  account  of  Dudley  Castle, 
illustrated  by  plans  and  numerous  drawings. 

The  Hon.  W.  Fox  Strangways  brought  before  the  Society  a  communica- 
tion addressed  to  him  by  M.  Karl  Bernhardi,  of  Cassel,  relating  to  St. 
Boniface,  and  the  other  early  missionaries  from  Britain,  by  whom  Chris- 
tianity was  introduced  into  Germany.  St.  Boniface  was  born  at  Crediton, 
Devonshire,  about  a.d.  G80,  and  he  received  a  commission  from  Pope 
Gregory  II.,  in  719,  to  preach  the  faith  in  Germany.  M.  Bernhardi  stated 
that  he  is  engaged  in  a  detailed  investigation,  with  the  hope  of  discovering, 
more  especially  at  Fulda,  materials  in  illustration  of  the  history  of  that 
period.  It  is  affirmed  that  much  valuable  matter  still  remains  unpublished. 
He  has  also  devoted  much  attention  to  the  local  dialects  of  Germany,  of 
which  he  has  produced  a  general  scheme,  in  anticipation  of  a  more  com- 
plete work,  in  which  he  hopes  for  the  concurrent  aid  of  philologists  in 
all  parts  of  that  country.  He  suggested  the  important  assistance  which 
might  be  derived  from  a  similar  work  on  the  various  provincial  dialects  of 
our  own  country.  The  Philological  Society  had  formerly  encouraged  the 
hope  that  so  desirable  an  undertaking  might  be  carried  out  under  their 
auspices. 

anttqutttrsi  antr  ©HarfeS  at  Irt  evbtbttra-. 

By  Mr.  Brackstone. — An  arrow  or  javelin  head  of  flint,  with  barbs.  An 
oblong  implement  of  flint,  highly  polished,  precisely  similar  to  that  exhibited 
at  a  previous  meeting  by  Mr.  Bernhard  Smith,  and  figured  in  this  Journal, 
vol.  xi.,  p.  414.  The  dimensions  are  almost  identical,  and  one  face  is  in 
both  instances  rather  less  convex  than  the  other.  They  may  have  served 
for  flaying  animals.  The  specimen  in  Mr.  Brackstone's  collection,  as 
also  the  arrow-head,  was  found  in  July,  1848,  on  the  farm  of  Mr.  Pumphrey, 
at  Pick  Rudge,  in  the  parish  of  Overton,  Wilts,  in  grubbing  up  an  old  ash- 
tree  on  a  piece  of  waste  land. — An  iron  spear  or  javelin,  of  peculiar  form, 
described  as  found  in  Blenheim  Park,  July,  1854.  The  entire  length  is 
18  in.,  of  which  the  blade  forms  5\  in.,  the  remainder  being  a  round  stem 

VOL.  XII.  p    p 


28G  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OF 

or  shaft,  about  -Ac  in.  in  diameter,  terminating  in  a  sort  of  tang  for  insertion 
into  the  haft. 

By  the  Rev.  T.  Ilrco. —  A  bronze  statuette  of  young  Hercules,  with  the 
skin  of  the  Nemean  lion  thrown  over  his  arm.  Described  as  found  at  the 
junction  of  Cannon-street  with  St.  Paul's  Churchyard. 

By  Professor  Bi  i  iman. — Various  Roman  reliques,  found  during  excava- 
st  Cirencester,  comprising  implements  and  objects  of  bronze,  iron, 
and  hone,  amongst  which  is  a  singular  knife  of  iron,  with  the  handle  formed 
of  jet,  ami  a  bronze  clasp  knife,  in  form  of  an  hare  pursued  by  an  hound. 
Also,  a  numerous  collection  of  potters'  marks  on  "  Samian  "  ware,  found 
at  ( 'minium,  and  some  marks  on  Roman  tiles.  The  former  comprised  the 
following  :—  \vi;\  iim.  —  aksimm — noRILLI  OFF — OINIY— CVOA  .  .  IM  (query  ? 
Cucali  maun)  CINIIv.;r.Ni  —  GEMINI  P — MACS  ..  . — ItAROIl — mvxtvlm — 
NICEPIIOR  P — OF  MVKKA — OP  NAllsi — PATRIC1  —  PECVLIAR.  V — PRISCVS — 
.l'vuti  m. — qvinti — sA.MociNi — TITVRONIS  of — viNPV.s  (or  Ptmpu* ?)  and 
several  imperfect  marks.  On  a  fragment,  apparently  of  a  flue-tile,  are 
the  letters — tppa,  and  on  a  flanged  tile — arveri. 

By  Mr.  OcTATlUS  Mokcan,  M..P. — A  oiatorium,  or  portable  sun-dial,  of 
the  close  of  the  sixteenth  or  earlier  part  of  the  seventeenth  century.  It  is 
remarkable  as  comprising  a  sun-dial,  night-dial,  compass,  perpetual 
calendar,  a  microscope  or  telescope,  and  a  diminutive  weathercock,  serving 
to  indicate  what  the  weather  should  be  when  the  wind  is  in  a  certain  quarter. 
Several  quarries  of  lead  cast  in  moulds,  and  funned  with  ornamental  pierced 
work  ;  they  served  for  ventilation,  being  introduced  in  place  of  quarries  of 
a  a  casement.     They  were  obtained  at  Ely. 

By  llr.W.  .1.  Beenhard  Smith. — A  dagger  with  a  flamboyant  blade. 
Date  about  the  time  of  .lames  I. 

Mr.  EDWARD  FREEMAN  communicated,  through  the  kind  permission  of 
John  Vizard,  Esq.,  of  Dursley,  a  collection  of  documents  belonging  to  that 
gentleman.  We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  W.  S.  Walford  for  the  following 
abstracts : — 

1.  Grant  by  William  de  Ferariis,  Earl  of  Derby  (undated,  circa  1200). 

William  de  Ferariis,  Marl  of  Derby,  cave,  -ranted,  and  continued  to  Henry 
Fitz-William  of  Spondon,  for  his  homage  and  service,  and  to  his  assigns 
and  their  heirs,  except  religious  houses,  his  mill  of  Spondon  upon  Derewent1 

with  the  mill  upon  the  tl\  of  Chadesdon  with  the  site-,  and  all  their 

appurtenances  and  liberties,  and  with  all  their  suit  of  grinding  their  corn,  and 
with  carriage  of  material  to  repair  the  mill  and  pool,  and  with  the  labor  of 

his  men  of   Spondon  and  Chadesden  for  making  and  repairing  the  mill  and 

pool  as  they  ought  to  do,  and  as  in  the  time  of  his  ancestors  they  were 

aceu  tomed  to  do  ;  To  hold  of  him  and  his  hen-,  in  fee  and  inheritance,  to 

lid  Benryand  his  assigns  and  their  heirs  freelv  and  quiethj  ;   Render 

i 1 1 i_r  for  the    ame  pearly  five  marcc  of  silver,  and  three  salmons,  and  three 

sticki  of  eels  during  Lent,  for  all  service  and  exaction,     Warranty  of  the 

premises,  and  the  fishing  in  the    aid  pool  and   mill,  again  I   all   pei 

And  that  he  and  Ills  heirs  would  find  timber  to  make  the  said  mill  and  pool, 

and  to  repair  the  iame,  in  his  wood  of  Spondon  or  la  bis  forest  of  Duffield. 

al  and  confirmation  the  -aid  Elenrv  bad  given  him  20  marcs 

..      •     •   .  Robert  de  Ferariis  the  Earls  brother,  Eerbert  de 

1  Spondon  and  (  h.i'lli  don  an  pari  '■         Derwent,  near  Derby,  east  of  thai  town. 
;.    i,i  Hi.-  river  I       •     '  for  clu  am,  i  <  ■  excluaaa 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  287 

Meklc,  William  do  Redewar  then  steward,  Jordan  de  Tok',  William  de 
Scant',  Henry  de  Ferariis,  and  William  de  Codintun,  Philip  de  Tok',  and 
many  others. 

Seal  of  white  wax  much  hroken,  pendent  by  a  braided  cord  of  white  and 
green  silk.  Obv.,  a  mounted  knight  :  counter-seal,  an  antique  intaglio  with 
the  legend—*  S.  WILLELMI  COMITIS  DERBE1E. 

2.  Grant  by  Henry  III.  of  the  custody  of  the  Castle  and  County  of  North- 
ampton and  other  counties  (16  Hen.  III.  1232). 

Henry,  by  the  Grace  of  God,  King  of  England,  <kc,  granted  and  con- 
firmed to  Stephen  de  Sedgrave  the  custody  of  the  castle  of  Northampton, 
and  of  the  counties  of  Northampton,  Bedford,  Bucks,  Warwick,  and 
Leicester  ;  To  hold  for  his  life  ;  and  that  he  should  have  all  tlie  profit  of 
those  counties  for  the  custody  of  the  said  castle  and  counties,  and  to  main- 
tain himself  in  his  service,  so  that  the  said  Stephen  should  out  of  the  said 
counties  render  to  the  King's  Exchequer  the  ancient  rents  and  increase 
which  were  accustomed  to  be  rendered  for  the  same  in  the  time  of  King 
Henry,  his  grandfather  ;  Retaining  in  the  King's  hands  15  pounds  yearly 
out  of  the  manor  of  Thorp,  extra  Northampton,  which  the  constables  of  the 
said  castle  were  accustomed  to  receive  out  of  the  same  manor  since  the  war 
between  King  John  and  his  Barons.  Witnesses,  Peter  Bishop  of  Winton, 
and  II.  Bishop  of  Ely,  H.  de  Burgh  Earl  of  Kent,  Justiciary  of  England 
and  Ireland,  R.  Earl  of  Poitou  and  Cornwall  the  King's  brother,  R.  Earl  of 
Chester  and  Lincoln,  R.  Marshal  Earl  of  Pembroke,  Radulph  Fitz  Nichol, 
Godfrey  de  Craucumbe,  Hugh  Dispenser,  Geoffrey  his  brother,  Radulph 
Mar',  William  de  Rughedone,  Henry  de  Capella,  and  others.  Given  by  the 
hand  of  the  Venerable  Father  R.  Bishop  of  Chichester,  the  Chancellor,  at 
Woodstock,  28th  day  of  July,  in  the  16th  year  of  the  reign  of  the  King. 

Great  seal  appended,  of  which  a  considerable  portion  remains. 

3.  Fragment  of  a  grant,  the  upper  portion  being  missing  (10  Edw.  II. 
1317). 

John  le  Yonge  granted  and  confirmed  to  Richard  [le  Yonge]  and  his 
heirs,  [the  same  house  and  lands  probably  as  in  the  next  deed  ; 3]  To  hold 
to  the  said  Richard  and  his  heirs  ;  Rendering  yearly  to  the  chief  lords  a 
red  rose  at  the  feast  of  the  nativity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  for  all  secular 
services,  exactions,  and  demands,  except  royal  service  and  attendance  at 
the  view  of  frankpledge  held  on  Hock-day  :  Warranty  cf  the  premises  by 
John  le  Yonge  to  the  said  Richard  against  all  people.  For  which  grant, 
confirmation,  and  warranty  the  said  Richard  had  given  a  certain  sum  of 
silver.  Witnesses,  William  de  Kenegrave,  Richard  de  Gardino,  Laurence 
Cambrey,  John  de  Boxstede,  Nicholas  Uppedoune,  William  le  Chep- 
man,  Robert  le  Fayre,  John  Drausper,  Henry  atte  Mulne,  Nicholas  son 
of  Philip  Rolues,  freemen  (liberis),  John  de  Lynham,  clerk,  and  many 
others. 

Dated  at  "  Okie  Sobbury  "  [Gloucestershire],  on  Monday  next  after  the 
feast  of  the  Apostles  Philip  and  James,  in  the  10th  year  of  the  reign  of 
King  Edward,  son  of  King  Edward. 

The  seal,  which  was  on  a  label,  is  missing. 

4.  Grant  and  release  (same  year). 

John  le  Yonge  of  Okie  Sobbury,  son  of  John  le  Yonge  of  the  same 
[place]    gave,  granted,  and  quitted  claim  to  Kicbard  le  Yonge,  son  of  John 

8  The  greater  part  are  the  same,  and  most  likely  all. 


2SS  PROCEEDINGS  AT  MEETINGS  OF 

le  Yonge  and  his  brother,  his  right  ami  claim  in  a  house  called  "La 
Nywehous,"  ami  a  pieoe  of  land  for  a  yard  (curtella)  within  the  manor  of 
OKle  Sobbury  :  He  also  gave,  granted,  and  quitted  claim  to  the  said  Richard, 
his  brother,  his  right  and  claim  to  5  aerea  of  land  within  the  said  manor  : 
And  he  also  gave,  granted,  and  quitted  claim  the  reversion  of  an  acre  of 
laud  called  "  Douneswelles  aker,"  and  also  of  an  acre  of  meadow  in  "  Ba- 
benhamea  mede,"  which  two  acres  Agatha  la  Yonge  held  tor  her  life  ; 
To  hold  the  same  to  the  said  Richard  le  Yonge,  his  heirs  and  assigns  ; 
Rendering  to  the  chief  lords  thereof  yearly  all  services  as  appeared  in 
charters  of  feoffment  between  John  le  Yonge  the  father,  and  the  said  Kiehard 
le  Yonge/  Witnesses,  William  le  Cheny,  Thomas  atte  Leygrove,  William 
de  Kenegrave,  Robert  le  Fayre,  Richard  de  Gardino,  John  de  Bozstede, 
ace  le  Cambrey,  William  le  Chepman,  John  Drausper,  Henry  atte 
Mulne,  Nicholas  son  of  Philip  Rolucs,  Nicholas  Uppedoune,  John  de 
Lynham,  clerk,  and  many  others.  Dated  at  Okie  Sobbury  on  Sunday  next 
after  the  feast  of  the  nativity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist,  in  the  10th  year  of 
the  reign  of  King  Edward,  son  of  King  Edward. 

The  seal,  which  was  on  a  label,  is  missing. 

5.  Lease  (5  Bdw.  III.  1331). 

Richard  le  Yonge,  of  Great  Sobbury,  granted  and  demised  to  Thomas 
ate  Hulle  and  Matildis  his  wife  three  acres  of  arable  land  in  the  fields  of 
Great  Sobbury;  To  hold  to  the  said  Thomas  ate  Hulle  and  Matildis  his 
wife  for  the  term  of  the  life  of  them  or  the  longer  liver  of  them,  of  the  chief 
Lords  of  the  fee,  by  the  services  therefore  due  and  of  right  accustomed  : 
Warranty  against  al!  persons.  Witnesses,  Jordan  Bisshop,  John  de  Berkele, 
Laurence  de  Cambrey,  Richard  de  Gardino,  John  le  Fayre,  Henry  ate 
Mulle,  Reginald  do  Stanford,  and  others.  Dated  at  Great  Sobbury  on 
Monday  next  after  the  feast  of  the  Translation  of  St.  Thomas  the  Martyr 
in  tin-  5th  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  third. 

The  seal,  which  was  on  a  label,  IS  missing. 

G.    Confirmation  (8  Edw.  III.  1334). 

Richard  le  Yonge  confirmed  to  Thomas  ate  Hulle  and  Matildis  his  wife 

.-  of  arable  land  in  the  fields  ofOldSobbury  ;  To  hold  of  him  and  his 
k  ir-  or  a--iLrn-,  to  the  said  Thomas  and  Matildis  so  long  as  they  or  cither 
of   them    should    live  ;    Rendering    therefore   yearly   a    red   rose    within    the 

octave  of  St.   John   the   Baptist   for  all  services:    Warranty  against   all 
persons.     Dated  at  Great  Sobbury  on   Friday  in  the  feast  oi  St.  John  the 
Baptist  in  the  8th  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Bdward  the  third.     Witni 
Laurence  Cambrei,  Richard  atte  Orchard,  John  le  Faire,  Roger  Cambrey, 
Robert  Large,  and  oth<  i 

'I  he  seal,  which  was  on  a  label,  is  missing. 

7.  Granl  (21  Rich.  1 1.  1397). 

phen  Anahle  granted  and  confirmed  t<»  William 
atte  Brugge  the  elder  all  her  lands  and  tenements  in  the  town  of  Chepyng 
Sobbury  which  she  bad  of  the  gift  and  feoffment  of  the  -aid  Stephen  ber 
father  ;  To  hold  to  the  said  William  his  heirs  and  assigns  for  ever,  of  the 

chief    |.(,l(|    Of  the    lee,    l,\    t  h  e  >- er  V  1  ees  1 1|  e  le  fn|'e  d  II  e  a  lid    Of  right    accustomed: 

nty  against  ail  persons.  Witnesses,  John  Godestone,  Kiehard  atte 
i  I     ■        \  iyre,   Thomai    Borewode,  Henry   Hunte,  and  others, 

'  In  the  pi  i     called       Indented  and    in    two  parts,   and   lh<  ■ 

1  John   !••  Yonge   then       an  the  charters  hen  reiern 

l'i obably    ili^i    .!•  ed     «  ■ 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  289 

Dated  at  Chepyng  Sobbury  on  Sunday  next  after  tbe  feast  of  St.  Micbael 
tbe  Archangel  in  the  21st  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Richard  the  second. 

Circular  seal  broken,  f  inch  diameter,  on  dark  wax,  suspended  by  a  label. 
The  device  appears  to  have  been  an  escutcheon,  charged  with  a  harry 
coat  (?) 

Legend,    .. . .  Dff  CHAAINSS    G.... 

8.  Lease  (dated  Dec.  21,  4th  Henry  V.,  1416). 

Between  Nicholas  Peres,  of  Old  Sobbury,  of  the  one  part,  and  Richard 
Adames  and  Edith  his  wife  of  the  other  part,  witnesseth,  that  the  said 
Nicholas  had  delivered,  granted,  and  confirmed  to  the  said  Richard  and 
Edith  all  his  lands  and  tenements,  except  one  chamber  at  his  own  pleasure 
to  be  selected,  with  free  ingress  and  regress  to  (and  from)  the  same  ;  To 
hold  the  same  (except  what  is  before  excepted  for  the  life  of  the  said 
Nicholas),  from  the  feast  of  St.  Michael  next  after  the  date,  for  the  term 
of  the  life  of  them  [Richard  and  Edith]  and  the  longer  liver  of  them  ; 
rendering  therefore  yearly  to  the  said  Nicholas  for  his  life  33s.  and  4c?. 
as  there  specified,  and  acquitting  the  said  Nicholas  "penes  dominum  Regem 
capitalcm  dominum  et  quosque  alios,"  °  of  all  services  for  the  3ame  lands  and 
tenements  due,  and  of  right  accustomed.  Restriction  on  committing  waste 
by  felling  timber.  Power  for  the  said  Nicholas  to  distrain  in  case  the  said 
rent  should  be  arrear  for  a  month,  and  if  no  sufficient  distress  to  re-enter. 
The  said  Richard  and  Edith  to  find  fuel  (focale),  and  ten  ewe  sheep  (oves 
matrices)  annually  for  the  said  Nicholas.  Power  for  the  said  Nicholas  to 
take  the  timber.  Warranty  by  him.  Witnesses,  Thomas  Nelat,  clerk,  John 
Peres,  Walter  Notte,  and  others.  Dated  at  Sobbury  on  Monday  in  the  feast 
of  St.  Thomas  the  Apostle,  in  the  4th  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Henry  V. 

The  seal,  which  was  on  a  label,  is  missing. 

9.  Grant  (15  Henry  VI.,  1436.) 

Thomas  Brugge,  the  younger,  of  Gloucester,  and  Margery  his  wife, 
gave,  granted,  aud  confirmed  to  John  Hayward,  of  Gloucester,  "  Gent," 
and  John  Ilareston,  clerk,  all  their  lands,  and  tenements,  rents,  services, 
and  reversions  in  the  town  and  borough  of  Chepingsobbury  in  the  lordship 
(dominio)  of  Oldesobbury  :  To  hold  to  the  said  John  and  John  Hareston 
their  heirs  and  assigns,  of  the  chief  lords  of  the  fees,  by  the  services 
therefore  due  and  of  right  accustomed  :  Warranty  against  all  persons. 
Witnesses,  Thomas  Godcstone,  Robert  Welle,  Richard  Juelle,  Walter  Lye, 
Thomas  Vicaries,  and  many  others.  Dated  at  Chepingsobbury  the  7th 
day  of  October,  in  the  15th  year  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  VI. 

There  were  two  seals  on  labels  :  the  second  is  missing  ;  the  other  is 
on  red  wax,  circular,  $  inch  diameter  ;  device,  a  stag's  head  caboshed 
with  a  sprig  on  each  side. 

10.  Lease  (8  Edward  IV.,  1468). 

After  reciting  that  John  Brugge,  late  of  Old  Sobbury,  by  his  Will, 
dated  13th  January,  1466,  gave  to  John  Tylly  and  Joan,  his  wife,  the 
daughter  of  said  John  Brugge,  three  burgages,6  with  the  appurtenances 
in  "  Sobbury  mercata,"  which  Thomas  Goughthen  held,  to  hold  to  the  said 
John  and  Joan  their  heirs  and  assigns,  the  said  John  Tylly  aud  Joan  his 

5  "  In  regard  to  the  lord  tlie  king,  the  "  Tani  erga  Dominum  Regem  quam  erga 

chief  lord,  and  every  one  else;"  for  so  I  capitales  doniinos." 

read  ptnes,  though  this  sense  of  it  is  new  6  Burgage  is  a  tenement  iu  a  borough, 
to  me.     Comp.  Mad.  Form.  Aug.,  p.  145. 


290  PBQCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OF 

wife,  delivered,  demised,  and  granted  to  Agnes,  late  wife  of  the  said  John 
Brugge,  and  mother  of  the  Baid  Joan,  and  to  William  Bolatre,  the  said 
t]  ree  bnrgi  g<  -  with  the  appurtenances  ;  to  bold  to  the  said  Agnes  and 
William  for  the  life  of  the  Baid  Agnes  without  impeachment  of  waste  ; 
rendering  for  the  same  yearly  one  red  rose  at  the  feast  of  the  nativity  of 
St.  John  the  Baptist,  if  demanded  :  of  the  chief  lord  and  by  all  other 
Bervices  due,  and  of  right  accustomed.  Warranty  against  all  persons. 
Witnesses,  William  Bolatre  then  chief  bailiff  of  the  borough  of  Sobbury, 
John  Longeford  Bub-hailiff,  'William  Burnelle,  Robert  Koonie,  Thomas 
Paynter,  and  others.  Dated  at  Sobbury  the  LOth  day  of  August  in  the 
>th  year  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  IV. 

on  a  label:  device  obliterated  ;  never  more  than  one. 

11.  Grant  by  John,  duke  of  Norfolk  (5  July,  22  Hen.  VI.,  1144). 

John,  duke  of  Norfolk,  earl  marshal,  and  of  Nottingham,  marshal  of 
England,  lord  of  Mowbray,  Segrave,  and  Grower,  gave,  granted,  and  con- 
firmed to  John,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Alianor  his  (the  duke's i  wife, 
and  Humphry,  earl  of  Stafford,  his  manor  and  lordship  of  Calaghedon  with 
the  appurtenances  in  the  county  of  Warwick  ;"  to  hold  to  them  from  the 
ita-t  of  the  nativity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  then  last  for  the  life  of  the 
said  Alianor  :  Warranty  against  all  persons.  Jn  testimony  whereof,  he  had 
caused  those  letters  to  he  made  patent.  Given  under  his  seal  in  his  castle 
of  Framlingham,  on  the  5th  day  of  July,  in  the  22nd  year  of  the  reign 
of  king  II'  oi  v  V  1. 

Attached    by   a    label   is  a   circular   seal.     .°>  J    inches    in     diameter,    on 

red  wax   much   broken  ;  which  bore  a   shield  of  the  arms  of  Brotherton, 

aed  with  a  helmet,  on  which   was  a   chapeau  and   the   Plantagenet 

crest,  between  two  ostrich  feathers,*  and  Hanking  the  shield  on  the  dexter 

n   escutcheon  chequy  for  Warrenne :  on  the  sinister  had  probably 

been  another  escutcheon  with  a  lion  rampant  for  Mowbray.     A  few  letters 

of  the  legend,  in  old  English  minuscules,  may  be  deciphered.     This  seal 

is  \erv  Bimilar  to  that  engraved  in  Watson's  History  of  the  Earls  Warren, 

vol.  I.,  pi.  iv.,  but    it   is  not    identical.      That   seal    has    a    leather  on    the 

■  Bide  only,  placed  behind  an  escutcheon  chequy.    On  the  sinister  side 

i-   an  escutcheon   with   a  lion  rampant.      Legend-    bigil:    k>h  :    iiowb  : 

dvcis  :  norf  :  ■  o  :  nottino  :  dni  :  db  :  uowbr:  begb  :  goweb  : 

By  the   Rev.   Dr.   Oliver.-  A  document  bearing  the  Beal  of  Edward 

•■nay,  third  Marl  of  Devon,  who  succeeded  his  grandfather  Hugh  in 

i:;77,   and   died  in   111!*.      An   imperfect   impression  in  red  wax,  of  a 

remarkably  fine   seal.     It   beare  the  arms  of  Courtenay,  the  escutcheon 

Hi  and  surmounted  by  an   belm  and  crest,  the  bush  of  ostrich 

feathi  from  a  c net.     (in  either  side  of  the  helm  is  a    wan 

with    expanded   wings;    a    small  portion    only   of    the   legend   remains. 

Diam.  2  inches.  A I  o  the  seal  of  Sir  Matthew  Gornay,  in  imperfect  condition, 

mple  remark abh    bold  in  design;  it   I".  i   cutcheon  placed 

aslant   (paly  of  Bix)  surmounted    by  a  helm  and  crest,  a  blackamoor's 

aed.     The   legend   broken  away.     The  back-ground  is  filled  up 

"  Th(  r<  wa    an  embattled  mansion,  the  do  battle  at  Got  Ford  Green  with  the  Duke 

i;,mii\ .   ,-it  of  Hen  ford 
i                      Covenb        PI                  be  I  Sandford, 

the   building  I I     iii    o    ■  ii.,  undi  i   i  boi ,   M< 

ii   n,    thence    fhomaa   Mowbray  Duke  ol  Norfolk, 
t  ten  da                 .    t<> 


THE  ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  291 

with  foliage,  as  if  representing  a  wood.  A  representation  of  this  remark- 
able seal  may  be  found  accompanying  the  pedigree  of  the  Gornays  of 
Somerset,  in  the  "  Record  of  the  House  of  Gournav."  by  Mr.  Daniel 
Gurney,  p.  591.  The  seals  above  described  are  appended  to  a  document 
preserved  amongst  Sir  Walter  Carew's  evidences  at  Tiverton  Castle,  and 
dated  July  31,17  Rich.  II.,  1393.  Also  an  oval  seal  set  with  apparently 
an  antique  intaglio,  the  head  of  Mercury,  seen  full  face  and  of  striking 
design.  It  is  appended  to  a  release  by  Baldewin  de  Wayford  to  Reginald 
de  Moyun,  amongst  the  Carew  evidences,  and  dated  at  Compton  Basset, 
Jan.,  29  Hen.  III.,  1245. 

By  Mr.  Alexander  Nesbitt. — A  collection  of  casts  in  "fictile  ivory," 
made  from  carvings  in  ivory  of  various  dates,  preserved  in  the  Cabinet  des 
Antiques  in  the  Bibliotheque  Imperiale,  the  museums  of  the  Hotel  de 
Cluny,  of  Nismes,  and  of  Amiens,  and  the  collections  of  Prince  Soltikotf, 
M.  Carrand,  and  M.  Sauvageot,  of  Paris.  The  most  remarkable  of  these 
were  : — From  the  collection  of  Prince  Soltikoff,  a  diptych  of  Orestes,  consul 
of  the  East,  a.d.  520,  very  closely  resembling  that  of  Clementiuus,  in  the 
Fejervary  collection. 

From  the^Bibliotheque,  a  diptych  of  Probus,  Consul,  a.d.  518.  Coarse 
work,  and  in  bone,  but  much  like  the  above.  Also  a  triptych  of  the  best  period 
of  Byzantine  art  (12th  century  ?).  In  the  centre,  the  Crucifixion  with 
figures  of  St.  Mary  and  St.  John,  and  small  figures  of  St.  Helena  and 
Constantine,  and  on  the  wings,  half-length  figures  of  saints. 

From  the  Hotel  de  Cluny,  four  tablets,  each  containing  two  subjects  : 
among  which  are  the  Conversion  of  St.  Paul,  and  the  Martyrdoms  of  St. 
Lawrence  and  St.  Denis.  One  side  of  a  mirror-case  with  figures  of  lovers 
in  pairs,  some  worshipping  Cupid,  who  sits  crowned  and  holding  arrows  in 
his  hands  ;  another,  of  a  less  size,  with  nearly  the  same  subjects  somewhat 
differently  treated.  These  mirror-cases  belong  to  the  earlier,  the  tablets 
apparently  to  the  latter,  part  of  the  14th  century. 

From  the  collection  of  M.  Sauvageot,  one  side  of  a  very  beautiful  mirror- 
case,  representing  a  gentleman  and  lady  playing  at  chess,  and  two  other 
persons  looking  on  ;  it  very  closely  resembles  the  mirror-case  belonging  to 
the  Hon.  Robert  Curzon,  engraved  in  this  Journal,  vol.  viii.  Date,  about 
1320. 

From  the  collection  of  M.  Carrand,  a  diptych,  probably  of  the  earlier  part 
of  the  5th  century  :  on  the  one  leaf,  Adam  naming  the  beasts  ;  on  the  other, 
subjects  from  the  life  of  St.  Paul.  The  "  Flabellum  de  Touruus,"  of  the  9th 
century,  but  parts  of  which  have  been  supposed  to  have  formed  portions  of 
book-covers  of  a  much  earlier  date.  A  number  of  small  figures  in  about  half 
relief,  of  centaurs,  tumblers,  players  on  musical  instruments,  chiefly  of 
a  classical  grotesque  character,  which  form  parts  of  a  large  box  ;  also  a 
singular  group  of  figures,  some  of  them  mounted,  possibly  a  chess  piece  (12th 
century?).  Three  draught  pieces  in  walrus  ivory,  one,  a  figure  with 
long  hair,  bound  and  lying  on  the  ground,  and  three  figures  armed  with 
swords  and  kite-shaped  shields  standing  over  him  ;  on  another,  a  hunter 
mounted  on  a  hare  and  blowing  a  horn  ;  and  on  the  third,  Dalilah  cutting 
off  Samson's  hair  ;  all  three  seem  to  belong  to  the  11th  or  12th  centuries. 
The  hilt  of  a  dagger  with  figures  of  mounted  warriors,  probably  German 
work  of  the  14th  century  ;  the  two  sides  of  a  mirror-case,  each  with  a 
combat  of  knights  on  horseback,  the  one  with  swords,  and  the  other  with 
lances  ;  one  side  of  a  mirror-case  with   a   very  curious  representation  of 


292  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OF 

knightfl  arming  for  a  tournament  ;  also  one  side  of  a  large  mirror-case  repre- 
senting the  attack  ami  defence  of  the  Castle  of  Love  :  at  the  top  is  Love 
himself,  crowned  and  with  wings,  and  ahout  to  discharge  an  arrow  ;  below 
him,  ladies  pelting  the  besiegers  with  roses,  while  at  the  bottom  are  knights 
encountering  each  other  with  Bwords,  Arc.  All  these  mirror-cases  are  of 
the  1  4th  century  :  that  with  the  preparation  for  the  tournament  is  the  latest 
in  date,  ami  evidently  of  German  work. 

i  the  Museum  at  Nismes,  a  group  of  two  persons  in  half  relief  on  a 
larger  BCale,  and  of  coarser  execution  than  usually  occurs  in  ivory  ;  it 
appears  to  have  formed  a  part  of  a  reredos  orretable.     Date,  15th  century. 

Prom  the  Museum  at  Araiens,a  tablet  representing  three  subjects  from  the 
life  of  St.  Eiemij  one  of  them  being  the  baptism  of  Clevis.  Probably  of  the 
Lull  century. 

By  Mr.  A.  W.  Franks. — An  astrolabe  of  brass  made  by  Ilumfrey  Cole 
in  l."»74.  In  the  matrix  is  engraved  "  a.d.  (blank)  Ilcnr.  Trine.  Magn. 
] '.lit tan."  There  are  projections  of  the  sphere  for  four  latitudes,  all  in 
ind.  They  are,  51,  30—52,  30  (Ludlow)  53,  40—55,  00  (Newcastle, 
or  Carlisle),  and  one  plate  unengraved.  The  Alidad  is  ingeniously  jointed 
bo  as  to  do  away  with  the  usual  pin.  The  case  is  of  green  velvet  ornamented 
with  silver  plates  with  inscriptions  ;  on  the  centre  of  the  cover  is  an  oval 
plate  with  the  prince's  feathers  in  a  coronet  formed  with  crosses  and  fleur- 
de-lya  alternately,  and  the  letters  II.  P.  From  this  it  appears  to  have 
belonged  to  Henry,  Prince  of  Wales,  son  of  James  I.  On  the  plates  of  the 
are  i  ngraved  the  words,  "Inter  Omnes  ;  "  and  on  bosses  on  the  top  of 
tse,  "  Scientia  Virtus  qve  Autoritas — faelicitaa  Illius  crescat  in  eter- 
nuin."  This  interesting  relique  has  been  recently  added  to  the  valuable 
collection  of  astrolabes  preserved  in  the  British  Museum.  A  set  of  Apostle 
spoons  of  English  workmanship,  made  in  the  year  151 'J.  They  were  in  the 
Bernal  collection,  and  are  now  the  property  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Staniforth, 
of  Storrs  Hall,  Windermere. 

Mr.  Pranks  brought  also  a  document  from  the  collections  in  possession  of 
Mr.  W.  Maskell,  being  a  certificate  by  a  captive  knight,  Humfrey  Nanfaunt, 
that  money  bad  been  paid  towards  his  redemption,  and  for  the  purchase  of 
the  benefits  of  a  Papal  Indulgence.     It  is  as  follows  :  — 

Humfridue  NanfaunI  miles,  captivus  inter  Turcos  inimicoa  Jhesu  Christ!, 
et  inter  eosdem  pro  fide  ejusdem  Christi  ad  financiam  immensam  positus, 
dilectis  in  Christo  Johanni  Batcock  e1  A-licie  uzoriejus,  ao  Elene  Batcock, 
Salutem.  Sanctissimue  in  Christo  pater  et  dominus  noster,  dominus  Sixtus 
J'. [pa  modernus,  per  mas  litteras  apostolicae  quedam  Bpecialia  pro  relevaoione 
I,,. ,,  meorumque  obsidum  diria  rinculia  incarceratorum  ereptione  gloriose 
indulsit,  continenoie  Bequentia.  Omnibus  illis,  Bibi  ul  prefertur  caritatia 
intuitu  mbvenientibue  cum  aliqua  quantitate  bonorum  Buorum  quorum- 
cunque,  vere  penitentibua  el  confe  i  .  omnium  peccatorum  Buorum  plenariam 
remiasionem  auctoritate  Bedia  apostolice  et   presentium  litterarum   tenore 

< !(  dimus,  roto  [<  ro  olomita it  debitU  dejure  bi  cundum  eorum  posse  per 

i  lis  duntazat  excepti  .     Eciam  volumua  et  constituimus  quod  predict! 

,  quociens  opus  fuerit,  licencia  suorum  curatorum  nbtenta  et  benigne 

^doneo  confi    on    seculares  vel  reg  ulares,  qui,  audi!  ia 

,  Pi;,:i  ,  eo    ■'"  omnibu     eorum   peccatorum,  exceptia    pre- 

ere  valeanti     Ego  que  Humfridua  NanfaunI  miles, 

•  (Tectum,  fateor  me  voi  tram  rocipiai  e  olimo- 


THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE. 


293 


Miimn,  et   hue  vestro  confessorc  per  vos  auctoritato  apostolica   electo  per 
presens  scriptum  certifico.  Data  anno  domini  millesima  cccc"10-  lxxmo*  octavo. 

A  seal  on  paper  over  red  wax,  the  paper  passing  round  to,  and  covering 
also  the  hack  of,  the  wax,  where  it  remains  almost  square  in  form,  is 
attached  to  a  slip  cut  half-way  along  the  hottom  of  the  parchment.  It 
bears  an  escutcheon,  on  which  is  a  chevron  ensigncd  with  a  cross  (?)  between 
three  human  heads  (?  heads  of  children,  enfans)  looking  sinister  in  hoods  of 
mail,  or  helmets.1     Of  the  legend  the  name  nanfan  only  remains. 


By  Mr.  Aluert  Way. — Impressions  from  a  "palimpsest  "  brass  escut- 
cdieon,  found,  in  a  very  decayed  condition,  amongst  rubbish  in  the  church- 
yard at  Eetcliworth,  Surrey.  It  may  have  been  part  of  a  sepulchral 
memorial  in  that  church,  but  no  slab  can  at  present  be  found  to  which  it 
may  have  been  attached.  The  two  faces  of  this  plate  are  here  represented. 
The  more  ancient,  possibly  engraved  about  the  commencement  of  the  XVth 
century,  presents  a  "merchant's  mark,"  composed  of  the  letter  H.,  termi- 
nating at  top  in  two  streamers,  which  cross  so  as  to  resemble  a  W.  (Com- 
pare marks  in  Norfolk  Archaeology,  vol.  iii.  pi.  vii.  fig.  26,  pi.  ix,  fig.  21, 
pi.  x.  figs.  2,  28.)  The  up-stroke  is  traversed  by  a  bar  terminating  in  a 
cross  at  one  end,  and  at  the  other  in  a  symbol  of  frequent  occurrence  in 
these  marks,  which  bears  resemblance  to  the  Arabic  numeral  2.  Mr. 
Ewing  has  given  several  examples  in  his  collection  of  Norwich  Merchants' 
Marks,  in  the  Transactions  of  the  Norfolk  Archaeological  Society,  already 


cited.  In  default  of  precise  information  regarding  the  origin  and  import  of 
these  devices,  the  suggestion  may  not  be  undeserving  of  notice  that 
numerals  appear  occasionally  to  be  combined  with  the  initials  and  capricious 
symbols  of  which  they  are  composed.     In  many  marks  there  occurs  a 


1  Nanfun,  of  Trethewell,  Cornwall,  ex- 
tinct in  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.,  bore, 
So.  a  chevron,  cr/n.  between   three  wings, 

VOL.  XII. 


arg.      Another  bearing  was,  a  chevron 
between  three  gem-riuu's. 


'!'! 


:.V  1  PROCEEDINGS    AT    MEETINGS   OF 

symbol  closely  resembling  tbe  numeral  -1.  The  cross-bar  of  a  mark  on  a 
irold  ring  communicated   to  tbe   Institute  by  .Mr.  Sully,  of  Nottino-bam, 

!ul  a  2,  and  at  tbe  otber  tbe  Arabic  siphos  or 
^_^-.  0  traversed  by  tbe  customary  line  across,  in  imitation,  pro- 
bably, of  the  Greek  Theta,  for  which  tbe  character  seems 
to  have  been  intended.3  Otber  examples  occur  amongst  tbe 
nnmerons  Merchants'  .Marks  obtained  by  Mr.  Ready  from 
seals  in  tbe  Collegiate  Treasuries  at  Cambridge.9  A  remark- 
able similarity  appears  between  tbe  capricious  charges  in 
Polish  heraldry  and  tbe  singular  symbols  known  as  Merchants'  Marks. 
Ifenestrier  baa  figured  many  such  Polish  coats  in  his  Art  du  Blason, 
(Pratique  des  Armoiries,  p.  335.)  The  obverse  of  the  escutcheon  found 
al  Betchworth  presents  the  bearing  of  the  Fitz-Adrians,  who  held  the 
manor  of  Brockbam  in  the  parish  of  Betchworth,  under  the  Warrens.  In 
the  visitation  of  Surrey  by  Clarencieulx,  t.  Henry  VIII.  (Harl.  MS.  1561, 
p.  3),  the  arms  of  Adryan,  Lord  of  Brockbam,  are  given  thus — Arg.  two 
nebuly  sa.,  a  chief  chequy  or  and  ar.  The  chief  was  doubtless  derived 
from  tbe  Warrens,  whose  feudal  tenants,  the  Fitz-Adrians,  or  Adryans, 
appear  to  have  been.  The  fashion  of  the  escutcheon  here  represented, 
however,  is  of  much  later  date  than  tbe  time  when  tbe  male  line  of  the 
Adrians  failed,  according  to  tbe  statement  in  Manning  and  Bray's  History 
of  Surrey,  vol.  ii.  pp.  209,  211,  namely,  between  L356  and  1378,  when 
Thomas  Frowick,  who  married  the  heiresBj  succeeded  them.  The  south 
Bide  of  the  chancel  at  Betchworth  bus  belonged  from  time  immemorial  to 
the  manor  of  Brockbam,  and  tbe  plate  may  have  been  one  of  several  coats 
affixed  to  Borne  memorial  of  tbe  Frowicks,  there  interred. 

By  Mr.  W.W.  K.  Wv.n.m:.  M.P Several  valuable  MSS.,  formerly   in 

the  possession  of  Sir  Kenelm  Digby.  They  consist  of  a  finely  illuminated 
volume,  bound  in  red  velvet,  with  brass  bosses  :  on  the  cover  is  this  title. 
enclosed  under  a  piece  of  born  : — "  Catons  versis  in  Inglische  and  the 
stories  of  Alexander  and  of  ye  iij.kinges  of  Colon  in  latinge  writyn  on 
perchmint  and  illumnede."  The  "  Liber  Catonis"  has  five  vignette  illumi- 
nations: the  "  Historia  Alexandri"  has  a  page  illumination  of  two  com- 
partments, and  twenty-four  vignettes.  On  a  fly-leaf  at  the  beginning 
of  tbe  book  is  written, — 

happy  till  ye  End  : 
Procede  therefore  aa  you  b<    in. 

■  ;       I  look  of  thy  tnu  Erende, 
So  to  thy  father  I  have  bin.    JhOn  Cutts. 

On  the  first  page  is  writtten, — "Chi  Semma  virtu  Reacoglie  lama  q  d 
Thomas  <  raudy." 

A  Folio  MS.,  XVth  century,  on  vellum,  bound  in  red  velvet.  It  contains 
the  History  of  the  Passion  of  our  Lord,  translated  from  Latin  into  French 
or,  Docti  in  Theol.  It  hai  thirty-four  full  pages  of  illumina- 
tions. On  tli"  title  appears  a  king  receiving  a  book,  The  arms  of  ESngland 
occur  in  the  border,  and  in  otber  borders  or  initial  letters  are  introduced  the 
red  dragon  ;  the  white  rose  en  toleil ;  red  and  white  rose  en  soleil ;  demi- 
i  uing  below  it  ;  red  ro  >-.  and  the  portcullis.  Also,  the 
follow  of  arms:     Beauforl  ;—.!..  a  double-headed  eagle  displayed 

m      w .  fht's  Memoirs  on   the  [mprc    on    maj  be  procured  from 

Jonrnal      Kir.  El.  ileady,2j  St  Botolph'sLane)  Cam- 
Arch.  Am.,  vol.  IL,  pp,  0 1,  i  brid 


THE   ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INSTITUTE.  295 

or,  over  all  a  bcndlet  sa; — Az.  on  a  fessc  gu,  between  three  foxes  or  wolves 
org.  as  many  roses  a/eg.  seeded  or.  And  the  mottoes — "  cntre  tenir  dieu 
lc  vcuille  ;"  "  entre  tenir,  cntre  tenir."  Branches  of  red  rose  often  occur 
in  the  borders.  On  a  fly-leaf  at  the  beginning  is  written, — "  Jamys 
beamonntt."     The  following  occur  also  on  the  fly-leaves  : 

"  Thys  ya  master  Jhon  farmer  buke  and  all  hys  frendes." 

"  Tins  is  Syr  John  ffermers  boke  of  Esteneston,  of  the  Gyfte  of  Thomas 
lord  Waux." 

At  the  end  of  the  book — "  goode  madame  when  yt  you  thys  do  fynde 
Forgett  not  me  tho  I  come  behynde. — Your  louying  nephew  Thomas 
harowdon." 

"  Yor  humble  sonc  Henry  Guldeford." 

"  Yor  humble  cousin  Will'ym  Penizon."  (?) 

"  My  lord  I  pray  you  of  cherete  remember  me  youer  pouer  wyff — 
Elizabeth " 

"  George  throckmorton." 

"  Mychaell  poiltene."' 

"  By  my  Anne  ffermor. — by  rac  Katherync  fermor. — by  me  Mary  ffarmar. 
— Katherync  fermor." 

"  James  Stewarde  the  iij.  sonne  of  Duke  Mordor  rebellyng  against  Kynge 
James  in  Scotland  was  chased  into  Ireland." 

Also,  a  monogram  composed  of  the  letters  wavs. — "  Lord  Vaiis — En  so 
me  conficr — Vaus." 

Thomas,  second  baron  Vaux  of  Harrowden,  succeeded  in  1523,  and  this 
beautiful  volume  appears  to  have  been  presented  by  him  to  Sir  John  Fermor, 
of  Eston,  Northamptonshire,  who  married  Maud,  one  of  his  sisters. 

Mr.  Wynne  produced  also  Sir  Kenelm  Digby's  Journal,  during  the  period 
when  he  was  admiral  of  the  fleet  in  the  Mediterranean  in  1629  ;  and  a 
MS.  account  of  the  descents  of  the  Digbys,  the  Percys  and  the  Stanleys. 
This  had  sometimes  been  regarded  as  written  by  Ben  Jonson.  These 
valuable  MSS.  appear  to  have  passed  into  Mr.  Wynne's  possession  through 
the  marriage  of  his  great  grandfather,  Richard  Williams,  brother  of  Sir 
W.  Williams  Wynn,  the  third  Bart.,  with  the  daughter  and  heiress  of 
Richard  Mostyn,  of  Penbedw,  Denbighshire,  who  married  the  grand-daughter 
and  coheiress  of  Sir  Kenelm  Digby. 

By  Mr.  Rolls. — A  fine  illuminated  Service  Book,  an  example  of  French 
art,  XlVth  century.  It  has  the  original  stamped  leather  binding  in  perfect 
preservation,  with  an  enamelled  escutcheon  on  the  clasp,  doubtless  the  arms 
of  the  original  possessor  (three  pair  of  shears  and  a  label).  The  name  of 
the  binder  is  impressed  upon  the  cover — "  liumus  (?)  stundcrt  me  ligavit.'" 
This  remarkable  volume  had  been  purchased  some  years  since  at  Brussels. 
Mr.  Rolls  exhibited  also  several  Italian  medals,  and  a  large  medal  of 
Louis  XII.,  king  of  France,  and  his  queen,  Anne  of  Britanny. 

By  Mr.  Johnson'. — Two  rapiers,  of  beautiful  workmanship,  also  a  dagger 
with  a  shell-shaped  guard,  found  at  Taormina  in  Sicily,  in  the  Theatre. 
A  spanner  for  a  wheel-lock  gun,  and  a  steel  mount  or  frame-work  for  a 
pouch  ;  both  are  elaborately  chased,  and  choice  examples  of  metal  work. 
XVIth  century.  A  morion  of  the  same  period,  from  Venice.  A  steel  etui 
and  a  sheath  for  scissors,  delicately  engraved,  similar  in  fashion  to  that 
figured  in  this  Journal,  vol  ii.,  p.  392,  and  of  the  same  date. 

4  Pulteney,  Margaret,  sister  of  Thomas  Lord  Vaux.  named  Francis  Pulteney. 


396       PROCEEDINGS   OF   THE    ARCHAEOLOGICAL   INSTITUTE. 

By  Mr.  Octatius  Morgan,  M.P. — >A  portrait  of  Seifried  Pfinzing  yon 
Eenfenfeld,  delicately  modelled  in  wax.  Date,  1596.  The  Pfinzing  family 
were  citizens  of  Nuremberg. — A  steel  candlestick  lor  burning  rufih-candles, 
from  the  Bernal  Collection. — A  sea  nymph  holding  a  shell,  an  example  of 
the  bright  blue-glazed  ware,  supposed  to  have  been  manufactured  at  Nevers. 
— A  singular  object  of  Italian  earthenware,  possibly  intended  to  serve  as 
an  inkstand.     It  bean  an  escutcheon  of  the  arms  of  Lorraine  and  Medici. 

By  .Mr.  HAWKINS. — A  steel  key,  of  elaborate  work,  which  appears,  by 
the  arms  introduced  amongst  the  chased  ornaments,  to  have  belonged  to 
Charles  Honore  d'Albret,  Due  do  Luynes.     lie  succeeded  in  1688. 

nil  photographs  were  presented  to  the  Institute  by  Captain  Oakes, 
representing  subjects  of  Archaeological  interest  ; — two  views  of  the  recent 
di-euvcries  at  Chertsey  Abbey,  the  interments  in  stone  coffins,  pavement 
tiles,  and  other  remains  there  brought  to  light  ; — views  of  Ely  Cathedral, 
Whitby  Abbey,  the  Priory  gate  at  Kenilworth,  and  of  Kenilworth  Castle. 

Medieval  Seals  and  Impressions  from  Seals. — By  the  Rev.  J.  ClUTTER- 
Bl "■  k. — -Impression  from  a  small  round  seal  lately  found  near  Long  \\  itten- 
ham,  Berks.  The  device  is  that  found  on  love-seals  of  the  same  age  (XlVth 
century),  namely  two  heads  respectant,  a  branch  between  them.  The 
legend  usually  reads  *  love  me  and  I  thee.  In  this  instance  the  device 
is  precisely  the  same  as  on  one  of  these  amatory  seals,  found  at  Lewes, 
of  which  an  impression  was  received  from  Mr.  Figg.  It  here,  however, 
represents  the  Annunciation,  the  legend  being  aye  maria.  A  matrix 
similar  in  all  respects  is  in  the  Collection  of  the  lion.  R.  Neville. 

By  Mr.  POLLARD.  —  A  small  silver  seal  found  in  18US  in  the  grounds  of 
the  Observatory  at  Oxford.  The  device  is  a  Bquirrel,5  with  the  inscription, 
i  crake  xoti.s.  Date,  XlVth  century.  A  matrix  bearing  this  device 
and  inscription,  found  at  Komsey,  is  figured  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  95,  ii.  p.  498. 
An  impression  from  a  similar  seal  is  represented  in  Oartwright'B  Hundred 
of  Brainier,  p.  71  ;  it  is  appended  to  a  document  dated  1  155.  Impression 
from  a  brass  matrix  of  a  seal  of  the  Cistercian  Abbey  of  Hayles,  Gloucester- 
shire, found  in  1821,  in  a  field  called  how  Garth,  near  Langrick,  on  the 
.  .'t  a  hoi  t  distance  from  Draz  Abbey,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Selhv, 
Yorkshire. '  It  represents  a  monk  holding  in  his  right  hand  an  ampulla 
surmounted  by  a  cross,  and  in  the  other  hand  a  torch  (?)  This  figure  is 
ibed  in  the  last  edition  of  Dugdale's   Monasticon   (vol.  v.,  p.  6   i 

holding  a    globe    -urmounted    hv    a    em     .  ami    a    seepliv;    it  is  supposed   to 

Richard,  Bar)  of  Cornwall,  king  of  the  Romans,  the  founder  of 
Hayles  Abbey.  It  appears,  however,  more  probable  thai  the  globe  is  a 
■  I  containing  the  relique  of  the  borj  blood  of  Hayles,  given  to  the 
monastery  by  the  founder  in  Ii''1.'*,  and  described  as  "crucem  auream  cum 
pede  de  aumail."  The  in  cription  is  as  follows  : — ~ii]iUu  fiatiTiiit' 
Dtona0tft(l  bratr  mavir  tir  rjajjUS.  This  matrix  was  in  the  possession 
of  the  late  Mr.  Gleadow,  of  Hull.  Date  X  Vih  century.  It  has  sometimes 
been  regarded  a  the  seal  of  Males  Owen  Abbey,  Shropshire,  and  is  figured 
h  in  Mr.  Parmer  Dukes'  edition  of  Lloyd's  Antiquities  of  Shropshire, 

'.  A  repre  entati >fthi«  teal  is  also  given  in  Mr.  Blaauw'i  History  of 

..    r,    p.  313,  srhere  some  notice  of  the  relique  may  be  found, 

The  squirrel  was  a  favourite  device  on      sits  on   ;>  bough,  the  inscription  being 
thi  XlVth  and  the  XVth  centuries.       mm    i   fakj  mi 
<»M  mi, no ,    round  at  Dunwk'h  the i  quirrel         '  Bee  a  notice  oi  the  discover)  ol  this 

Qei  '.  c'  '  i   p.  '■  i.'' 


£3ottcc$  oC  Archaeological  Publications. 

REMAINS  OF  PAGAN  SAXONDOM,  principally  from  Tumuli  in  England.  Drawn 
from  the  originals.  Described  and  illustrated  by  John  Yongk  Akkrman,  Fellow 
and  Secretary  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London.  London  :  J.  llussell  Smith. 
1852—5.     4to. 

It  is  not  many  years  since  archaeological  pursuits  were  looked  upon  as 
a  sort  of  innocent  trifling,  very  fit  to  be  indulged  in  by  gentlemen  with 
more  money  than  wit,  or  clergymen  not  overburthened  with  rural  duty.  If 
they  did  no  good,  they  did  at  least  no  harm,  and  they  amused  him  that 
followed  them,  and  those  that  laughed  at  him.  Collections  of  curiosities,  as 
they  were  called,  were  considered  as  a  sort  of  inferior  collection  of  articles 
of  virtu,  which  only  proved  their  owners  not  to  possess  the  refined  taste  of 
cognoscenti  in  Greek  or  Etruscan  remains.  Slowly  however,  and  by  degrees, 
the  truth  became  acknowledged,  that  these  curiosities  were  historical 
records,  dating  from  periods  too,  of  which  no  other  record  was  to  be  found  ; 
and  with  the  recognition  of  this  truth,  archaeology  began  to  assume  the  pro- 
portions of  a  science.  It  was  clear  enough  that  we  knew  a  good  deal 
more  about  the  Greeks  when  we  read  what  Otfried  Midler  wrung  from  their 
urns  and  bas-reliefs,  than  when  we  continued  on  the  beaten  track  of  word- 
grinding  with  grim  old  Godfrey  Herrmann.  And  so  it  was  thought  we  might 
turn  our  own  archaeological  treasures  to  account,  and  see  if  they  too  had 
not  a  tale  to  tell,  which  was  not  written  elsewhere.  But  from  that  moment 
it  was  also  necessary  to  collect,  in  a  very  different  manner  from  what  had 
prevailed,  and  to  look  for  answers  to  questions  which  heretofore  no  one  had 
thought  of  putting.  Dryasdust  was,  in  fact,  discovered  to  be  a  dull 
dog,  who  had  fairly  earned  all  the  quizzing  his  aimless  pains  had  brought 
upon  him.  If  he  was  thanked  at  all,  it  was  for  having,  by  a  useful  but 
unconscious  instinct,  preserved  here  and  there  trifles  from  destruction, 
which  more  thinking  men  could  now  compare  and  combine,  and  use  for 
definite  objects. 

Comparison  and  combination — these  were  the  two  levers  by  which  the 
inert  mass  of  facts  was  to  be  moved.  Induction  was  here  also  to  claim  its 
rights,  and  observations  to  take  place  of  crude  a  priori  conclusions.  And 
so  we  have  at  last  a  sound  footing,  and  can  look  back  upon  and  count  our 
gains.  "What  is  perhaps  more  valuable  still,  we  know  by  what  process  we 
can  continue  to  advance.  If  we  know  that  much  remains  to  be  done,  we 
have  at  least  learnt  how  to  do  it.  We  must  compare  and  combine  facts, 
real,  definite,  and  not  imaginary,  facts  :  we  must  note  resemblances  and 
differences,  and  apply  to  archaeology  something  of  the  principle  which  guides 
us  in  comparative  anatomy. 

It  is  this  which  gives  their  value  to  such  books  as  Mr.  Akerman's,  and 
on  this  account  we  look  upon  his  work  as  a  boon  to  the  English  archaeo- 
logist. He  brings  together,  from  a  great  number  of  different  quarters, 
objects  whose  full  interest  can   only  be   duly  appreciated  when  they  are 


29S  NOTICES    OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 

compared  ami  studied  together,  as  they  may  be  in  his  pages.  They  are 
executed  mostly  in  the  natural  size,  and  with  the  natural  colours  ;  are,  as 
far  as  we  have  had  tin'  means  of  judging,  scrupulously  accurate  in  point  of 
resemblance,  to  the  originals  ;  and  the  selection  is  such,  as  not  only  to  he 
of  service  in  a  scientific  view,  hut  also  to  present  a  very  interesting  and 
ornamental  representation  of  the  household  implements  and  jewellery  of 
our  Anglo-Saxon  forefathers.  The  hook  is  not  less  a  graceful  adornment 
of  a  boudoir-table,  than  a  work  which  the  student  will  consult  with  advan- 
and  satisfaction.  It  is  natural  that  the  objects  drawn  should  he  of  a 
kind  attractive  from  their  form  and  the  purpose  they  were  intended  to 
serve.  A  large  proportion  of  them  are  articles  of  dress,  mostly,  in  all  pro- 
bability,  female  dress — necklaces,  fibulse,  and  the  like  ;  and  these  are  pro- 
perly selected  hecause  in  them  we  can  best  observe  the  state  and  progress 
of  the  arts,  which  are  a  key  to  the  social  condition  of  a  people.  Thus,  in 
these  plates  we  have  figures  of  sixty-three  circular  or  cruciform  fibulse  from 
nt  parts  of  England,  many  of  which  display  an  astonishing  familiarity 
with  the  secrets  of  the  lapidary's  and  goldsmith's  art,  and  which  might 
advantageously  he  adopted  as  models  for  brooches  at  the  present  day. 
There  are  no  less  than  eight  representations  of  glass  drinking  vessels,  one 
of  which  is  of  such  peculiar  quality  and  form,  that  a  most  competent  autho- 
rity (Hot  knowing  that  it  was  derived  from  a  Saxon  interment)  pronounced 
it  to  be  Venetian,  and  cinque  cento.  We  have  necklaces  of  gold  and  pre- 
cious stones,  clasps  and  buckles  of  beautiful  execution,  and  a  variety  of 
articles  of  the  toilet,  including  several  richrj  ornamented  hair-combs.  One 
01  two  plates  are  devoted  to  the  representation  of  weapons,  which  arc  on  a 
ale. 

The  reader  will  easily  judge,  from  this  sketch,  how  much  the  work  con- 
tain- both  to  instruct  and  interest.  Every  plate  is  accompanied  with  as 
much  letterpress  as  suffices  to  give  an  accurate  account  of  the  locality 
wherein,  and  (as  far  as  possible)  the  circumstances  under  which,  the  articles 
represented  were  found  ;  and  this  is  obviously  the  most  important  part  of 
the  work  ;  for,  without  these  details,  the  most  exquisite  of  curiosities  that 
Dryasdust  or  Jonathan  Oldbuck  ever  locked  up  from  his  neighbours,  is 
a  curiosity,  and  nothing  more  :  with  them,  it  may  help  US  to  read  a  very 
interesting  chapter  in  the  unwritten  history  of  men. 

Mr.  Akerman  ha-  prefixed  to  his  work  a  Bhorl  introduction,  written  in  a 

Very  JUS!   and  -mi  ml     pint,  ami  which   will   lie  lead  w  it  li  pleasure  a  ml  i  lit  I  re- 1 

even  by  the  layman,  with  profil  even  bj  the  professed  antiquary.  He 
in  it  upon  .Mine  account  of  the  forms  and  modes  of  mortuary  deposit 
among  the  Anglo-Saxons,  noticing  the  coincidences  and  distinctions 
red  iii  graves  in  different  part  of  England.  Thus  be  is  led  to  Bpealt 
of  inhumation  and  cremation  ;  of  the  depo  it  of  arms  and  ornaments  with 
the  dead  ;  of  the  use  of  coffins,  or  of  funeral  urns.  And,  bearing  in  yiew 
the  universal  connection  between  funeral  ceremonies  and  religion,  he  adds 
a  few  judiciou    page    on  the  Saxon  mythology. 

We  fear  that  there  is  not  a  large  public  demand  for  works  of  this  nature,  and 

in  too  many  oases  the  pleasure  of  the  labour  mu  I  be  its  own  reward.     We 

cannot,  however,  conclude   without    expre    ing  a   hope   that  ;i    worl    bo 

admirably  executed  a    this  may  find  a  wider  class  of  readers,  and  that   its 

-.mini ml   it  even  to  those  for  whom  its  scientific  character 

.1.    \l.   K  I.M  I'.l.lv 


I      i  ill  l;i  M  0  KOHi  '  i    ( 

i 


NOTICES    OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL  PUBLICATIONS.  301 

BRICK  AND  MARBLE  IN  THE  MIDDLE  AGES;  Notes  of  a  Tour  in  the  North 
of  Italy.  By  George  Edmund  Street,  Architect,  F.S.A.,  Copiously  Illustrated. 
London:  John  Murray.   18.55.  8vo. 

We  feel  sure  that  those  of  our  readers  who  may  not  as  yet  have  met 
with  this  elegant  anil  agreeable  volume,  will  feel  that  a  service  has  been 
done  to  them  hy  its  having  been  brought  under  their  notice,  for  although 
Mr.  Street's  examination  of  the  architecture  of  Lombardy  and  the  Venetian 
States,  was  undertaken  with  artistic  and  practical  views,  and  not  in  order 
to  carry  out  antiquarian  or  historical  investigations,  much  information 
highly  interesting  to  all  architectural  antiquaries  will  be  found  in  it. 

We  have  the  high  authority  of  Professor  Willis  for  the  assertion  that,  the 
neglect  of  Italian  Gothic  architecture  is  an  "  undeserved  neglect,"  and  it 
will,  we  think,  be  readily  seen,  that  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  the  study 
of  this  variety  of  Gothic  architecture  is  calculated,  as  be  has  so  ably  shown,1 
to  throw  much  light  on  the  principles  of  Gothic  architecture  in  general  ; 
there  are  many  reasons  why  it  is  deserving  of  more  attention,  both  from 
architects  and  from  archaeologists,  than  it  has  hitherto  received:  to  the  archi- 
tect it  very  frequently  presents  novel,  ingenious,  and  beautiful  combinations 
and  details  usually  of  most  perfect  execution,  and  sometimes  of  the  greatest 
beauty,  while  to  the  archaeologist  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  archi- 
tecture (that,  as  Sismondi  has  said,  "  of  all  the  fine  arts  which  bears  the 
most  immediately  the  impress  of  the  character  of  its  age  ")  of  Italy  in  the 
13th  and  14th  centuries  can  never  seem  unimportant,  especially  when  he 
remembers  that  at  that  time  Italy  was  the  most  advanced  of  European 
nations  in  letters,  in  the  fine  arts,  in  the  arts  of  manufacture  and  in  com- 
merce ;  that  this  was  the  period  of  Dante,  of  Giotto,  and  of  the  Pisani. 

Although  Mr.  Gaily  Knight's  splendid  folios,  Professor  Willis's  acute  and 
systematic  treatise,  and  Mr.  Ruskin's  publications,  unequalled  as  they  are  in 
scrupulous  fidelity  of  representation,  have  done  much  to  place  the  means  of 
acquiring  such  knowledge  within  the  reach  of  the  English  reader,  there  is 
still  ample  room  for  more  detailed  information,  and  Mr.  Street's  work  is 
welcome  as  supplying  this  so  far  as  Lombardy  and  the  Venetian  States  are 
concerned.  In  pursuing  his  object,  which,  as  he  informs  us  in  his  preface, 
is  "  mainly  to  show  the  peculiarities  of  the  development  of  Pointed  archi- 
tecture in  Italy,  and  specially  to  show  in  what  way  the  materials  so  com- 
monly used  there,  brick  and  marble,  were  introduced  both  in  decoration 
and  in  construction,"  he  has,  in  the  well-chosen  and  admirably  executed 
illustrations,  more  than  70  in  number,  which  the  volume  contains,  and  in 
the  intelligent  and  instructive  comments  and  criticisms  which  accompany 
them,  given  us  the  means  of  making  ourselves  acquainted  with  many  little- 
known,  but  very  interesting  buildings,  and  a  great  variety  of  beautiful 
detail.  We  have  availed  ourselves  of  the  liberality  of  the  publisher  to  place 
before  our  readers  a  few  of  the  illustrations,  and  we  have  endeavoured  so 
to  select  them  as  to  give  some  idea  of  the  variety  and  novelty  of  matter 
which  the  reader  will  find  in  the  volume  itself. 

The  west  front  of  the  Church  of  St.  Fermo  Maggioro  at  Verona  (see  cut, 
Xo.  I),  which,  according  to  Professor  Willis,  probably  dates  from  about 
1  o  1.'!,  is  a  very  characteristic  specimen  of  its  period  and  country,  parti- 
cularly as  regards  the  alternate  hands  of  "  red  brick  and  warm-coloured 
stone,"  and  the  hoods  over  the  tombs  affixed  to  it  ;  such,  also,  is  the  north 

1  In  the  Introduction  to  the  "  Remarks  on  the  Architecture  of  the  Middle  Ages, 
especially  of  Italy,"  1855. 

VOL.  XII.  u   R 


II.     NOKTli  Til  Mi>.     rilE  CATIIKDII  \  I.  A  I    'I. I  M'i.\.\ 


NOTICES   OF    ARCHAEOLOGICAL    PUBLICATIONS. 


303 


porch,  on  which  Mr.  Street  bestows  the  qualified  praise  that  it  "  is  very 
fine  of  its  kind."  The  disproportion  between  the  slendcrness  of  the  shafts 
and  the  mass  they  support,  and  the  faulty  construction  which  requires  the 
aid  of  connecting  bars  of  iron,  are  no  doubt  the  defects  which  prevent  so 
great  an  admirer  of  the  Italian  fashion  of  constantly  using  bearing-shafts 
from  bestowing  warmer  commendation  upon  this,  the  ever-recurring  form 
of  porch  in  Italian  churches. 

In  this  instance  it  will  be  seen,  that  although  brick  is  pretty  largely 
used,  all  the  ornamental  detail  is  executed  in  stone  or  marble.  In  the  north 
transept  of  the  Cathedral  of  Cremona  (see  cut,  No.  II),  we  have  an  example 
in  which  nothing  but  brick  is  used,  either  for  walling  or  for  decoration, 
excepting  in  the  doorway  and  its  porch.  Mr.  Street  comments  upon  this 
and  the  south  transept  as  follows  :  "  The  rest  of  the  interior  of  the  duomo 
is  all  of  brick,  and  it  boasts  of  two  transept-fronts,  which  are  certainly 
most  remarkable  and  magnificent  in  their  detail,  though  most  unreal  and 
preposterous  as  wholes  ;  they  are,  both  of  them,  vast  sham  fronts,  like  the 
west  front,  in  that  they  entirely  conceal  the  structure  of  the  church  behind 
them,  and  pierced  with  numbers  of  windows  which  from  the  very  first  must 
have  been  built  but  to  be  blocked  up.  These  fronts  have  absolutely  nothing 
to  do  with  the  buildings  against  which  they  are  placed,  and  in  themselves, 
irrespective  of  this  very  grave  fault,  are,  I  think,  positively  ugly  in  their 
outline  and  mass.  And  yet  there  is  a  breadth  and  a  grandeur  of  scale 
about  them  which  goes  far  to  redeem  their  faults,  and  a  beauty  about  much 
of  their  detail  which  I  cannot  but  admire  extremely.  Both  transepts  are 
almost  entirely  built  of  brick,  and  very  similar  in  their  general  idea,  but 
whilst  only  the  round  arch  is  used  in  the  south  transept,  nothing  but  the 
pointed  arch  is  used  in  the  northern."  ..."  The  date  of  the  work  is,  in  all 
probability,  somewhere  about  the  middle  of  the  14th  century."  ..."  The 
tracery  of  the  rose  windows  is  all  finished  in  brick." 

The  windows  are  instructive  examples  of  the  treatment  of  the  material 
for  such  purposes  (see  cuts,  Nos.  III.  and  V.),  and  other  very  beautiful 
examples  are  afforded  by  the  windows  in  the  campanile  of  St.  Andrea, 
Mantua  (see  cuts,  Nos.  IV.  and  VI.). 

In  the  cities  of  Upper  Italy,  the  town-halls  (Broletto  or  Palazzo  Publico) 


II.     Brick  wind 

Cathedral 


Brick,  window,  Church  of  S.  And 

M  mtuu. 


*  *fc  m  r.7.v  pi  vu  tin.  &? 


...    r 


VII.     THE  BROLETTO  AT  MOXZA. 
(View  of  the  Southern  cud. 


306  NOTICES    OF    AKCIIAEOLOOU'AL    PUBLICATIONS. 

form  a  class  of  edifices  of  the  greatest  interest,  both  in  an  historical  and  an 
architectural  point  of  view.  The  Italian  school  of  Gothic  architecture 
appears  perhaps  to  greater  advantage  in  these  buildings  (peculiarly  pic* 
turesque  and  grand,  as   Professor  Willis  has  termed  them)  than  in  the 

churches  ;  the  uses  for  which  they  were  constructed  allowed,  or  even  sug- 
gested, a  simplicity  of  composition  admitting  of  that  breadth  of  etl'ect  which 
Mr.  Street  has  well  observed,  seems  to  have  heen  the  great  aim  of  the 
Italian  architects.  Lofty,  open  arches  on  the  ground,  and  over  them 
windows  of  size  proportionate  to  the  Large  hall  which  occupies  the  upper 
Story,  with  a  projecting  balcony,  or  Kinghiera.  in  the  centre,  arc  the 
features,  which  with  a  tower,  to  contain  the  bell  which  summoned  the 
citizens  to  debate  or  to  arms,  are  common  to  nearly  all  these  structures. 
Every  traveller  in  Italy  must  recollect  the  fine  effect  of  the  mass  of  shade 
in  the  open  lower  story,  contrasting  with  the  sun-lit  wall  above.  The 
Broletto  at  Monza  (see  cut,  No.  VII.)  is  a  very  picturesque  and  interesting 
example  nf  these  buildings,  and  has  a  peculiarly  fine  ringhiera. 

The  Palace  of  the  Jurisconsults  at  Cremona  allbrds  an  instance  of  nearly 
the  same  composition,  somewhat  differently  treated.  Mr.  Street  remarks 
upon  it  :  "  There  is  a  simplicity  and  truthfulness  of  construction  about  this 
little  building  which  make  it  especially  pleasing  after  the  unreal  treatment 
of  the  great  transept  fronts  of  the  Duomo. " 

The  Ducal  Palace  at  Mantua  presents  another  variety  of  the  same  com- 
position, most  bl  autifully  executed  in  brick.  The  fine  windows  of  the 
upper  story  arc,  however,  injured  by  the  common  Italian  defect,  an  e.xce-  ive 
Blenderness  of  the  shaft  which  divides  the  lights. 

Our  limits  compel  us  to  confine  ourselves  to  thus  merely  indicating  what 
the  volume  contains,  but  we  think  that  we  have  fully  proved  the  assertion 
with  which  we  commenced.  As  archaeologists,  we  could  have  wished  that 
Mr.  Street's  architectural  taste  were  somewhat  more  catholic,  and  that  he 
had  been  disposed  to  give  more  information  upon  buildings  anterior  or 
posterior  to  the  L3th  and  11  th  centuries.  To  his  limitation  of  his  field  we 
must  probably  attribute  the  absence  of  any  notice  of  two  methods  of 
employing  burnt  clay  for  architectural  decoration,  which  occur  in  Lom- 
bardy,  viz..  the-  use  of  discs  or  basins  of  painted  and  glazed  earth,  as  in 

mpanile  of    the  cathedral,  and  -eviral    of   the  churches  at   I'avia,  and 

that  of  terra  cotta,  not  merely  turned  out  of  a  mould,  hut  carefully  modelled 

Up    by  hand,  as  in  parts  of    the    Ospedale    Maggiore    a!     Milan.       Somewhat 

more  of  historical   investigation  a-  to  the  dates  of  the  buildings  noticed 

would  .eld   greatly  to  the  value  id'  the  work,  for  although  BUCh  researches  do 

rm  a  part  of  the  author's  plan,  his  objecl  being,  as  we  have  before 
said,  artistic  rather  than  antiquarian,  we  cannot  hut  regret  that  tiny  did 
not  do  erver  could  doubtless  do  much  to  rectify 

or  reconcile  erroneous  or  doubtful  dates.     Wo  hope  th  estions  will 

ttention  when  be  prepares  to  rive  u  .  a  we  trust  lie  will  one  day 
do.  an  an-., iint  of  the  architecture  of  Central  Italy,  the  district  which,  in 
tie-  opinion  of  many  competent  observer  ,  contains  the  best  examples  of 
that  Italian    tyle  which  correspond    with  our  Decorated. 

We    cannot  conclude  without   expressing   that    commendation   of  Mi'. 
mirable  woodcut  i  ti  hich  they  bo  richlj  desei  ve  ;  their  combination 

tincl  ami  intelligent  rendering  of  detail,  ami  of  j 1  general  effect, 

; •  ;  i  if  evei  been  equalled,  ami  certainlj  nev<  r  bui  pa    i  d. 


ARCHAEOLOGICAL    INTELLIGENCE.  307 


Archaeological  intelligence 

Mr.  THORPE  lias  announced  the  intention  of  publishing  (by  subscription) 
the  "  History  of  England  under  the  Norman  Kings  "  ;  or,  to  the  accession 
of  the  house  of  Plantagenet,  with  an  epitome  of  the  early  History  of 
Normandy  ;  translated,  with  considerable  additions,  from  the  German 
work  by  Dr.  J.  M.  Lappenberg.  It  will  form  one  vol.  Svo.,  uniform  with 
Lappenbcrg's  "  History  of  England  under  the  Anglo-Saxon  Kings,"  trans- 
lated by  Mr.  Thorpe.  Dr.  Pauli  is  engaged  in  preparing  the  continuation 
of  Lappenbcrg's  work,  and  he  has  already  brought  the  history  down  to  the 
death  of  Richard  II.  Subscribers  to  Mr.  Thorpe's  forthcoming  work  are 
requested  to  send  their  names  to  Messrs.  Taylor  and  Francis,  Red  Lion-court, 
Fleet-street. 

A  reprint  of  the  most  important  work  on  the  history  and  antiquities  of 
Ireland,  the  "Annals  of  Ireland,  by  the  Four  Masters,"  has  been  an- 
nounced by  Messrs.  Ho;lges  and  Smith,  at  a  considerable  reduction  in  price. 
The  Annals,  forming  seven  volumes  4to.,  were  published  in  1850,  at  four- 
teen guineas,  and  it  is  proposed,  if  four  hundred  copies  are  subscribed  for, 
to  re-issue  the  work  at  the  price  of  twelve  shillings  per  volume,  within 
fourteen  months,  payment  to  be  made  when  the  entire  work  is  finished. 
The  readers  of  this  Journal  are  well  aware  of  the  archaeological  value  of  the 
Annals,  and  of  the  valuable  notes  by  which  the  translation  is  accompanied. 
Frequent  reference  has  been  made  at  the  meetings  of  the  Institute  to  the 
work,  the  most  authentic  source  of  information  regarding  the  architectural 
monuments,  the  remarkable  examples  of  early  art,  the  personal  as  well  as 
general  history  of  the  sister  kingdom,  hitherto  involved  in  such  obscurity. 
The  Annals  extend  from  the  earliest  historic  period  to  the  year  1616. 
The  valuable  evidence  which  they  alone  supply  in  ascertaining  the  date  and 
origin  of  the  Dunvegan  Cup,  the  Cross  of  Cong,  the  Lismore  Crosier,  and 
those  productions  of  a  remarkable  class  of  early  art,  in  metal  and  in 
sculptured  stone,  must  be  fresh  in  our  recollection.  Those  who  are  disposed 
to  encourage  so  spirited  an  undertaking  in  the  cause  of  archaeology,  should 
forward  their  names  as  subscribers  to  Messrs.  Hodges  and  Smith,  104, 
Graf  ton-street,  Dublin. 

The  value  of  photography,  as  an  auxiliary  to  archaeological  purposes, 
has  been  repeatedly  urged  upon  our  notice.  A  striking  evidence  of  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  this  mode  of  illustration,  has  recently  been 
brought  before  our  society  by  one  of  its  earliest  and  best  friends,  Mr.  Charles 
J.  Palmer,  the  historian  of  Great  Yarmouth,  in  the  delicate  reproduction  of 
the  charter  granted  by  King  John  to  that  town,  in  1210.  This  admirable 
example  of  photographic  skill  was  provided,  under  Mr.  Palmer's  direction, 
to  accompany  the  "  Repertory  of  Deeds  and  Documents  relating  to  Great 
Yarmouth,  printed  by  order  of  the  Town  Council,"  of  which  he  has  kindly 
presented  a  copy  to  the  Library  of  the  Institute.  In  connexion  with  the 
service  thus  rendered  to  antiquarian  science,  as  shown  by  Dr.  Diamond, 
Mr.  riiilip  Dclamotte  and  others  skilled  in  the  photographic  processes,  Ave 
may  invite  attention  to  a  Memoir  read  by  the  Rev.  F.  A.  Marshall,  of 
Peterborough,  at  a  recent  archaeological  meeting  in  that  city.  It  sets  forth 
the  importance  of  the  art  in  its  application  to  preserving  pictorial  records 
of  National  Monuments,  and  is  accompanied  by  useful  practical  suggestions. 


808  A1IC1I AEOLOGICAL    INTELLIGENCE. 

This  Memoir  has  recently  been  published  by  Messrs.  Hering,  137j  Regent- 

The  Journal  of  the  late  Rev.  Bryan  Faussett,  during  the  formation  of  his 
highly  valuable  collections  which  now  enrich  the  museum  of  Mr.  Mayer,  at 
Liverpool,  will  shortly  he  delivered  to  the  subscribers.  Mr.  C.  ROACH 
Smith  has  added  copious  notes  and  an  introduction  to  this  instructive 
record,  which  will  bo  accompanied  by  twenty  plates  and  several  hundred 
; its,  under  Mr.  Fairholt's  direction.  The  impression  is  limited,  and 
subscribers'  names  should  be  sent  without  delay  to  Mr.  Roach  Smith,  who 
announces  also,  in  immediate  preparation,  a  quarto  volume  on  "  The  Roman 
Antiquities  of  London,"'  copiously  illustrated.  The  issue  will  be  l